of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural and safe defence of a free State ; that standing armies, in time of peace, should be avoided as dangerous to liberty, and

, that in all cases the military should be under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power.

16. That the people have a right to uniform government; and, therefore, that no government separate from, or independent of, the Government of Virginia, ought to be erected or established within the limits thereof.

17. That no free goverument, or the blessings of liberty, can be preserved to any people but by a firm adherence to justice, moderation temperance and virtue, and by a frequent recurrence to fundamental principles.

18. That religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by furce or violence; and, therefore, all men are equally entitled to the free exercise of religion according to the dictates of conscience; and that it is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian forbearance, love and charity towards each other.

19. That neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as lawful imprisonment may constitute such, shallexist within this State.

20. “That all citizens of the State are hereby declared to possess equal civil and political rights and public privileges.'

21. The rights enumerated in this Bill of Rights shall not be construed to limit other rights of the people not therein expressed.

The declaration of the political rights and privileges of the inhabitants of this State is hereby declared to be a part of the Constitution of this Commonwealth, and shall not be violated on any pretence whatever.

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The Legislative, Executive and Judiciary Departments shall be separate and distinct, so that neither exercise the powers properly belonging to either of the others ; nor shall any perso, exercise the power of more than one of them at the same time, except as hereinafter provided.


ELECTIVE FRANCHISE AND QUALIFICATIONS FOR OFFICE. SECTION 1. Every male citizen of the United States, twenty-one years old, who shall have been a resident of this State twelve months, and of the county, city or town in which he shall offer to vote three months next preceding any election, shall be entitled to vote upon all questions submitted to the people at such election : Provided, That no officer, soldier, seaman or marine of the United States army or navy shall be considered a resident of this State by reason of being stationed therein : And provided also, That the following persons shall be excluded from voting:

1st. Idiots and lunatics.

2d. Persons convicted of bribery in any election, embezzlement of public funds, treason or felony.

3d. No person who, while a citizen of this State, has, since the adoption of this Coustitution, fought a duel with a deadly weapon, sent or accepted a challenge to fight a duel with a deadly weapon, either within or beyond the boundaries of this State, or knowingly conveyed a challenge, or aided or assisted in any manner in fighting a duel, shall be allowed to vote or hold any office of honor, profit or trust, under this Constitution.

SEC. 2. All elections shall be by ballot, and all persons entitled to vote shall be eligible to any office within the gift of the people, except as restricted in this Constitution.

Sec. 3. All persons entitled to vote and hold office, and none others shall be eligible to sit as jurors.

SEC. 4. The General Assembly shall, at its first session under this Constitution, enact a general registration law; and every person offering or applying to register shall take and subscribe, before the officer charged with making a registration of voters, the following oath :


do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I am not disqualified from exercising the right of suffrage by the Constitution framed by the Convention which assembled in the city of Richmond on the third day of December, 1867, and that I will support and defend the same to the best of my ability.”

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Sec 5. No voter, during the time of holding any election at which he is entitled to vote, shall be compelled to perform military service, except in time of war or public danger, to work upon public roads, or to attend any court as suitor, juror or witness; and no voter shall be subject to arrest, under any civil process during his attendance at elections, or in going to or returning from them.


Sec. 6. All persons, before entering upon the discharge of any function as officers of this State, must take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation :

“I - do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution and laws of the State of Virginia ; that I recognize and accept the civil and political equality of all men before the law, and that I will faithfully perform the duty of to the best of my ability. So help me God.”




SECTION 1. The chief executive power of this Commonwealth shall be vested in a Governor. He shall hold office for a term of four years, to commence on the first day of January next succeeding his election, and be ineligible to the same office for the term next succeeding that for which he was elected, and to any other office during his term of service.

SEC. 2. The Governor shall be elected by the voters at the times and places of choosing members of the General Assembly. Returns of elections shall be transmitted, under seal, by the proper officers, to the Secretary of the Commonwealth, who sball deliver them to the Speaker of the House of Delegates, on the first day of the next session of the General Assembly. The Speaker of the House of Delegates shall, within one week thereafter, in presence of a majority of the Senate and House of Delegates, open the said returns, and the votes shall then be counted. Tte person having the highest number of votes shall be declared elected; but if two or more shall have the highest and equal number of votes, one of them shall be chosen Governor by the joint vote of the two Houses of the General Assembly. Contested elections for Governor shall be decided by a like vote, and the mode of proceeding in such cases shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 3. No person, except a citizen of the United States, shall be eligible to the office of Governor; and if such person be of foreign birth, he must have been a citizen of the United States for ten years next preceding his election ; nor shall

any person be eligible to that office unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years, and have been a resident of this State for three years next preceding bis election.

SEC. 4. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government; shall receive five thousand dollars for each year of his service, and while in office shall receive no other emolument from this or any other government.

SEC. 5. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed ; communicate to the General Assembly, at every session, the condition of the Commonwealth ; recommend to their consideration such measures as he may deem expedient, and convene the General Assembly, on application of twothirds of the members of both Houses thereof, or when, in in his opinion, the interest of the Commonwealth may require it. He shall be Commander-in-Chief of the land and naval forces of the State ; bave power to embody the militia to repel invasion, suppress insurrection and enforce the execution of the laws ; conduct, either in person or in such other manner as shall be prescribed by law, all intercourse with other and foreign States ; and, during the recess of the General Assembly, to fill pro tempore all vacancies in those offices for which the Constitution and laws make no provision ; but his appointments to such vacancies shall be by commissions, to expire at the end of thirty days after the commencement of the next session of the General Assembly. He shall have power to remit fines and penalties in such cases and under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by law, and except when the prosecution bas been carried on by the House of Delegates, to grant reprieves and pardons after conviction ; to remove political disabilities consequent upon conviction for cffences committed prior or subsequent to the adoption of this Constitution, and to commute capital pun. ishment; but he shall communicate to the General Assembly, at each session, the particulars of every case of fine or penalty remitted, of reprievo or pardon granted, and of punishment commuted, with his reasons for remitting, granting or commuting the same.

Sec. 6. He may require information in writing from the officers in the Executive Department upon any subject rela

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