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Page. Old School House, The.

184 Spelling Clasa, The. On Methods of Stady.

476 Standing in the School Room Our Reading....

333 State Book Clubs..

State Teachers' Association.
Р.

Suffrage Without Education...

Suggestions to Teachers Peep through the Door of a Kindergarten.. 259 Supervision of Schools.. Penmanship...

.89, 390 Symmetrical Development.. Persistence versus Tact.

257 Phonics

96

T. Photography and the Transit

478 Poetry

..184, 186, 287, 203, 392, 480 Teacherg-Examinations... Practical Teaching.

167 Teachers' Means and Motives to Self-ImprovePraise Children.. 98 ment

382 Prayer of Agassiz 253 Teachers Must Improve.

347 Preparation in Vacation.. 290 Teacher, The (Poem).

392 President's Address...

285 | Teaching in Accordance with the Laws of Primary Instruction.. 419 Mental Science.

466 Professor Agassiz at Penikese School.. 57 | Teaching-Shady Side-Bright Side. Prussian and American School Systems.. 209 | Teaching ve. Hearing Lessons...

166 Public Instruction in Italy. 480 Town High Schools

102 Punctuation. 107 Township System, The.

91, 445 Training Children..

483 Q.

True Function of the High School, The. 301
True Nature of Man, The.

262 Questions as to Normal Schools.... 293 | Tyndall's Address.

431 R. Relation of Art to Education.. 429 Universal Education...

109 Relation of the Educational Institutions of the Utility of Classical Studies, The.

11 State

83 Relations of Education

1 Relations of the Public Schools, The... 43 Remarks on Eliot's Report, by Senator Howe. 161 Valuable Suggestions.

176 Report of Upper Schools.. 369 Visiting Schools....

349 Respect the Body... 176 Visit to Two Schools.

260 Voluntary Attendance...

267 S. Sanitary Regulations of the School Room.. 16, 46

W. Science Lessons..

106 Wedding of the Gold-Pen and Inkstand.. 439 Scientific Education..

394 What Should Be Acquired in the Dist. School. 470 School Time..

What System of Organization Shall Be Schools and Colleges. 483 Adopted?..

251 School Supervision..

313 What the Town System Can Do for l'e. 445 Self-Discipline, as Means and End of Educa- What We Owe to Louis Agassiz as a Teacher, tion....

459 211.. Seren Laws of Teaching, The..

393 Why Teaching Is Not a Profession. Sex in Education.. 206 Wisconsin as the Geographical Unit.

338 Short Articles.... 61, 96, 185, 186, 227, 228, 252, Wisconsin State Teachers' Association..

274, 311 256, 263, 271, 293, 315, 341, 344, 317, 350, 356, Women as School Officers. 393, 395, 398, 438.. .476, 485 Word Method..

.184, 214 Should We Have Public High Schools. 99 Writing in Country Schools Speiling 186, 348 Written Excuses

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V.

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.92, 187

89, 390

WISCONSIN

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.

Vol. IV.

JANUARY, 1874.

No. I.

On the Relation of Education to the Individual, (on these prairies, and in the pathless to Socieiy, and to the State.

wilderness, this generation “blazes” the [A lecture delivered before the State Teachers' trees and stakes the plain in order that Association at Sparta, Wis, July 8, 1873, by WM. T. HARRIS, Supt. of Schools, št. Loui..] its tracks may follow the beaten path, and

Into this "great central plain,” watered not prove in vain. In what form shall by majestic rivers, and fertile as the his. our community, composed of such heter. toric valley of the Nile, now are pouring ogeneous elements, live? all nationalities of the world. All sec. While this question startles us by its tions of the republic find here their practical importance, we have on the centre. From the northern and southern other hand some consolatory reflections. and middle sections of the Atlantic Slope, That a composite population tends more nay, from the west, the Pacific shore, and to the development of civil liberty than from far off Asia, come immigrants hith- does a homogeneous one, has been reer. While scarcely one generation of marked in all history. It was only after white men has had time to reproduce the fusion of the Cymric Celt first with itself in these states, it has become a the Saxon and Dane, and then with the populous region with metropolitan cities Norman, that the Magna Charta became in many favorable localities. A motley possible and necessary. The new fusion composition is here collecting, out of made on the shores of this continent has which to fuse the future people of this led to new and newer political experi. valley. The European is here in large ments, always tending in the direction of numbers, representing all shades of po. the largest personal liberty. Where peo. litical freedom and despotism at home; ple of rep gnant manners and customs the German, the Frenchman, the Italian, mingle, the necessity of living in mutual the Norwegian, the Irishman, the Briton. harmony and cooperation cultivates a The white man, the negro and the “heath-habit of toleration; each one learns to en Chinee,” even, all exist, and will exist distinguish between what is merely harm. in one community. But how? Out of less idiosyncrasy and what belongs to the the dim future looms up the spectral essential conditions of humanity and question which it is our province here civilization. Thus there is perforce a and now to answer. This generation has profounder mode of thinking cultivated to construct the forms in which the com-1-“a faculty of seeing identity under munity of the future must live. Pioneers differences"-of recognizing personal

virtues under strange exteriors. This is and fear not; do wrong and fear everyundoubtedly the spirit that will prevail body.” Toleration must go so far as to in all future civilization; for the tele- allow to each man his private judgment, graph and railroad communication-in. even if it is a wrong one; but a toleratellectual and material commerce all over tion which should allow every one to do the world—bring, and are so bringing, in. what he pleased, whether right or wrong, to juxtaposition, all mankind, that each would prove self-destructive at 'once. one lives, as it were, on the border-land, Man's thought belongs to himself; his and shakes hands with the people across deed belongs to all. This insight lies at his frontier. Everywhere a new synthesis the basis of sound ideas on the subject of national characters is going on. Mean- of free government. It leads me directly ness and narrowness cannot withstand' to the consideration of my special theme such influences. Meanwhile, the new on this occasion. product which arises from the mingling The function of education in its relation of elements is more concretc-richer in to the government, to society and to the indi what it contains. Each nationality has vidual.-Freedom has two sides—one of learned something essential from the absolute toleration, which permits and other; the unessentials have been put to encourages difference of opinion, and the trial under new circumstances, and trusts that the freest exercise of thought have gradually fallen away.

is the healthiest, and will lead in the Each nationality, each peculiar section- surest way to absolute truth wherein all al trait is clashed against the other, and conviction shall be united as one. The the idiosyncracies perish; the rough other side is that of subordination to law, angles are worn off; the noble traits of wherein each man squares his deeds by character will survive, for they have the the universal rules laid down in the statmost vitality. Thus our valley shall be ute books, and prescribed by the judicial the habitation of the cosmopolitan type function of the government, wherein not of American character. The East pro. only each man squares his own deeds by duces the elements of opposition; it is the laws of the land, but at the same time for the West to unite them in the deeper insists upon it that each and every other unity. While local interests develop in- man shall square his deeds by the same tense partisan views of narrow prejudices form. Since freedom has these two sides all along our Atlantic coast, and in the of toleration and proscription, it bemonarchies of the old world, we who live hooves us to consider its methods of here must build our community on a basis realization. How is freedom rendered of toleration so large that all may find possible for the individual in the comrefuge in it. It is toleration only that munity? This is an important question takes out the sting of bitterness from at any time, especially important now, for people brought up under a narrow and this is an age of reconstruction. We are bigoted system. Respect your neighbor, assembled at a memorable epoch, In and he is likely to respect you. Vigor- view of the future of this country, the ously defend your enemy's right to pri- present is a season of youth, and before vate judgment—this is toleration.

it opens a career full of active endeavor But toleration and license are two very an i checkered with manifold experience. different things. The rigiit of private T'he Necessity of Education.-In times judgment is sacred, and to be respected ; of reconstruction it is highly approprithe right or license to act as one pleases ate to review the whole theory of educais a different thing. The right of action tion, from its first premises down. The can never be free, unless it is moulded in necessity of education; what should be the forms of justice and right. Do right its extent; what should be its methods; what its appliances and the spirit that Yet it is not man the savage who can should govern its discipline and instruc- claim so much. The world was made for tion; these are the fertile topics that sug- man only on condition that he have the gest themselves for study in the treatment intelligence and skill to use it. The natof our theme.

ural man who has not ascended above Education is a necessity, for the reason nature, and become its master, is, as be. that man is not made by nature, but has fore said, more unfortunate and unhappy to make himself out of his circumstances. than the brute. But it is this very unhapAs a mere savage, or as he comes from piness that stimulates him to aspire. He the hand of nature, man distinguishes is ignorant, and yet he has not the brute's himself from animals by being naked, instinct to lead him. What can he do and hungry and miserable. His old age but err and break the laws of nature un. is a burden and full of suffering; but the til he discovers one by one their existence animal lives in unconscious harmony and conditions. As a western poet de. with his physical laws, and his clothing scribes it, he and shelter grow out in his furry hide, or “Uses his head as a battering ram gape for him in the cave or hollow tree,

Against the walls of the universe." while his food falls from the boughs But he comes out of this sore expe. plump into his expectant mouth.

rience not only with a new bump on the Should any one look upon man as a outside of his head, but also with a new mere animal, he would scorn the idea idea inside; he has learned a distinction that he was born to use all nature and en-between what is good for him and what joy it, and be prone to consider the om. is not. He has learned a limit to his beDiverous hog rather as having a much ing; he has learned a law. This is the better title. Nevertheless it is true that process by which he becomes conscious nature sums up all her perfections in of himself, by which he learns his own man, and even transcends herself so that nature and the nature of the universe. in him she becomes a subject and a per- To achieve his destiny, to become aught son with self-consciousness and immor. that is distinctively human, he must be tality; by this man begins the order of able to combine with his fellow man, and Spirit and rules Nature.

to sum up the results of the race in each His very deficiences, as mere animal, individual. First, there is practical comare the occasion of his greatness. His bination, civil society organizing in such lack of natural clothing furnishes him a way that each man reaps the united the occasion for searching the globe and effort of the entire community; the robbing animal and plant to supply his laborer, who earns his dollar for the day's wardrobe. He even strips from the poor work, being able to purchase therewith worm its winding-sheet of silk, and gives one dollar's worth of any or all the proit the gaudy color, stolen, likewise, from ductions that human labor has wrought the insect kingdom. For food he draws out. Then there is theoretical combinaon all climes and on all departments, 'tion, the scholar by diligent study and animal, mineral and vegetable.

thought being able to master for himself Just as the vegetable kingdom shows one by one the great thoughts that have its higher and more concrete stage of ex- ruled the world-history. There is a third istence by presupposing the mineral king.' combination, that of the individual with dom upon which it rests, and as the ani. himself, wherein man, by concentrating mal presupposes both the mineral and his energies for a long period, achieves a vegetable to support its life, so man gigantic result, the product of his whole crowns all by presupposing the whole of life directed to one focus. nature as his storehouse and larder.

These forms of combination are the institutions of civilizatior, and they form progress, we shall find it to consist in collectively a new world above and be subordinating the material world, and yond the natural world, and in this new thereby freeing himself from the hard world man lives and moves and has his limits that hem in the lower orders. being as a spiritual existence. This new Man's destiny is to realize in himself the world of institutions which civilized man directive power over nature - to make it inhabits, is far more substantial than the pliant to his will. This supremacy he world of nature, which alone exists for attains by means of tools. the savage.

Carlyle, in his “Sartor Resartus," deEach individual of the human race has fines man to be the "tool-using animal." an experience of his own, and since man He can turn nature against itself, and has first a tongue and then a pen, he com- devote it to use; le can reduce the promunicates his experience to others, and cesses of nature to means for the achievethus a common fund of intelligence is ment of his purposes; and lie is able not established, which has been called the“fifth only to use the material world, but he element.As earth, air, fire, and water, can utilize his own experience. Thus it are good in their way as the f ur ele. happens that in his warehouse are found ments, so this new element, the element two kinds of tools—we may call them of realized intelligence-is essential to practical and theoretical tools. With man, and the best of all.

these tools he subdues all opposition, and, It is not necessary for each member of like the great magicians of old, he lays the human race to repeat the experiçnce his spells on time and space, and they of his predecessors, for their results have serve at his bidding. Animal, mineral, descended to him, and he has acquired plant, the four elements, all acknowledge them by education, and hence he may his dominion. By his practical tools, stand on the top of the ladder of human such as the ax, the plow, the wagon, or culture and build a new round to it, so the horse, the ship, the steam engine-he that his children may climb higher and achieves the victory of art. By his theodo the like.

retical tools-such as language, matheBut the animal does not amass expe- matics, the sciences and philosophy-he rience, and hence does not progress. We reduces the world to transparent forms, never heard a parrot (i. e. one of the and achieves thereby the victory of ideas. feathered kind) setting up a school for Give to man the theoretical tools-the the instruction of green ones, nor of an tools of thought-and he will immediold elephant's starting out on a lecturing ately invent the tools of art, and conquer tour. But strictly confined to the dreamy matter and force. life of the senses, and never rising to a Thus man owes his superiority to the general idea, the individual animal ma-command of instrumentalities. These tures and dies. Only the species lives instrumentalities are the combined proon; there is no immortality for the indi-duct of the activity of the race. These vidual animal. It requires a being who combinations which we have spoken of can combine in himself the product of as producing the fifth element—that of his entire species by his individual activ. reil z dint li genc -are the four cardinal ity-just as man can—to fulfill the con- institutions: The Family, Civil Society, ditions of immortality. He must be The State, Religion. These are the insti. able to say, like the Microcosm :

tutions in which alone can be realized " I drained the drops of every cup,

the substantial freedom of man. They Arts, institutions, I drank up;

form a vasi, complex organism of conAthirst, I quaffed life's flowing bowls, And sipped the flavors of all souls"

ventionalities and usages--the growth of If we look at the character of man's l all the ages. Taking the practical side

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