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DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
HENRY D. SAYER
THE INDUSTRIAL COMMISSIONER
SPECIAL BULLETINS OF 1921
No. 102. Devices for Sanitary Control of Material Disengaged in Industrial Processes (31 pages)
"103. Court Decisions on Labor Law and Industrial Disputes (200 pages)
"104. Industrial Posture and Seating (56 pages)
"105. Plant Disability Funds (16 pages)
106. Court Decisions on Workmen's Compensation Law (302
107. New York Labor Laws Enacted in 1921 (68 pages) "108. Sickness Among New York State Factory Workers in 1919
"109. Employment of Women in 5 and 10 Cent Stores (68 pages)
NOTE.-Beginning with 1914 the former quarterly bulletin was superseded by the present series of separate bulletins on particular subjects. As each bulletin stands by itself, a volume arrangement is not followed in this series, but this title-page and list of bulletins is furnished for those desiring to bind the bulletins by years.
In almost every industrial operation there is matter disengaged, either in the form of a solid, liquid or gas, as a result of mechanical abrasion, chemical decomposition or synthesis, according to the processes carried on.
In Bulletin No. 82 (to which this bulletin may be deemed supplemental), entitled, "Hoods for Removing Dust, Fumes and Gases," published by the New York State Industrial Commission, are described the methods of dust and gas removal; and in Industrial Code Bulletin No. 12, entitled, "Dust, Gases and Fumes" (reprinted in 1920 Industrial Code), there are described methods of exhaust system construction for grinding, polishing and buffing wheels, together with a list of substances which, when disengaged in factories, must be removed at their point of origin. There are also various recommendations relating to dust collectors.
Many of the substances disengaged are of a poisonous nature, while the greater portion are only mechanical irritants to those exposed to them.
Those of a poisonous nature are: Acrolein, acetic acid, ammonia gas, amyl-acetate, anhydrous sulphurous acid, benzine, benzol, carbon disulphide, carbon monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chlorine gas, chloride of lime, cyanogen compounds, formaldehyde, hydrogen sulphide, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, methylic alcohol, nitrobenzol, nitrous gases, nitric acid, numerous dyestuffs and pigments, examples of which are paranitraniline (insoluble azo color) and paris green (pigment), phenol, the soluble and insoluble salts of lead, zinc, mercury, manganese, antimony, arsenic, chromium, oxides of phosphorus, tar and turpentine.
Dust disengaged from certain industrial processes acts as a mechanical irritant. Such dust is commonly encountered in processes wherein the following materials are handled: Cotton, wool, jute, shoddy, flour, cellulose, celluloid, leather, coal, wood, cement, silica, emery, carborundum, metallic particles such as aluminum, iron, zine, nickle, lime, and almost all minerals dusts.
The mechanical difficulties met in the successful removal of these substances in the process of manufacture are naturally numerous, and the engineering profession has been indeed taxed to contrive devices adequately to control and eliminate the irritating substances.
From an economic point of view, the prevention of the escape of material in a fine state of division should be of grave concern to manufacturers because of the loss of material entailed. Furthermore, increased cost of plant maintenance results, in many instances, due to the effect of mechanical and chemical action on the machinery and the building.
To the method of control and elimination of objectionable dust, gases and fumes, we are indeed indebted to the ingenuity of many manufacturers who have worked out devices for the control of material liberated. As a result of these experiences there are hereinafter depicted in half tones, devices which may serve as a guide to those who desire to profit by seeing the same and by applying their principles to the various problems which may confront. them.