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ARTICLE V.
LEGISLATIVE

DEPARTMENT.
1. Legislature, how com.
posed.......

26 2. House of Delegates, how

chosen; how distri.

þuted and apportioned, 26-28 3. Senate, how elected : term

of office ; how vacan-
cies filled. Senatorial
districts....

28-31 4. Apportionment of representation.........

31

gious liberty.............. 34 15. No law to embrace more

than one object. How
law revived or amen.
ded........

34 16. Impeachment for crimes

and misdemeanors.
Trial of impeachment;
judgment; party con.
victed subject to in-
dictment. Senate may

sit during recess..... 34-35 17. Charters of incorporation

to churches prohibited;
title to church property
secured.....

35 18. Lotteries prohibited....... 35 19. New counties, how form

ed. Voters in election

districts, where to vote, 35 20. Power

divorces, names, and sales of

property of infants, &c. 35 21. Registration of births, marriages and deaths...

36 22. Provision concerning

elections and vacancies
in office...........

36

QUALIFICATIONS OF SENA

TORS AND DELEGATES.

5. Qualifications of seng

tors and delegates; removals to vacate office,

over

31

POWERS AND DUTIES OF

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY.

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6. Legislature, how often to

meet. Sessions, how
long. Adjournment.
Quorum. How attend.

ance enforced............. 32 7. Speaker of House, and

President pro tempore
of Senate.

Officers;
rules ;

writs of election. Houses to judge of elections, &c. Members punished and expelled....

32 8. Pay of members. Ineli.

gible to certain offices, 32 9, Bills and resolutions,

where to originate and

how disposed of.......... 33 10. Journal; yeas and nays,

how entered. Bills to
be read...........

33 11. Privileges of members

from arrest, &c........... 33 12. Representation in Con

gress, how apportioned, 33 13. Congressional districts,

how formed........ 33-34 14. Writ of HABEAS CORPUS

not to be suspended.
Legislative power re-
strained in certain ca-
ses. Freedom of speech
or of the press. Reli-

36

37

2. Supreme court of appeals,

how constituted. Jurisdiction,

When assent of majority of

judges required.......... 3. Special courts of ap

peals, how formed; ju

risdiction........ 4. Reasons for decisions of

supreme court of appeals to be stated in

writing and preserved, 8. Judges of, how chosen;

term of offico; qualifi.

cations...... 6. Officers of, how appoint

ed. Duties, compensa

tion, and term of office, 7. Sessions of the court,

where held...... 8. Attorney-General, when

37

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17. City Sergeant to be

elected; term of office.. 41
18, Election of city or town

treasurer; his duties;

term of office........... 41
19. Election of commissioner
of the revenue.....

41
20. Mayors of cities ; how

chosen ; their powers
and duties. City, town
and village officers, and
other officers not pro-
vided for, how elected
or appointed. City of-
ficers disqualified from
holding certain offices.
Laws to be passed to
give effect to this arti.
cle. What powers of
the Legislature not af.
fected by it. City or-

dinances declared void, 41-42
21. Elections for city or town

officers, when to be
held; when officers to
enter upon their du.
ties.........

42

39

39

13. County courts estab.

ished; held monthly by
county court judges ;
formation of districts
for county judges;
judges, how chosen,
their term of office,
residence, jurisdiction
of the courts.... ... 39-40

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

OF

GOVERNMENT

CITIES
AND TOWNS.

42

42

22. Judges, by whom com-

missioned; their sala-
ries ; when term of of.
fice to commence; from
what time duties of of.

fice to be discharged..
23. How judges removed

from office......
24. What judges not to hold

any other office..........
25. Officers to discharge du-

ties until successors

have qualifieds...
26. Writs, how to run and be

attested. Conclusion
of indictments.........

43

43

40

43

14. City judges, for what ci-

ties and towns, and by
whom elected; terms of
corporation or hustings
courts, and their juris-
diction ; election of ad-
ditional judges to hold
courts of probate and

record......
15. Clerk of corporation or

hustings court, by
whom elected; when to
be clerk of circuit
court; when separate
clerk elected for circuit
court ; his term of of.

fice.....
16. Election of Common-

wealth's Attorney ; to
be attorney for circuit
court; his term of of-
fice.....

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4. Townships divided into

road districts. Election of overseers of roads;

their duties......... 5. Laws to be passed to give

effect to this article. Ad. ditional officers in cities and counties au

thorized.. 6. Sheriffs to hold no other

office ; when their offi. ces declared vacant. Counties not responsible for acts of............

1. Militia, of whom to con

sist; how organized,

trained, &c.... 2. Encouragement of volun

teer corps. Classification of militia, When reserve militia not to muster....

45

48

ARTICLE X.

TAXATION AND FINANCE.

45

ARTICLE VIII.

EDUCATION.

45

46

1. Taxation to be equal and

uniform, and ad valo-
rem

48 2. No tax on catching oys

ters, but on sales only;
rate of tax.......

48 3. Property exempted from taxation.....

49 4. Income and license tax,

On business capital.
Assessments upon
stock ....

49 5. Capitation tax; how applied.

49 6. Re-assessment of real estate

49 7. What debts may be con

tracted by State........ 8. Sinking fund; how ap

plied, and how long
continued. Laws cre-
ating debts, &c., to pro-

vide a sinking fund.... 49-50 9. Unfunded debt, funded

or redeemed; at what

1. Superintendent of public

instruction, how and when elected; his du

ties......... 2. Board of education, how

composed; their pow

ers and duties..... 3. Public free schools to be

established... 4. Power of Legislature

over parents and guar

dians... 5. Normal and agricultural

schools, and grades of schools, to be estab

lished..... 6. Text-books and apparatus

and library for schools. 7. Literary fund..... 8. Support of public free

46

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49

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and heads of families
exempted from seizure
and sale; amount; ex-
ceptions.

52
2. Property exempted, not

subject to certain liens, 52-53
3. Sales of property under

mortgages, deeds of
trust, &c., not to be in-
terfered with....

53
4. Stay laws, prohibited...... 53
5. Legislature to make pro-

vision for setting apart
homesteads and other
property exempted.....

53
6. Certain acts exempting

homesteads from sales
and staying collection
of debts, abrogated......

53
7. How this article to be
construed

54

50

50

50

50

value. No discrimina-
tion in paying interest

on State bonds...........
10. How money drawn from

treasury. No appropri-
ation to be made for
debts created by State
during late war. Coun-
ties, &o., not to levy
taxes to pay debts cre-

ated to aid rebellion...
11. On what acts yeas and

nays required; major-

ity of all required.......
12. Credit of State not to be

pledged
13. When State scrip, &c.,

may be issued....
14, Stato not to subscribe to

stock of companies, &c.
15. Not to be interested in

internal improvements,

except, &c......
16. Law imposing tax, to

state the tax, and how

same to be applied......
17. State not to assume in-

debtedness of counties,
&c., nor lend credit to

same
18. Accounts of State indebt-

edness and of receipts,
&c. of public money, to

be published with laws,
19. Adjustment of public

debt with West Virgi-
nia. Money received,

how to be applied.......
20. Taxes not to be levied ex-

cept to pay public debts,
21. Liabilities to State of

companies and institu-
tions, not to be re-
leased or commuted....

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22. Rate of interest............. 51-52

ARTICLE XI.

1. How Constitution may be
amended........

54-55
2. Convention to revise Con-

stitution ; how decided
on; election of dele-
gates to; certain
amendments probibi-
ted.........

65

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

HOMESTEAD AND OTHER EXEMPTIONS.

1. Property of householders

PREAMBLE

BILL OF RIGHTS AND DIVISION OF POWERS.

PREAMBLE.

WHEREAS, the delegates and representatives of the good people of Virginia in Convention assembled, on the 29th day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, reciting and declaring, that whereas George the Third, King of Great Britain and Ireland and Elector of Hanover, before that time entrusted with the exercise of the kingly office in the Government of Virginia, had endeavored to pervert the same into a detestable and insupportable tyranny, by putting his negative on laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public good ; by denying his governors permission to pass laws, of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation for his assent, and when so suspended, neglecting to attend to them for many years; by refusing to pass certain other laws, unless the persons to be benefitted by them would relinquish the inestimable right of representation in the Legislature ; by dissolving legislative assemblies repeatedly and continually, for opposing with manly firmness, his invasions of the rights of the people ; when dissolved, by refusing to call others for a long space of time, thereby leaving the political system without any legislative head; by endeavoring to prevent the population of our country, and for that pur

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