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which this doctrine bears to others. It is an integral part of a system of truths, which stand or fall along with it. It is connected, for example, in the closest manner, with the purpose of Christ's appearance upon earth, and the great design of his sufferings and death ; that is, with the vitally important doctrine of atonement :- this doctrine again is inseparably connected with the corruption of human nature, and the universal guilt of mankind :-this, in its turn, essentially affects the question respecting the true ground of a sinner's acceptance with God: the necessity of the regenerating influences of the Holy Spirit; the principle and motive of all acceptable obedience, and other points of similar consequence. It is very obvious, that two systems, of which the sentiments on subjects such as these are in direct opposition, cannot, with any propriety, be confounded together under one common name. That both should be Christianity is impossible ; else Christianity is a term which distinguishes nothing. Viewing the matter abstractedly, and without affirming, for the present, what is truth, and what is error, this, I think, I may with conf. dence affirm, that to call schemes so opposite in all their great leading articles, by a common appellation, is more absurd, than it would be to confound altogether those two theories of astronomy, of which the one places the earth, and the other the sun, in the centre of the planetary system. They are, in truth, essentially different religions. For if opposite views as to the object of worship, the ground of hope for eternity, the rule of faith and duty, and the principles and motives of true obedience ;-if these do not constitute different religions, we may, without much difficulty, discover some principle of union and identity amongst all religions whatever; we may realise the doctrine of Pope's universal prayer; and extend the right hand of fellowship to the worshippers at the Mosque, and to the votaries of Brama.' -

pp. 31-33.

And so would many of the advocates of modern Socinianism. The consequence does not oppose their principles; and at Constantinople, or Calcutta, it would not oppose their practice if they acted consistently with those principles. What is the amount of all that is advanced about the innocence of mental error, and the acceptableness of any and of every form of religious worship, whether Pagan, Mahometan, or professedly Christian, but the result of that indifference which on this subject is the characteristic of scepticism and of Socinianism? We are persuaded that among nominal Christians, the spirit of both systems is far more prevalent than some imagine, and is both the cause and the effect of their influence. It is on this account we rejoice in the solemn conviction of the importance of just views of Divine truth, ---views which pervade all the reasonings and appeals of the volume before us. Mr. W. is not a mere disputant, supporting a point because he has subscribed an orthodox creed and belongs to a church that demands his professional vindication of it, but because he is “fully persuaded” of its accord

class of phenomena; he forms no anticipations ;* he has no antecedent conceptions; his conclusions rest on the authority of established facts, and are founded on a sufficiently extensive induction. He considers the opposition in question, as resulting solely from his limited and partial knowledge; and if, in his attempts to generalise and classify the subjects of his investigation, he discovers a principle which reconciles and harmonizes every seeming contrariety, he willingly adopts it. What well authenticated facts are to the philosopher, the assertions of Scripture are to the religious inquirer who has just views of the evidence and authority of revelation. Whether the one can satisfactorily explain the facts, or the other, the assertions, are questions which ought not to affect the admission of either. But in another part of this article we intend to enter more fully nto the ultimate grounds of religious belief; we shall therefore proceed in our analysis of Mr. W.'s discourses on the Divinity f Christ.

Having stated the principle to which we have adverted, he llustrates, at some length, an argument founded on the general cope and tenour of scriptural language, and exhibiting an inirect, though powerful testimony on this subject. He coniders,

• The views which are uniformly given in the scriptures, of the unaralleled and inexpressible love of God, in the gift of his only beotten Son ;-the marvellous condescension and grace of Jesus hrist himself, which the strongest possible terms are employed to xpress ;-the depth of interest, the warmth of admiring transport id adoring gratitude, excited in the bosoms of the New Testament riters, by the contemplation, and even by the passing thought of le love of Christ ;-the representations given of the height of glory id honour, dominion and power, to which Jesus is exalted, as the insequence and reward of the work finished by him when on earth ; -and, finally, the singular claims of Jesus on the love and obedience · all his followers.' The language used on these subjects, Mr. W. proves to be terly extravagant and unaccountable on the hypothesis that r blessed Redeemer was no more than a mere human proet, commissioned, like other prophets, to impart to manad the will of God. The more we contemplate this arment, the greater importance it acquires in our estimation.

• Rationem humanam, qua utimur ad Naturam; anticipationes Na@, (quia res temeraria est et præmatura); at illam rationem, quæ bitis modis elicitur a rebus interpretationem Naturæ, docendi gratia, care consuevimus. Nov. Org. xxvi. How applicable is this conian aphorism to theological inquiries ! Ed. VOL. III. N. S.

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mind of the writer. It requires only the reading of the verse to satisfy any candid mind, that this is not the case here ; and that no reason exists on this ground for any departure from the general rule.' pp. 37-39.

Having proved that the text really refers to Jesus Christ, Mr. W. proceeds to shew by the citation of numerous passages, what is the current phraseology of the New Testament on this subject; and adverts to the improbability that they are either interpolated, mistranslated, or misinterpreted. He then introduces the following judicious remarks,

• But it may be alledged, that there are other passages of scripture which speak a very different language from those which have been quoted : passages, in which Jesus is spoken of as inferior to the Father ;--as sent by the Father ; as obeying and serving the Father : as receiving a commission, and executing a work, given him to do. All this we at once admit, with the very same readiness and cordiality with which we admit his having been a man. I address myself to those who acknowledge the scriptures as the word of God, and who are consequently satisfied that they cannot in reality contradict themselves. To such, I propose the following simple question :-which, of. the two views-that which asserts the mere humanity of Jesus Christ, or that which offirms the union of his humanity with true and proper divinity-affords the easiest and most complete reconciliation of these apparent contrarieties, and the fairest solution of the difficulty thence arising ?-On this principle, we cease to wonder at the seeming contrarieties. We perceive them to be merely apparent; nay, to be such as we had every reason previously to expeet. If then, this be a key which fits all the wards of this seemingly intricate lock, turning amongst them with hardly a touch of interruption, catching its bolts, and layng open to us in the easiest and completest man.. ner, the treasures of divine truth ;- if this be a principle, which, in fact, does produce harmony and consistency, while the rejection of it gives rise to difficulties without number; is not this of itself a strong presumptive evidence, that the principle is correct and well founded?' I shall probably have occasion, observes Mr. W. 'to touch again on the reasonableness of this principle-a principle which might be reduced into a general rule of interpretation : that of two contending systems, that one ought to be preferred which not only affords a natural explanation of those texts, by which it seems to be itself supported ; but, at the same time, furnishes a satisfactory principle of harmony between them, and those other passages which huve the appeurance of countenancing its opposite.' pp. 45–47.

By this philosophical canon the true interpretation of nature is conducted. When apparently opposite facts are ascertained by experiment and observation, and are supported by equal amounts of evidence, the scientific inquirer does not reject either

class. of phenomena; he forms no anticipations ;* he has no antecedent conceptions; his conclusions rest on the authority of established facts, and are founded on a sufficiently extensive induction. He considers the opposition in question, as resulting solely from his limited and partial knowledge, and if, in his attempts to generalise and classify the subjects of his investigation, he discovers a principle which reconciles and harmonizes every seeming contrariety, he willingly adopts it. What well authenticated facts are to the philosopher, the assertions of Scripture are to the religious inquirer who has just views of the evidence and authority of revelation. Whether the one can satisfactorily explain the facts, or the other, the assertions, are questions which ought not to affect the admission of either. But in another part of this article we intend to enter more fully into the ultimale grounds of religious belief; we shall therefore proceed in our analysis of Mr. W.'s discourses on the Divinity of Christ.

Having stated the principle to which we have adverted, he illustrates, at some length, an argument founded on the general scope and tenour of scriptural language, and exhibiting an indirect, though powerful testimony on this subject. He considers,

• The views which are uniformly given in the scriptures, of the unparalleled and inexpressible love of God, in the gift of his only begotten Son ;-the marvellous condescension and grace of Jesus Christ himself, which the strongest possible terms are employed to express ;- the depth of interest, the warmth of admiring transport and adoring gratitude, excited in the bosoms of the New Testament writers, by the contemplation, and even by the passing thought of the love of Christ ;-the representations given of the height of glory and honour, dominion and power, to which Jesus is exalted, as the consequence and reward of the work finished by him when on earth; -and, finally, the singular claims of Jesus on the love and obedience of all his followers.'

The language used on these subjects, Mr. W. proves to be utterly extravagant and unaccountable on the hypothesis that our blessed Redeemer was no more than a mere human prophet, commissioned, like other prophets, to impart to mankind the will of God. The more we contemplate this argument, the greater importance it acquires in our estimation.

* Rationem humanam, qua utimur ad Naturam; anticipationes Natura, (quia res temeraria est et præmatura); at illam rationem, quæ debitis modis elicitur a rebus interpretationem Naturæ, docendi gratia, vocare consuevimus. Nov. ORG. xxvi. How applicable is this Baconian aphorism to theological inquiries! Ed. Vol. III. N. S.

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Incidental passages often assist us in forming a more accurate conception of a writer's feelings and sentiments, than formal and elaborate confessions. They are striking indications of the sincerity and ardour of those feelings; they prove them to be interwoven with all the texture of his thoughts; and by their connexion with subjects apparently remote from the train in which they might be systematically introduced, they are clearly evinced to be in his view of predominant interest and importance. In such cases it is evident the feelings are not factitious, nor the sentiments merely professional ; and we can appreciate the honesty as well as the force of his convictions. While this criterion, bad we leisure to expand and illustrate its principle, might apply to the evidence of Christian character in general, and the true style and tone of Christian preaching in particular, it becomes peculiarly interesting in its application to the writings and discourses of inspired apostles. By enabling us to ascertain the fact in reference to them, we are instructed as to our individual duty, unless we deem the example and belief of primitive Christians of no consequence; and we can feel no hesitation in determining which class of sentiments is most consonant to the records of such example and belief-that which this volume opposes, or that which it defends. The little use Socinianism makes of the New Testament- the terms of depreciation which it applies to the epistolary parts of it in particular-the frequent necessity to which it is reduced of lowering the tone of apostolic feeling--and the absence and rejection of overy thing like devotional sentiment in this frigid zone of nominal Christianity-leave us no cause for doubt in our conclusions.

In the third and fourth discourses, Mr. W. expatiates at large on the direct proof of the Divinity of Christ from the ascription to him of the names, the attributes, the works, and the worship, belonging exclusively to the only true God': and here the evidence is most satisfactory and complete. Every text which the piercing scrutiny of modern criticism renders ambiguous or doubtful, is cautiously omitted ; not because in each instance he admits the propriety of such doubts, but because he is anxious to prove that the authority of truth is not confined to a few insulated passages, and to adduce unquestionable and decisive testimonies. Nor is Mr. W. contented with bare citations, and a dogmatic application of them; he discusses each testimony minutely; and his argument is critical as well as theological. He meets fairly and ingenuously the objections of the most subtle Socinians ; occasionally adopts even the reading of what they call the Improved Version ;' and detects with admirable skill the latent sophistry of the most refined and somplicated reasonings. We were particularly pleased with

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