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of combination into view for a moment, common occurrence-it scarcely attracts what a perfect instrument has been the slightest notice. Were the newspaper formed by society and the state to realize above referred to partitioned off into the distribution of the products of labor. squares, each of which should represent Take the machinery of exchange known its portion of the labor of one of the peras money. Diversity of employment, and sons who had contributed to the work, it consequently skilled labor, depends upon would be found to be resolved into six, facility of exchange. Says a distinguish- eight, or perhaps ten thousand pieces, of ed writer on political economy: “By various sizes, small and great-the former means of money, the farmer, the miller, representing the men who had mined and the clothier, the butcher, the merchant, smelted the lead and iron ores of which the grocer, the newsdealer, and all other the types and presses had been composed, members of society, are enabled to effect and the latter representing the men and exchanges, even to the extent of purchas- boys by whom the distribution had been ing, in a postal card, for a single cent, made. Numerous as are these little scraps their share of the labors of thousands of human effort, they are, nevertheless, and ten thousands of men employed in all combined in every single sheet, and making railroads, engines and cars, and every member of the community may, transporting upon them, annually, hun for the trivial sum of fifty cents per an. dreds of millions of letters; or for an- num, enjoy the advantage of the informaother cent they may purchase their share tion therein contained, and as fully as he of the labor of the hundreds, if not thou could do had it been collected for him. sands, of men who have, in various man self alone.” ners, contributed to the production of a This example, which Mr. Carey has furpenny newspaper. What an immense nished us, illustrates some of the effects combination has to be made before a of the machinery of combination. Each single copy of the newspaper can be pro- works for all, and all for each. Every duced! There are the coal, iron ore and vessel that crosses the ocean, and every lead miners, furnace-men, machine-mak laborer on the distant plantation in Cuba ers, rag-gatherers, casters, bleachers, mak- or Brazil, or even by the far-off Nile or ers of bleaching powders, paper-makers, Ganges, every manufacturer in Birmingrailroad and canal men, type-makers, ham or Manchester, affects the well-being compositors, pressmen, authors, editors, of the coal miner or wheat grower in publishers, newsboys, and a host of oth- Illinois or Wisconsin. He is comforted ers, all combining their efforts for the and cheered by the tea and coffee, nourproduction in market of a heap of news. ished and sustained by the fruits, grains papers that has, on the instant of produc- and spices, the cotton and silk and linen, tion, to be divided off into portions suited that have traveled to him from round the to the wants of thousands of customers. earth. Nay, the very drugs that make Each of the latter pays a single cent, and life possible in a malarious climate are then, perhaps, shares his paper with a grown from six to twelve thousand miles dozen others, so that the cost to each hence. The relation is reciprocal; and reader is, perhaps, no more than one cent every stroke which the Illinois coal per week; and yet each obtains his share miner strikes with his pick-ax affects the of the labors of each and all of the per- price of coal in all the markets of the sons by whom it was produced.

world, and the price of coal affects the “Of all the phenomena of society, this price of all other commodities. process of division, subdivision, compo- Now what we attempt to give in the sition and recomposition, is most remark- school is not a direct initiation into this able; -and yet-being a thing of such realm of practical combination, but, on

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the contrary, we aim to initiate the people I cational systems becoming more cosmointo the “conventionalities of intelli- politan, more potent in reaching the indigence"—the means of theoretical combi. vidual, and more certain in their effect nation. The study of reading, writing, upon his enlightenment. ar thmetic, geography and grammar, To inquire what is the province we atshall open the doors to the spiritual em-tempt to occupy with popular education pire over nature.

in America, and what are its bearings It is the province of the school to ele. upon the previous epochs of history, be. vate the pupils into clear insight, so that comes a question of great interest. The they may discern a practical solution to separation of church and state, a cardi. the problem of life in the shape it as- nal principle in this nation, has wrought sumes now, Without this insight the manifold changes. The countries of young American gropes dimly, gradually Europe are in all stages of progress in learning, through long years of bitter ex. this respect. Wherever, as in England perience, that in resisting law he resists ! until quite recently, the principle is not himself; that in seeking independence acknowledged, the cause of popular eduthrough pure self-will and caprice, he cation does not flourish. In 1850 an comes to abject slavery; that the true American said, with great force: “The freedom is to be obtained only through parliament that voted £100,000 of the subordination of self.

I nation's money for the queen's horses and This brings us to the third point of hounds, had but £30,000 to spare for the consideration — the influence of the state' education of her people. While Oxford upon the function of education.

and Cambridge shine with wealth and In a state which rests upon the patri., splendor, and the nobility and gentry are archal form of government, like China, elucated in all that goes to make the the duties of children to parents, of the masterly scholar and the finished gentleyounger to the elder, of subjects to the man, no honor attends the educators of emperor, constitute the staple of educa. the people; no wealth is heaped up for tion. To learn subordination to the elder them; no beautiful buildings erected for or higher in rank is to learn the lesson of their use; no great libraries got ready at life. More or less, under all govern. public charge.” " In Rome and England ments in the old world, this subordina- great sums have been given by wealthy tion of man to some accident of history, men, and by the state itself, to furnish the to some element of time and space, is means of a theocratic or aristocratic edu. and must be a part of education. Some- cation of a certain class, to produce the thing alien to his true freedom must re national priests and the national genmain and he cannot dissolve it. In India, tlemen." The result is obvious: the pareducation consists in learning the cere. ish records of England tell us that onemonies and observances peculiar to one's third of the couples joined in marriage caste. For in that country everything are unable to sign their names to the depends upon what caste one belongs to. marriage contract. (The new system of In Athens æsthetic culture was prized popular education, lately inaugurated above all; in Sparta, martial training; in there, will change all that within a genRome, to sacrifice one's self for the glory eration.) The same condition exists in of the state.

France. The reports of 1863 tell us that All modern states are founded on a out of every one hundred men, twentybroader basis than any of these; they are eight could not sign the marriage conmostly based on the Christian idea, and tract, and forty-three out of every one as they approach the ideal of man as hundred women were completely illiter. taught in that religion, we find their edu-i ate. When the state is not founded on a

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democratic idea —a government for all from age to age, in the ratio that the patri. the people and by all the people -educa- archal principal gets eliminated from tion cannot be universal. Such educa- society. tion in England, or France, or Italy,

When children are to be brought up to would overturn, in one generation, all the 'simple, implicit obedience to the ruler of class privileges that lie at the basis of the state, and are never to expect a share their governments. Only when the state in making the laws that govern them, the is founded upon the distinct and explicit predominant influence in their education recognition of the inherent rights of all tends to produce subordination to author. men to partake in the highest functions ity. The self-will must, in all cases, be of their race, can education be permitted broken, and at all hazards. Children in its normal scope.

must be taught to obey for its own sake,

and a life of obedience is thus prepared Our own form of government professes for. But in a country where self-rule is to rest on this foundation. It is its self

the destiny of every citizen, a different proclaimed object to secure to every man culture is required. Self-rule does not his right to govern himself. Every man

mean arbitrariness, for this is anarchy, or, shall reap the fruit of his own deed. The

rather, the rule of passion. Self-rule is state decrees that the individual shall

the government of re 1809, and implies have as much justice meted out to him

conviction in place of caprice. Therefore, as be is able to mete to himself. An

discipline should act on the conviction American shall not be treated like an in. of pupils. If punishment is to be ad. fant, and have good laws without making ministered, the pupil is to feel that he is them. He shall make his own laws, and

the cause of his own pain, and that the if they are not good ones he shall smart for it until he learns how to make good infliction. An appeal to the reason and

teacher is an unwilling instrument in its ones. Better not so cheap, better not so

sense of honor in a pupil can be made wisely governed, provided the people be

only by placing some trust in his convic. self-governed. Monarchies are doubtless

tion of what is reasonable. Hence, we cheaper, doubtless not so corrupt, as re

find, not only in America, but also in publics; but the great end of all government is the elevation of mere individuals

Europe, the current of popular sentiment to the dignity of self-directive persons; the to-day setting in favor of a system of concentrhtion of the realized products of

school government that avoids such col.

lisions with pupils as tend to excite their all in each. Hence the self-determination

baser natures. The teacher has achieved of the individual is the object of all gov

success when he has learned to govern ernment. No doubt an infant can be

his pupils through their own convictions. carried in the arms of the nurse more

This is the truly moral culture which gracefully and with greater economy of time, but we prefer that he should learn popular education more and more aims

to achieve. The conviction that each to walk by himself. Such principles as

doer reaps the result of his own deed, these have penetrated our system of ped.

and that every deed must be a positive agogy.

character, or else it will come back inju. The school is the theatre in which the riously on the doer — the substitution of transition takes place from obedience to rational action for that of selfish passion external authority into free action from – these are inseparable; the former, the personal conviction. For this reason principle, the latter, its practical result. school government necessarily involves This discipline secures for the pupil selftwo elements, coercion and moral suasion; restraint from the outset. It trains him and the relative amount of each changes, to renounce the whims and caprices of the

moment for the sake of his own rational A great and continual incitive to this well-being.

state of feeling is our form of govern. The collision between the old and new ment. The separation of the different modes of school management has brought branches, the independent organization of the pedagogue into an unenviable light the legislative, judiciary and executive in modern literature. No one of us here powers, removes the possibility of arbibut shudders at the mention of such trary personal influence to such an exmonsters as Ichabod Crane,Erasmus Holi- tent from the supreme power of the day, Old Squeers, Treacle or Gradgrind. land, that intolerance of such influence Tyranny, petulancy, irritability, dogma in subordinate spheres gains constantly tism and pedantry are charged to the ac- upon the commuity. count of the pedagogue by his accusers (a). The legislative power makes the - Scott, Dickens, Goldsmith and Irving general law; that any one should break

-and he must bear this imputation until it and incur punishment does not excite he learns to govern his pupils through any personal feelings on the part of any their own convictions. No one will con- one of the legislators. The criminal can. tend, for a moment, that a school can get not blame the legislature for his punishalong without good order. But mere ment; the law was made before he com. outward quiet is not good order; pupils mitted his crime, and was made for his must conspire with the teacher and not own protection, and for the protection of against him. In these days it may be all. The individual legislator feels sorry affirmed that he who cannot govern his at the fate of the individual criminal; he school without tyrannical thoughts, harbors no hate against him. words or acts, cannot govern it at all. (6.) The judge applies the law; the He has mistaken his vocation. The criminal cannot blame him any more teacher who knows his art will find the than he can the legislator. He knows most powerful levers in the pupil's own that the judge did not make the law by disposition. It is patent to all observers which he (the criminal) is condemned. that this is an age of rapid decay for all The judge has no hatred in his breast; sorts of external authority. The man he only does his prescribed duty without who attempts to rule by rough personal fear or favor, and without arbitrariness demeanor, by imperious brow-beating or malice. and bullying, is quickly thrust aside (c.) The executive officers who carry from high positions. There never before out the sentence, are polite and friendly. was so frequent a triumph of this princi. They neither made the law nor applied ple as in our late war. Dogmatic, bully- it; they only execute it, and are bound to ing officers were, in most instances, dis- show no personal feeling in the matter. placed by those whose personal popu- Everywhere the criminal encounters larity indicated high esteem on their only the impersonal presence of justice, part for the convictions of their fellow and nowhere the arbitrary despotic will. soldiers. People in this age demand to Such is the great complex organic in. be shown the grounds of conviction; strument that we have realized in our they are jealous even of advice as to prac- state for the security of liberty and jus. tical conduct. Show me that this course tice. injures me and mine and you have done In the prevailing spirit of such a gov. sufficient. I do not wish to listen to your ernment, there is no place left for imperi. exhortations not to injure myself and ous individuality to manifest itself. The others. Such things are presupposed as individual can manifest itself with im. the basis of all conviction of whatever punity only in the shape of benignant sort.

sympathy and counsel for the erring. This spirit penetrates society and makes is like one "who lays down his ear to more certain every day the triumph of the the ground-swell of humanity, and as he new order of school discipline. Mr. listens to the tide of history moving on Squeers and old Treacle must give place to the realization of the divine event, sup. to the generous-hearted friend of youth, poses its low murmur, as it meets with whose very presence stimulates his pupils the sandbars that obstruct its progress, to to noble efforts, and whose atmosphere be nothing but the pulse-throbbing of his elevates all above the plane where the own ears!" That which has grown out degrading influence of the rod is re of a religion as its most positive form, is quired.

not likely to prove negative to it; nor This new spirit in education is more can the exclusion of all sectarian doctrine truly the Christian spirit than the one it from the public schools prevent the sys. replaces; and this for the reason that it tem from being essentially the greatest secures to a greater extent the develop- adjunct of religion. For religion dement of self-control on the part of the mands the free insight of the soul as its pupil. The cardinal virtues, prudence, normal condition, and, without it, it canfortitude, temperance and justice, all in- not lift itself above superstition. volve as their basis, self-control in some In considering the spirit of our disci. one of its forms. The seven deadly sins, pline in the school, we observe the tendon the other hand, are different species of ency to substitute methods that appeal excess occasioned by yielding to the ap- more to the free personal conviction of petites and passions. In proportion as the pupil in place of the old plans of cothe pupil learns the lesson of self denial,

ercion. The contrast of our system is and has acquired that energy of charac- most marked with that of China. There ter which enables him to sacrifice the the whole life and education is one of ease and pleasure of the moment in order prescription. Dead formalities reign in to gain reasonable ends, he has formed a affairs of the greatest moment as well as moral basis for himself. Nor is this cul. in the most trivial concerns of life. Even ture alone moral. I may with truth their alphabet is an iron mould which affirm that it is religious. I am aware reacts on all the people, forcing them that the remark is frequently made that when young and plastic into prescriptive public schools are “anti-religious” inhabits, compelling each one to rely on spirit. If “anti-sectarian ” is meant by his memory, and to seek his guiding printhat term, I will readily concede its in- ciple in something external. The young justice; but when it is intended to mean Chinese begins to learn to write by mematheistical, or even anti-christian, I repu- orizing the shape of a complex sign for diate it. What a narrow view of the the first word, and another for the second, workings of providence that man must and so on until he has memorized several have, who thinks his religion so super- thousand before he can graduate as a ficial a thing as to be easily left out of a scribe. He very naturally becomes a course of study! Who does not know copyist in everything he does. The hand that his religion is the very life-blood of of Confucius, reaching down through the civilization that is ruling the world twenty-five centuries, holds him firmly and dissolving all alien forms by its re- in the prescribed path. sistless might; what kind of a Christian Oriental forms of society generally fix is he who is forever afraid that in the the státus of the individual far more defi. march of enlightenment his dogmas will nitely than do the Western. will be all over-thrown and himself been born in Hindostan, the son of a left creedless and forlorn! His faith is Sudra, you were predestined to the basest not equal to a grain of mustard seed. He of employments. Your neighbor, the

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