A. A. Spencer said that after the super intendent the power to compel attendance intendent has gone over the ground and on Institutes, inasmuch as the State proknows the condition of the schools, a vides for and defrays their expenses, and short call will often do more good than a said the lack of interest on the part of longer one, by making suggestions di teachers in attending these institutes and rectly on the difficulties apparent, which, teachers's associations was discouraging. if made after remaining in the school Prof. Graham suggested to superintend. room for half a day or more, would seem ents that a specific statement of what is more personal than if done at once. He to be done in an institute be published takes statistics and compares them with two weeks before the holding of same in town clerks' reports.

order to give teachers a chance to preW. B. Minaghan said much might be pare themselves for the work. That four done through the personal influence of branches should be so specified and what the superintendent, through lectures, etc. is to be done in each. Would give five

J. L. Foley would note first the condi- per cent. additional standing on account tion of schools and surroundings, then of actual attendance on the institute. visitation of patrons in the district; made Would have the State Superintendent objections to the issuing of printed cir- publish names of all County Superinculars suggesting improvements, as they dents holding institutes, with number were disregarded, and often considered attending, also the number not holding by district meetings as impertinent in institutes. reminding them of their duties.

W. H. Chandler brought all of his A. E. Howard approved of circulars as teachers to the institutes by combining they had effected good in his county. them with the examinations of three

J.H. Terry and others warmly approved days duration. of sending out circulars recommending On motion, meeting adjourned until improvements to district boards and an- two o'clock. nual meetings.

TUESDAY, P. M.- Meeting called to Gec. Skewes spoke on "School Diary order at 2:20. Gen. Fallows in the chair. and Reports;" he would have superin.

After roll call, W. H. Holford read a tendents use some approved uniform

paper on “Town Superintendency." diary or note book, and thought teachers

On invitation of Prof. McGregor, meet. should report monthly, and also at the close of the term of school, on monthly with Convention of Teachers.

ing adjourned to meet in joint session report cards and note books provided for that purpose, so that the statistics of the

FIVE O'CLOCK, P. M.-Called to order several districts might be corrected as

by Supt. Fallows. Discussion immedi. far as possible from them.

ately followed on Change of number of A. O. Wright would give attention to

days of school month.” particulars more for his own information,

Mr. Burlingame led by reading a paper than for the purpose of correcting reports relative to this point, favoring twenty for the Superintendent's office.

days to the school month, or, if teaching Additional Powers of County Super- twenty-two days, that the teacher be alintendents," was considered by D. H. Mor- lowed to teach on Saturdays, so that the gan. After enumerating powers of


school month shall close within the cal. intendents, would give additional power

endar month. to change text books, and remove one A. F. North recommended that twenty class to another if it should be deemed days school work be considered a legal proper.

school month. W. H. Chandler would give the super- Theo. S. Chipman would have the

teacher work as many days per month as Meeting adjourned to meet at half-past a laborer in any other profession. seven o'clock, p. m.

I. N. Stewart, A. A. Spencer and A. O. Evening session called to order by Gen. Wright would have five days in the week Fallows, at 7:30. and twenty da per month.

A. F. North opened the discussion on W.H. Chandler would have the district County Academies, warmly urging the board contract with the teacher for what necessity of institutions of this kind to might be agreeable to both board and supply the missing link to make the teacher and abide by the same.

proper connection in the educational Michael Kirwan would have a definite agencies of our State, it would meet a law on this subject, thus ending so much want in supplying our schools with pracdifficulty growing out of the law as it

tical teachers. now reads.

I. N. Stewart endorsed all said by the After deliberate discussion, the follow- last speaker, and added that the conducting resolution, offered by Le Roy J. Bur. ing of these County Academies would be lingame, with slight amendment, was an open field for the labor of students adopted:

and graduates of our Normal Schools, Resolved, by the County and City Superinten- and inquired of the practibility of build. dents, in Convention assembled, That iwenty days ing these Normal Academies. actual work, and not more than five days in any

Rev. J. B. Pradt spoke of the way in one week should constitute a legal school month, and that a committee of three be appointed by the which our funds are obtained, and the chair to lay the same before the Educational Leg- use made of them, and what might be islative committee, during the present session of done with them to better advantage in the Legislature and to labor for the passage of

favoring this project. He spoke very fa

vorably of this movement and of the necThe chair appointed Messrs. Rev. J. B. Pradt, I. N. Stewart, L. J. Burlingame. tions of learning with a better class of

essity for it to supply our higher instituThe next subject taken up was “ Teach students, and to take out so much of the ers Institutes and County Academies."

primary work as in new done by them. 0. J. Taylor spoke of the present valu. The subject was very thoroughly disable institute gatherings of the State; rec. cussed by most of the members present, ommended that a programme should be all favoring the work. The following printed and sent out to the teachers giv- resolution was offered and adopted : ing them due time for preparation. He

Resolved, That it is the sense of this Convention believed in institute work and thought that the establishment of the County Academies it the best and most efficient means of is approved, and that a committee of three be ap

pointed consisting of Messrs. J. H Terry, W. H. raising the standard of teachers.

Chandler and W.J. Waggoner to bring this subI. N. Stewart heartily approved of inject before the legislature. stitute work, and recommended that very "Examination of Teachers " was spokmuch more of this work be done in the en upon by A. 0. Wright; he showed State.

the value of public examinations, would A. 0. Wright would recommend a have applicants for such write as long week's institute to be held in every part on thorough questions as is required in of the county, and followed by an exam- the public examinations. The subject ination, thus giving all an opportunity to was participated in at length by nearly attend some one of these meetings. all the convention.

W. H. Chandler spoke at some length The following resolution was introduc. in favor of the institute work now being ed by W. H. C'handler, and unanimously carried on in the State.

adopted :

such a bill.

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Resolvet, That in the judgement of this conven- : secured, and it argued that no compulsory tion, the district boards of the several school dis- law could be operated in Wisconsin, be. tricts of this State should be required to furnish the teachers employed by thein, a blank book

cause a large majority of citizens would suitable for the enrollment of all attendants upon deem its operation an infringement of the respective schools under their charge, and personal liberty. The report said that that each teacher should be required to enroll the actual school attendance of all in. the scholars attending each year, so that it would habitants of the countries named was clearly show:

1st. The name of each scholar attending school, as follows: during the year.

In Italy, 6 per cent. of all. 2d. The age of each scholar attending school

In Ireland, 872 per cent. of all. during the year. 3d. The number of days each scholar has attend

In France, 10 per cent. of all. ed school during each of the months the school In England, 11 per cent. of all. has been in session during the year.

In Scotland, 14 per cent, of all. 4th. A classiication of the attendants, so that

In Denmark, 13 per cent. of all. all between the ages of 4 and 7, 7 and 15, 15 and 20, should be clearly shown.

In Norway and Sweden, 13 per ct. of all. At the close of the session A. F. North

In Holland, 14 per cent of all. offered the following resolution which

In Germany and Switzerland, 18 per

cent. of all. was heartily endorsed by every member of the convention:

In Wisconsin, 29 per cent. of all.

These results were quite satisfactory; Resolved, By the County Superintendents of the State of Wisconsin in session at Madison, that the but the question in America is, how to Hon. Samuel Fallows, in removing from our reach the large number of youth who State, has our warmest wishes for his success in do not attend school, and this question his new vocation, and our sincere thanks for the kind and courteous attention shown to us at all In 1870 there were 34,000 youth of school

was not touched by the Assembly report. times, and the warm sympathy he has uniformly had with us in our work.

age in Wisconsin, who did not attend After a few brief words the convention school, and more than 3,000,000 such in the adjourned, closing a very pleasant ses

United States, according to the report sion in which good work had been done, from the National Bureau of Education and the members dispersed, feeling

for 1870. What shall be done for this strengthened and encouraged by the in- one person in every eight — not one child terview.

in every eight children, but one person SAMUEL FALLOWS, President.

in every eight persons, young and old, GEO. SKEWES, Secretary.

who never attend school, is the question

that arrests the attention of the philan. COMPULSORY ATTENDANCE AT SCHOOL.

thropist and economist. The report of the committee of the Massachusetts has met this questien and Assembly of 1871, upon compulsory at- practically solved it, and the law in that tendance of children at school, was a re- commonwealth seems to meet every ob. markable document by reason of show. jection which can be raised to the theory ing everything which those desiring light of compulsory attendance. Living under knew before, and omitting the issue made the severe teachings which discarded by those who have endeavored to make everything that trammeled individual the schools more efficient and compre. freedom, accustomed to independent hensive by securing the attendance of thought and action, yet her people found children now growing up in idleness and it necessary to do more than merely supignorance. The report showed that the ply public schools, and they have put voluntary system in Wisconsin effected into successful operation, a system of the attendance of fifty per cent. more per- compulsory attendance which doubtless sons than the compulsory law of Germany makes many good citizens of the youthi, otherwise supported by government, at nite result; the normal schools mean an early or late day, as paupers and crim-time, possessing sufficient relays of stu. inals.

dents coming from thorougly organized The Secretary of the Massachusetts high schools to do normal work, which Board for 1870, said: "Our system of shall again reciprocally aid the primary compulsory attendance was very careful schools. ly and gradually introduced or it would Every thoughtful man has talked of have failed, as the attempt to introduce these matters from year to year, until now it will be likely to fail in other States it seems opportune to put the thought in without similar caution, and especially form and to ask for just the system in in respect to popular prejudice. It now the State, which many cities already posworks wishout opposition or complaint, sess, and which, in the language of with the happiest results, whenever there NEWTON BATEMAN, in speaking of the are proper agents to devise wise methods county superintendency, has “almost and to execute the provisions of the law." revolutionized some countries in respect The question, therefore, is made a de- to schools and education." That system mand for wisdom on the part of State puts at its head a competent Board of and local authorities in carrying a com- Education which looks after all the pulsory law into effect. And back of schools of every kind. This Board this recognition, it seems unnecessary to should be sufficiently large to insure wis. go, since 3,000,000 children are not edu- dom, and yet so limited in number as to cated with present appliances and since act efficiently upon the decision made by property holders are taxed to educate the that wisdom, and whose duty it shall be whole school-going population as well to supervise the whole educational work as to educate a fraction thereof; hence it of the State, and to direct local authori. is a right of the childless tax payer to ties on general principles only. Let us demand the attendance of the children have the State Board of Education and at the school which his revenue supports, then the compulsory law of attendance. in order to carry into effect the boasted theory of education, that schools indi.

TEACHERS.-As a last suggestion to rectly protect the property thus taxed.

It is in no way intended to intimate your meeting, but not least in importhat local or State school authorities have tance, let me urge care in the selection not done the best their wisdom could de. for the year, as it is most desirable that

of your teacher. If you engage a teacher vise for education; but it is thought that the same wisdom should now come to you should, it is a matter of the highest

importance to you that he should possess the rescue, and either supplement the

the best qualifications that your money system or remodel it, in the light which

can command. Mahe use of every means we have, endeavoring to improve the

in your reach to ascertain how indus. schools as they are, and gradually but

trious, how energetic, low exemplary in firmly to unite the common schools, the

morals-in a word how successful normal schools and the university, into

teacher lie is. Careful deliberation and one system, having for its object the ed

inquiry, and not hasty action, should be ucation of every child in the land, to the the rule to guide you in the employment full measure of his capacity and inclina- of a teacher. There are many persons tion,-indicated by a course of study, who teach more or less but who lack which shall be wrought in part, but surely most ot the essentials of a good teacher. by the public school, and thence prose. employment that their first duty is to se.

They have not been taught by refusal of cuted, not by accident, but surely by the cure the requisite qualifications of a university, and carried forward to a defi- teacher.-J. . Terry.

2-Vol. iv, No 2.


OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT. maintained in the district, then the meet

ing must be held at that time. There are OFFICIAL OPINIONS.

some good reasons why all annual school Prepared by the Assistant Superintendent.

meetings should be held then, but the SCHOOL DISTRICTS.

law has not yet so provided. Q. Does the alteration of a district'

DISTRICT BOARD AND OFFICERS. take any effect, until the notice of the

Q. Can the clerk and director legally same required by section 11 is filed ?

hire the director's wife to teach the school A. The requirement to file the notice

a meeting of the board having been is only directory, and for information,

called : and not something necessary to give

A. This must be considered inadmis. validity to the previous act, but it should nevertheless be done promptly, as requir- of the board is ever hired, it should be

sible. If a near relative of any member ed by law. Q. If the alteration (taking effect im- by the other two members and only when

it will give general satisfaction in the mediately) transfers the distiic: clerk to

district. Real or sceming favoritism in another district, should the notice be filed :

hiring teachers is a prolific source of dis. with him

content and ill feeling. A man cannot A. No, with his successor, as soon as

make a contract of this nature, with his appointed; the old clerk ceases to be

own wife. clerk as soon as the transfer is made.

1 Q. If a treasurer's bond is approved Q. Can the town board alter a school

by the director and left with him for the district which was created by act of leg.

clerk to approve, will his approval be islature

sufficient if not given until after the ten A. Yes, inless some other way of altering it or some restriction upon

days expire ? its

A. The law is not complied with un. alteration is embodied in the act.

less the bond is actually filed with the ANNUAL MEETING.

clerk within ten days, with the approval Q. How soon must the vote to change of both director and clerk. Any failure the annual meeting from September to in this creates a vacancy, to be filled by August be filed with the town clerk ? appointment. A. It should be filed without delay

HIRING THE TEACHER. lest it be forgotten; but if filed any time Q. The district voted to have a male before the six days notice of the annual teacher, but the board, from motives of meeting which are to be given, it will economy, lired a female teacher. Is the answer the purpose.

district responsible for her wages, or the Q. If a year passes away without the board ? filing and the district meets as usual in A. The board is responsible, as it had September, can it then be done?

no legal power to hire a female teacher; A It may still be done, but in this but it may be equitable for the district to casc great care should be taken to give recognize the action of the board if they notice of the fact, and of the change ef. have had a good school, and the children fected thereby, in the time for holding have attended as usual. the annual meeting.

Q. Our school was taught the first Q. Is it legal for a district to hold its month on a contract, signed by two memannual meeting the second Monday in bers of the board, but without any previ. July! Some do, I notice, and it is more ous meeting of the board. Is it legal to convenient.

pay for the month, the district having A. It is not legal, unless a graded voted in favor of it? school of two or more departments, isA. The vote of the district (loes not

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