ism, and my gray hairs a delusion. For so far as is recorded, has ever seen what in enthusiasm, in wonder, in satisfaction, we now see, a full formed egg in the body in implicit confidence in my instructor, I of a skate. For many years I have been was instantly reduced from forty to four-looking for this very thing." He seemed teen years of age.

as happy and as nervous as an inexpe. At the last summer's session, the first rienced young maiden with an unexpected object which the director of the school love letter. When he began to trim proposed to himself and to us, was to away the flesh so as to show the egg in teach us to see the things that were before its bed to better advantage, his hand our eyes. Of course this was not fully trembled so that he could hardly use it. accomplished, else we when we came away, But more was to come. As he was care. should have been to the world around us, fully, slowly clipping away the fleshy objects of as great wonder and admiration covering, there came a sudden, a very exas the learned Professor was to us. But pressive ah !-h-h, and then the words, we felt that we learned something of this truly here are two of them. How beautiprecious lesson. The second lesson he ful they are! The sight of those two eggs taught us was how to better appreciate and alone would pay me for my whole sun. enjoy the wonderful mechanism of every mer's work,” and then with a soft, happy, object we might examine, however com. boyish whistle, he went on with the dismon or simple. The reader may smile if section to make it ready for the drawing he will, but one of the important things master. When it was drawn showing we learned at the Anderson school was both eggs entire in the shell, it was brought how to dissect a fish or a toad or a lobster down for a second dissection preparatory with an intense interest and a more pro. to a second drawing. On removing the found reverence for the Divine Artificer upper part of one of the shells there ap. who fashioned it.

peared a very pretty egg somewhat like Perhaps the recital of an incident of that of a hen. The yolk seemed pink our school life will best enable me to pre- rather than yellow and in its 'general apsent to view the controling spirit of the pearance, including the germination vesinstitution. On Saturday, the 20th of cicle suggested the idea of some large July, while one of the students in the lab- bird's egg. At this the Professor's feeloratory was dissecting a skate, he found ings and the interest of the observing in the body of the fish an egg. Now this students reached a climax. “Before it is may seem a matter of small consequence moved,” said he, “I must take a good to one who has walked along the beach look at it lest something happen to it.” and noticed how frequently the curious " Ah,” continued he, “it is a splendid shell which encloses this egg may be sight; it is the most beautiful specimen I seen. It certainly seemed quite an indif. ever saw. Now Dr. Wilder raise it out of ferent matter to the student and when he the water. Stop! give me a good look at took his tray up to the professor to exhib. in the air before it goes into the alcohol. it his discovery he had very little idea of Yes, there is the blastoderm perfect. Now the sensation he was about to cause. An carefully lower it into the alcohol.” Then exclamation from Dr. Wilder to whom it a long, proud, happy look before the utwas first shown brought forward Prof. terance, evidently with intense feeling, and Agassiz, and the excessive astonishment apparently with perfect sincerity, of the and satisfaction which he manifested im- following words, “I would not take two mediately called around him a wondering thousand dollars for that rare specimen. circle of ladies and gentlemen.

No human eye has ever seen so rare a one. Prof. Agassiz was interested in the egg, I would not exchange it for the Madonna we in him, and it seemed quite worth our of Raphael! Come, Mr. Hawkins, draw while to observe him as he studied it. this beautiful thing once more." Beaming and sparkling with delight, he Such enthusiasm could not but be consurprised us by saying, “No human eye, tagious. The objects we examined and studied seemed almost as novel and inter- | a class of studies never pursued in after esting as those we would expect to find on life,-except for special ends, or by reason some other planet.

of peculiar tastes. The higher matheThe school proposes to itself to be a matics, for instance, or chemistry, or asnormal school for teachers of Natural tronomy, or geology, are by the vast maHistory where they may learn how to ob- jority of public school scholars as sure to serve and how to communicate; and also be utterly dismissed from their thoughts a center of investigation for original dis- as the rules of the school and the order of covery, that this field of human knowl. recitations. They are forced into the edge may be enlarged as rapidly as may minds of pupils at an age when the reabe.- N. Y. Educational Journal.

soning powers are undeveloped, and the

memory in its highest state of receptivity. COMMON SCHOOL EDUCATION.

Obviously, that is the age when elemenCommon school teaching has been al- tary facts should be laid in store, and lowed to be governed more and more by when the art of using facts should begin half truths and conventional ideas. The to be taught in that careful and guarded efforts of its friends and promoters have way which takes care not to anticipate desought an end which was by no means as velopment. Take a class of the same age, clearly kept in view as the importance of and, with slight exceptions, the power of the matter warranted. This end was that learning by rote will be about the same. the public school should give the best and But the power of reasoning and applying most complete education to be obtained. will be almost in abeyance with them all. Public school teaching was to supersede Just where it is found there will probably all other teaching, by dint of being supe-be less capacity for accurate memory rior to all other. To reach this end, the Indeed, accurate, literal memory almost aleffort has been made to crowd into the ways leaves the mind when the higher pow. common school course as much of every- ers come in play. Idiots and feeble-minded thing to be taught, as the limits of the children are slow to receive impressions, system would allow. The obvious way of but they hold to them with painful tenacity. reaching this point, or or of appearing to The common school system is fast drift. reach it, ratherwas to have as many ing into that devotion to cramming, which studies on the list as possible, and to is the very reverse of true education. be seen constantly passing from the Secondary facts are crowded upon the easier to the more difficult. This sooner memory, to the exclusion of those ele. or later diverts the attention of the public mentary ones which are needed for the from the question. How do you teach ?” | foundation. The plea that is offered in to that of "What are you teaching?" It defence of this system, is that everybody's is

an easy way of surmounting difficul. child has a right to the best education the ties. It serves to satisfy parents and State can give, and that, therefore, it ought guardians, not to say the school commit- to know whatever will be of use to it in tee, or the “Board of Education." To nine after life. We suggest that a good many out of every ten it is eminently satisfac- things may be left till the time shall come tory to hear that “our high school teaches for them to be learned to advantage. For as much as is taught in most colleges.” | instance, a little boy in one corner of a To ninety-nine out of every hundred there bench in the public school may become a is denied the power of knowing whether bishop, but it would be hardly worth while any of these things have been satisfactorily to instruct him now in the canons of the learned. Of many of the subjects which the church concerning the trial of bishops. are set forth in the text-books carried by The lad next him is in nowise excluded the youthful scholar in his leathern from the hope of being chief justice of strap, or under his arm, none but an ex- the supreme court of the United States, pert can judge whether any real know- but would hardly be advanced toward the ledge has been attained. They belong to bench by being now set to work upon

2-Pol. IV, No. 2.

any sta.

Smith's Leading Cases." There is a SUFFRAGE WITHOUT EDUCATION.-Hor. fallacy in the theory, somewhat akin to ace Mann expressed the danger to our gov. that under which careful country mothers, ernment of universal suffrage without uni. who pack the trunk of the boy departing versal education, as follows: for a week's visit to the metropolis, with “The human imagination can picture specifics against all manner of diseases. no semblance of the destructive potency If the sickness do come, the doctor in the of the ballot box in the hands of an ignornext block, and the druggist on the corner, ant and corrupt people. The Roman cowill furnish all that is needed, and there horts were terrible; the Turkish janizaries will be no danger of the bottles breaking were incarnate fiends; but each were and mingling their pleasing contents over powerless as a child for harm compared the Sunday suit and the new shirt bosoms. to universal suffrage without mental illu

For, to carry out our principles—as the mination and moral principle. The power boy may be either bishop or chief justice, of casting a vote is far more formidable not to mention all other conceivable offices than that of casting a spear or javelin. -it would be proper to cram him with

“On one of these oft-occurring days, both canons and cases, and with whatever

when the state of the Union is to be deelse any possible contingency of after life

cided at the polls, when over all the land might find it handy to possess.

the votes are falling thick as hail, and we It seems to us that the common school

seem to hear them rattle like the clangor system should be limited to the exact op- of arms, is it not enough to make the lover posite of this, and allowed to teach noth of his country turn pale to reflect upon ing special; nothing but what, in

the motives under which they may be given tion of life, would be certain to be useful.

and the consequences to which they may This, however, it should teach well and

lead! By the votes of a few wicked men, thoroughly; so thoroughly, in fact, that

or even one wicked man, honorable men the child could pass at once to the special

may be hurled from office and miscreants study appropriate to its calling, prepared

elevated to their places; useful offices to make the best use of that. It is not im.

abolished and sinecures created; the pubportant, nay, it is undesirable (unless a

lic wealth, which had supported industry, man proposes as his destiny to edit ency. clopædias), that a boy should leave school squandered upon mercenaries; enterprise

crippled; the hammer falling from every knowing a little of everything. A little knowledge of all things almost inevitably the sail drooping to the mast on every sea;

the wheel stopping in every mill; involves a vast ignorance of all things, and thus capital, which had been honestly and that, too, unhappily, without the car and laboriously accumulated, turned into pacity to perceive that ignorance.

dross. In fine, the whole policy of the Under this system, the rivalry of public schools with private would be mainly government may be reversed and the social

conditions of millions changed to gratify done away. The public school would be above rivalry, because, under its limita- one man's grudge, or prejudice, or revenge.

In a word, if the votes which fall so nutions, it would teach as no other could except in those individual and isolated merously into the ballot box on our

days of election emanate from wise councases where a child is best taught on a special system, adapted to its own pecu- scend like benedictions from heaven to

sels and a loyalty to truth, they will deliarities. Then private or special schools for the advanced could take up their par

bless the land and fill it with joy and ticular branches. There would be schools gladness, such as never have been known of modern languages, schools of music, upon the earth since the days of paradise;

but, if on the other hand, those votes come schools of drawing--possibly, even, schools at which the American youth might ac

from ignorance and crime, the fire and

brimstone that were rained on Sodom and quire some knowledge of history and ge- Gomorrah would be more tolerable." ography.- Churchman.



cur the expense of books, will, under the

free text-book system, be brought within In the state of Maine, 1869–70, the leg- the influence of the school room. Inislature, refusing to grant a State uniformity of text-books, gave to towns and to see why the city or town that on

deed, on general principles, it is difficult cities authority to furnish to their schools grounds of public policy and necessity free text-books. Two cities, Bath and

is required by law to provide school Lewiston, have availed themselves of it

room and teachers and school appliances much to the advantage of their schools, for its children, ought not also to provide and to the satisfaction of their citizens. them with that most essential school ap. The school board of Lewiston has for

pliance-text-books. Our own belief is more than a year furnished the schools that experience will demonstrate that the with text-books, stationery, and all other free -text-book system is not only justified needed appliances. Bath did the same

on grounds of economy, but also by the for a longer period. A writer in the Maine wisest public policy." Journal of Education, Mr. Thomas Tash,

Mr. Tash closes an able paper upon of Lewiston, enumerates some of the ad. this subject with the following observavantages resulting from the supply of free

tions: text-books. Books are ready at the proper

“We will only add that the measure, time. Every child is supplied with all

where adopted, has been found to be a the books, etc., needed. There is uni.

popular one. It relieves from expense, formity in books. Considerable latitude, anxiety, and trouble, and could not be especially in cities, can be allowed in the

otherwise than popular. The leading, selection of books, without increasing the wealthiest, and most intelligent citizens, expense of them. Books are more entirely

are its most earnest advocates. We are under the control of the teacher. Books confident also that should other towns are more carefully used, and better kept and cities adopt the same plan, and prothan when owned by the children. It ceed with it judiciously, it would be leads parents to procure reference books, found equally satisfactory.”Minnesota useful both to themselves and their child.

Teacher. ren. Convenience in making transfers. The free supply of books increases school

EMOTIONAL LANGUAGE.—The fact tha: time.

many of our emotions now betray them. In regard to cost, it has been found, in selves only through the incompleteness of Bath, that the cost per scholar for books the effort of will to disguise them is not a averages annually about one dollar. In little curious, and offers several lines of Lewiston, it will be somewhat less for a interesting inquiry. It at once suggests series of years. Mr. Kiddle, superin. how very little play for emotional expres. tendent of schools at New York, says sion the conditions of modern society apthat the whole cost of books, slates, maps, pear to allow. For it seems tolerably cerpencils, stationery, etc., including jani. tain that the voluntary hiding of feeling tor's supplies, (not full) is only about is a late attainment in human develop$1.75 per scholar on the average in ment, and is forced on us simply by the school. Hon. Nelson Dingley, jr., until needs of advancing civilization. Savages, recently President of the school board of for the most part, know little of conceal. Lewiston, and now Governor-elect of the ing their passions, and this makes them state of Maine, after alluding to some of so good a psychological study. Children, the benefits to which attention has al. too, who may be supposed to represent the ready been called, thus closes:

earlier acquirements of the race, are pro. “And more important than all other verbially unfettered in the expression of considerations, many children who have their sentiments. In like manner, in the been kept from school simply because various ranks of our civilized society, we their parents could not, or would not, in- see that, while a cultivated lady appears 10


[ocr errors]

all distant onlookers to have a mind dis- | all the youths of the country, but also for passionate and undisturbed by agitating the most thorough culture of all who feelings, a west-country maid reveals her should aspire to the higher walks of learn. curiosity and wonder, her alternations of ing. Hence the thousands of stately strucjoy and misery, with scarcely a trace of tures that wear upon their generous fronts compunction. If we go low enough down the title of “ Public School" and are the the social scale we find the freest utterance pride of so many of our cities and larger of feelings, and it is only when, in retrac- towns. Hence the multiplied thousands ing our steps, we arrive at a certain stage and hundreds of thousands of less imof culture that we discover signs of an posing, but comfortable and neatly furactive emotional restraint. Where this nished schools that dot our hills and vallies self-control is defective we have Mr. on every side and nestle in the midst of Spencer's secondary emotional signs. our rural homes. Hence the multitude of Higher up, among a few specially cultivat- our academies and colleges, mainly the ed persons, the acquisition of this power fruit of private benefaction, and the increasof concealment appears to be complete, ing number of our so-called state univerand we have a type of mind capable of a sities and schools of agriculture and the prolonged external serenity unruffled by mechanic arts, which, for the most part, a gust of passionate impulse. The survey are based on grants of government lands. of these facts at once prompts the question Hence our constitutional and legislative whether the expression of our feelings by provisions for school - superintendence, smile, vocal changes, and so on, is destined town, county and State. Hence the creato disappear with a further advance of tion of a national burcau for the collecsocial organization. To attempt to an- tion and diffusion of educational facts, as

such question directly and well as for guidance and stimulation. briefly would perhaps betray too much Hence the respectful consideration now confidence. We may, however, seek to given by congress to recent propositions define the various paths of inquiry to be for the consecration of the net proceeds of pursued before a final answer can be ar- all the public lands, hereafter sold, “to rived at, and to hint at the probabilities of the education of the people," and finally, the problem under its various aspects.— for the founding of a great and true uni. Popular Science Monthly for January. versity, as the crown and completement of

the government's general prcr 'sion for the ** Education, the Security of our National

educational wants of the nation. Future,"

That these prospective acts of the gov. BY DR. J. W. HOYT, OF MADISON.

ernment are destined to follow appears to Mr. PRESIDENT: As correct opinions are

be almost certain; for the sad experiences essential to right action, it is a happy omen of the late civil war, the sudden enfranfor our country that the sentiment of this

chisement of millions of slaves, and the toast is fast becoming the faith of the increasing immigration from foreign lands American people.

have strongly stamped their necessity upon That a government of the people, for the public mind. But until they are acthe people, and by the people, cannot per complished, until every youth in the land manently prosper, except the people be intelligent, is too evident to require de- cation as is essential to qualify him for

can be made the recipient of so much edumonstration. Hence the solicitude of our

the ordinary duties and relations of social forefathers that ample provisions be made, and political life; and until the means of not only for the elementary education of

the highest possible culture' are afforded * Speech on the "Fifteenth Regular Toast,” at to all who crave and are prepared to enjoy the celebration of the Ninety-Seventh Anniversary them, we shall have fallen so far short of of American Independence at the “Blumen

our duty and have reason to tremble for Saele," in Vienna, Austria, Jnly 4, 1873, by American Commissioners and Exhibitors in attendance our national future. Nothing else than upon the Universal Exhibition.

this will enable us to correct the downward

« ForrigeFortsett »