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5. Have any spring examinations sup- has been disputed, since our government plementary to fall, with certificates of was established, that women and children only six months duration.
if otherwise qualified by birth, or natural.
ization, are citizens. Nor has it been 1. Any county necessitated to hold in. disputed that white men, if born or stitute in the spring (March or April) to naturalized here, are citizens, although bave preference, for aid from the state, belonging to classes shut out from the for next year, in the fall.
right of suffrage. But it has been denied 2. Each county superintendent to pledge that negroes, whether slave or free, are an attendance of teachers equal to 50 per citizens. By the famous decision of the cent. of the schools in his county. Fail. supreme court of the United States in ure to secure such attendance to forfeit the Dred Scott case, negroes were de. the right to state aid the next year.
clared not to be citizens. But this de3. No county to receive state aid twice cision is of course superseded by the exduring any one school year.
plicit language of the Fourteenth Amend. 4. Each institute conductor from a nor.
ment. mal school, to make such time and place
The first qualification for citizenship for holding institute in his district as in is thus to be a person—not a man, not a his judgment will secure the greatest
white person, but simply a person, with. good, giving preference in time to the out regard to age, sex or race. months of September and October for
The second qualification for citizenfall institutes and last half of March and ship is to be born or naturalized in the the whole of April for spring.
United States. The right of expatriation A few points are thus presented, sug.
has always been defended by the United gested by past experience, and based
States; and has at last been fully conced.
upon laws already in existence, as our expe
ed by most European nations, either rience in the past shows it unwise to tacitly or by formal treaty. One of the predicate results on future legislation. causes of the war of 1812 was the claim The State Superintendent is made to play of England that her subjects could not a prominent part, that county superin. give up their allegiance to the British tendents may point to regulations issuing
crown and become American citizens. from him.
Under this claim English naval officers It is believed, that without further leg. constantly impressed into their naval islation, the above plan, if efficiently service naturalized citizens of this coun. operated, will very perceptibly increase try who were born British subjects. the attendance on the institutes,
But millions of subjects of foreign gov. der them a valuable aid in making the ernments have now been naturalized, and common school more effective.
thereby received to all the privileges of
American citizens, and their right to thus CITIZENSHIP ... STATE AND XATIONAL.
change their allegiance is now fully recognized. The process of naturaliza.
tion is as follows. At any time after he The Fourteenth Amendment to the becomes a resident of this country a for. United States Constitution defines very eigner may declare his intention to be. clearly what constitutes citizenship of come a citizen of the United States bethe United States.
fore the clerk of any United States or “ All persons born or naturalized in the state court, who gives him a certificate to United States, and subject to the jurisdic- that effect. This is popularly called tion thereof, are citizens of the United“ taking out his first papers.” When he States, and of the State wherein they re- has lived five years in this country, he
can be naturalized, provided he has “deThe words “all persons” include all clared his intention” at least two years colors, all ages, and both sexes. It never before. This is popularly called “ taking
BY A. O. WRIGHT.
out his second papers," and is done with United States. We claim all such chil. a great deal more formality than attended dren of American citizens by virtue of taking out the first papers. Full citizen. their parents' citizenship; and we also ship can only be given in open court by claim all children born on American soil the judge of some court of record, either of foreign parents. Other nations also United States or State. All United States make a similar double claim. In such Courts are courts of record; and in this cases one nation claims the child because State the Supreme and Circuit Courts are it is born on its soil; while another nation such also. The would be citizen must claims it because of its parents' nativity. bring two citizens with him to testify to Between the claims of birth and of in. his good character, and he must formally heritance, it is difficult to decide, and as renounce allegiance to his former sov- the question has never yet been settled by ereign and swear allegiance to the United the general consent of civilized nations, States.
we can only say that persons born in When a man is naturalized, that fact countries, of which their parents were naturalizes his wife and all his minor not citizens or subjects, have a double al. children. An unmarried woman who is legiance. Our laws make citizens of the of age may be naturalized in the same children born to foreigners residing here, way as a man, and a few foreign women and also of the children born to Ameri. have been naturalized, in order to take cans residing abroad; but that does not up homesteads.
release them from the conflicting claims of But in two cases persons who are not other countries. already citizens may become such, with. By virtue of the Fourteenth Amend. out a formal naturalization. When terri. ment all citizens of the United States are tory is added to the United States either also citizens of the State in which they by cession or by conquest, the inhabitants reside. Beside those citizens of the of that territory become at once citizens United States who reside in this State, of the United States, and when Indians there is another class of persons who are renounce their tribal relations and be citizens of this state. The supreme court come members of a civilized community of Wisconsin has decided that when the in the United States, they become citizens. constitution of the State conferred the
The third condition of citizenship is right of suffrage upon white males, 21 to be subject to the jurisdiction of the years of age, who have resided in the United States. Those Indians, who main. State a year, and who have declared their tain their tribal government, are subject intention to become citizens, the inten. to the jurisdiction of the United States, tion of the framers of that document was not as individuals but only in a modified to make these voters citizens of the State. form as subject tribes or nations. They But this state citizenship does not extend are not citizens of the United States, be to their families. Their foreign-born sons, cause they do not have the responsibilities when they come of age must therefore of citizens and therefore ought not to take out papers for themselves, if they have the rights of citizens.
wish to vote or be drafted into the army, Ambassadors carry the sovereignty of two privileges which only belong to male their country with them, according to citizens of the state of proper age. the theory of international law; and We have thus seen who are citizens, of therefore the children of our ambassadors the State and of the United States. There are American citizens, though born is still another important question as to abroad; and the children of foreign min. what are the privileges of citizens. This isters are not American citizens, though is a question which depends more upon born in this country.
judicial decisions than upon statute law; The case is not as simple with regard and the courts have refused to attempt a to the children of other citizens, born full statement and 'classification of the wbile beyond the jurisdiction of the rights of citizens, leaving cases to be de
BY WM. T. HARRIS.
cided as they arise. The Civil Rights act | women and children. Should the main defining the equal rights of colored jority of the women of this country ever citizens, incidentally defines some of the become dissatisfied with their representarights of all citizens. By that act the tives and demand an immediate voice in freedmen were to “have the same right the government of the country, it will in every state and territory of the United probably be granted, but not till then. States to make and enforce contracts; to sue, be parties, and give evidence; to in.
THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT. herit, purchase, lease, sell, hold and con. vey real and personal property; and to full and equal benefit of all laws and pro- We have been told by the highest of ceedings for the security of person and educational authorities that the present property as is enjoyed by white citizens; great progress in the efficiency of educaand to be subject to the like punishments, tion is due to a thoroughly organized syspains and penalties, and to none other." tem of supervision. In Canada, in Great Besides these certain other rights of citi. Britain and Ireland, even in Australia, zens are allowed by all; among which the supervision is now organized on so are, to be free from inequality of taxation, efficient a basis that Dr. McCosh thinks to intermarry with citizens, to engage in them on the sure road to surpass our anyʻprofession or trade, when qualified, American system of schools. The sole to take up homesteads or pre-empt gov. fact of more efficient supervision, in his ernment land, to use the public schools, opinion, will soon make the country to have passports to travel in forein coun. schools of Canada and Australia surpass tries, and to be protected against injus- those of America. tice abroad as well as at home. These I do not doubt the soundness of his privileges, with others not yet fully de views on the efficiency of supervision. I fined by judicial decision, the United have witnessed its marvelous effects. The States guarantees to all citizens. For pro states that have adopted a system of tection in some of these rights we must county superintendency have come to the appeal directly to the United States; for front in so prompt and steady a manner, protection in others we must look to the that even the most skeptical observer State of which we are citizens, and only has been obliged to confess the potency to the United States as the last resort of the instrumentality. It seems to me, where the State fails to protect us. In however, that Dr. McCosh had not visited many States aliens are denied the full the schools in those states where county right to hold property, and to engage in superintendency is well organized. certain professions or trades. But in Like all other professional services, Wisconsin such distinction between citi. superintending schools is one that must be zens and aliens is unknown. So far as paid well to produce best results. Gratuthis State is concerned, no distinction is itous services deprecate criticism and made except in regard to voting or hold cannot bear it. With a well paid county ing office.
superintendency the country schools imSuffrage is not a right inherent in citi- prove at least fifty per cent in the first zenship. All voters are citizens of the year. State; but not all citizens are voters. The Without supervision the tendency of all theory of our laws, derived from the com. work is to drift to the lowest level. The mon law of England, is that every man poorest work that can draw its money over twenty-one years of age is or ought to drags down the rest to its level irresistibly, be the head of a family, and that as the when there is no higher authority to meashead of the family he represents the fam- ure results and pronounce upon them. ily by his vote. In our representative With competent supervision all work government this is the first process of tends to struggle up to the highest level representation; the men represent the of attainment. The best work is continu
ally held up before the others. The best | very excellent city systems under the sumethods, the best results, are made the pervision of able and well paid supericstandard, and popular opinion elevates its tendents, while their country schools are demands. That which feels itself merely suffering for want of a like supervision, tolerated is forced to struggle for self because they have no county superintendpreservation. The “struggle for exist- ency. ence” ends in development.
For the reason that this link of county The links of supervision in our Amer- superintendency is the most important of ican system of schools embrace the fol- all the supervisory links, inasmuch as it lowing:
concerns the education of three-fourths of 1. National Commissioner of Educa- all the people of the land, it deserves far cation at Washington, who has charge of more attention on the part of legislators the Bureau for the collection and dissemi. than it has received. It is the most prenation of educational information. In carious link in the system. It is attacked the reports of that Bureau as in a mirror, annually by the friends of retrenchment, one may see reflected the actual status of and the enemies of public schools seize education—its organization and results, the occasion to strike a most dangerous not only in the United States, but in all blow to the cause of popular education. parts of the world.
In order to convince the well-wisher of II. State Superintendent of Public In- public schools, that these remarks are not struction, resident at the state capital, and hasty and ill-considered, I will ask his having charge of the apportionment of attention to the following summary statethe State School Fund, the organization ment of the duties of the county superioof educational institutes, collection of sta- tendent; not mere ideal duties which he tistics, and a general supervision over the ought to perform but does not, but ru! common schools, so far as the execution duties, most of which he cannot "shirk," of the state laws is concerned.
and which for the most part are discharg. III. County superintendents, having ed with great conscientiousness by many supervision over all schools in their county county superintendents with whom I am not organized under special charter (as personally acquainted. systems of city schools).
The county superintendent's functions IV. Superintendents of City Schools. involveTheir jurisdiction extends over systems of I. His duty to confer with other school schools organized independently of county officers and directors: (1) with the State supervision.
Superintendent, whose interpretation of V. In large cities the supervision of the state school law he is obliged to prothe superintendent is supplemented by mulgate, and to whom he has to report assistant superintendents and supervising the enrollment of school population as a principals. The latter have charge of basis for the division of the school fund; large schools and smaller subordinate (2) with the county clerk as treasurer, as schools, and spend most of their time in an intervening official charged with the inspection of the work of their assistant transmission of statistics, receipt of funds, teachers, and in giving effect to general etc. ; (3) with local school-boards, includ. arrangements, devised for the perfection ing (a) township boards, (6) village boards of management and instruction.
and (c) city boards. With each of these, With this five-fold system of supervis- if located in his county, he is brought ion, American educators may feel a degree into necessary relation, and with the first of satisfaction. In a very large number of them he has very distinct duties as reof states—such as Michigan, Illinois, Mis- gards advice and consultation. (4) With souri, the system is complete. In all the the sub-district directors he has similar states are found the second, fourth and relations, and is expected to keep posted fifth links with a greater or less degree of in their plans and arrangements, and to perfection. There are many states having communicate to them his information as
to the state laws and decisions, as well as cises in the several topics of instruction; the practices found beneficial in other to draw out from the teachers present a places. He must give unity and purpose profitable discussion of the practical points to their proceedings.
presented in the exercises and lectures. It is clear that a competent man could improve the schools of his county by
These departments of labor well consid. proper attention to these duties alone, to ered, I do not see how any one can avoid
the conclusion that the work of the county an extent sufficient to pay the salaries of many superintendents. In the one matter superintendent is the most important link of advice as to buildings, in the way of
in the entire system of educational super.
vision. Its cost to the state is very small economy and proper construction, in the way of the prevention of breaches of the
in comparison with the entire outlay. By state law, he could do this. But these du. no other agency can the school system of ties are not the most important.
a state be so potently lifted up and at so II. His duty to examine teachers and
small an expenditure of money.-Ameriaward certificates to the competent ones.
ican Journal of Education. He is obliged to test the extent of infor- PROFESSOR AGASSIZ AT PENIKESE SCHOOL. mation both as to theoretical and practical knowledge of the art of teaching. He has BY A. B. MILLER, A, M., PITTSFIELD, MASS. to find out whether the candidate knows MR. EDITOR:-Doubtless most of your how (a) to grade and classify a school ac- readers have heard something of the school cording to the most approved methods; of Natural History established last sum. (6) to assign lessons of proper length and mer on Penikese Island near New Bedford, guide his pupils to correct habits of study; Mass. Perhaps a few reminiscences of it, (C) how to work up a sentiment in favor of from one who richly enjoyed its privischools in the community where he is to leges may not be without interest, and not teach ; (d) whether he possesses sufficient without value either, if it may direct atbook knowledge to instruct properly. tention to the doings of next summer's
III. His duty to visit schools. He has session. to see that the qualifications which he re- On the 5th of July last, about fifty teach. quired in the candidate to whom he gave ers gathered from all parts of the country, the certificate, are actually exercised by sailed down from New Bedford fourteen that teacher in the school. (1) He must miles, landed on a rough looking little look after the grading and classification island, were met and welcomed by Prof. of the pupils; (2) after the modes of in- | Agassiz, and for about two months gave struction; (3) after the habits and deport- their time and thoughts to the study of ment of pupils as indicating the general whatever living things they could lay their influences of the teacher; (4) after the gen. hands or their eyes on, under his kindly eral spirit of the district as affected by the direction and powerful inspiration. teacher.
I am sure I shall be understood as giv. IV. Educational Lectures. It is his ing very high praise to the school, to its duty to present before teachers at their methods of study, and to its skillful, genial, institutes, and before the community at admirable conductor, when I say that large, the subject of education and its though I have taught school now over various practical bearings.
fifteen years, and had supposed all my V. It is his duty to hold Institutes. boyishness have been long ago evapoThis is one of the most important and rated, yet as soon as I landed upon the difficult of his duties. He has to devise island and began in earnest to search for measures to get his teachers together, and star-fishes, sea-weeds, barnacles and jellyarrange for their accommodation and con- fishes, and to look at them in the light of venience; he has to get up a suitable pro- Prof. Agassiz beautiful, glowing, compregramme of exercises ; to secure the proper hensive, philosophic descriptions, I began persons to conduct the lectures and exer- to feel that my whiskers were an anachron