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cases shall extend only to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under this state; but the party convicted or acquitted shall nevertheless be liable to indictment, trial, and punishment, according to law. All other civil officers shall be tried for misdemeanors in office in such manner as the general assembly may provide.

21. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under this state, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during such term, except such offices as may be filled by elections by the people.

22. No person holding any lucrative office under the United States, or this state, or any other power, shall be eligible to the general assembly: Provided, That offices in the militia, to which there is attached no annual salary, or the office of justice of the peace, or postmasters whose compensation does not exceed one hundred dollars per annum, shall not be deemed lucrative.

23. No person who may hereafter be a collector or holder of public moneys, shall have a seat in either house of the general assembly, or be eligible to any office of trust or profit under this state, until he shall have accounted for and paid into the treasury, all sums for which he may be liable.

24. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law.

25. Each member of the general assembly shall receive a compensation to be fixed by law, for his services, to be paid out of the treasury of the state. Such compensation shall not exceed two dollars per day for the period of fifty days from the commencement of the session, and shall not exceed the sum of one dollar per day for the remainder of the session: when convened in extra session by the governor, they shall receive such sum as shall be fixed for the first fifty days of the ordinary session. They shall also receive two dollars for every twenty miles they shall travel, in going to and returning from their place of meeting, on the most usual route: provided, however, that the members of the first general assembly under this constitution shall receive two dollars per day for their services during the entire session.

26. Every law shall embrace but one object, which shall be expressed in the title.

27. No law of the general assembly, of a public nature, shall take effect until the same shall be published and circulated in the several counties of this state, by authority. If the general assembly shall deem any law of immediate importance, they may provide that the same shall take effect by publication in newspapers in the state.

28. No divorce shall be granted by the general assembly.

29. No lottery shall be authorized by this state, nor shall the sale of lottery tickets be allowed.

30. Members of the general assembly shall, before they enter upon the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation: I do solemnly swear, or affirm (as the case may be), that I will support the constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the state of Iowa, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of senator (or representative, as the case may be), according to the best of my ability. And members of the general assembly are hereby empowered to administer to each other the said oath or affirmation.

31. Within one year after the ratification of this constitution, and within every subsequent term of two years, for the term of eight years, an enumeration of all the white inhabitants of this state shall be made, in such manner as shall be directed by law. The number of senators and representatives shall, at the first regular session of the general assembly after such enumeration, be fixed by law, and apportioned among the several counties according to the number of white inhabitants in each ; and shall also, at every subsequent regular session, apportion the house of representatives, and every other regular session the senate for eight years; and the house of representatives shall never be less than twenty-six, nor greater than thirty-nine, until the number of white inhabitants shall be one hundred and seventy-five thousand; and after that event, at such ratio that the whole number of representatives shall never be less than thirty-nine nor exceeding seventy-two.

32. When a congressional, senatorial, or representative district shall be composed of two or more counties, it shall not be entirelyseparated by any county belonging to another district; and no county shall be divided in forming a congressional, senatorial, or representative district.

33. In all elections by the general assembly, the members thereof shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the

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34. For the first ten years after the organization of the government, the annual salary of the governor shall not exceed one thousand dollars; secretary of state, five hundred dollars; treasurer, four hundred dollars; auditor, six hundred dollars ; judges of the supreme and district courts, each one thousand dollars.

ARTICLE FIFTH.

Executive Department.

1. The supreme executive power of this state shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the Governor of the State of Iowa.

2. The governor shall be elected by the qualified electors, at the time and place of voting for members of the general assembly, and shall hold his office four years from the time of his installation, and until his successor shall be qualified.

3. No person shall be eligible to the office of governor, who has not been a citizen of the United States, and a resident of the state two years next preceding the election, and attained the age of thirty years at the time of said election.

4. The returns of every election for governor shall' be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the speaker of the house of representatives, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in presence of both houses of the general assembly. The person having the highest number of votes shall be governor; but in case any two or more have an equal and the highest number of votes, the general assembly shall, by joint ballot, choose one of said persons so having an equal and the highest number of votes, for governor.

5. The governor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, the army, and navy of this state.

6. He shall transact all executive business with the officers of government, civil and military, and may require information in writing from the officers of the executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

7. He shall see that the laws are faithfully executed.

8. When any office shall from any cause become vacant, and no mode is provided by the constitution and laws for filling such vacancy, the governor shall have power to fill such vacany, by granting a commission, which shall expire at the end of the next session of the general assembly, or at the next election by the people.

9. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the general assembly by proclamation, and shall state to both houses, when assembled, the purpose for which they shall have been convened.

10. He shall communicate by message to the general assembly, at every session, the condition of the state, and recommend such matters as he shall deem expedient.

11. [n case of disagreement between the two houses, with respect to the time of adjournment, the governor shall have power to adjourn the general assembly to such time as he may think proper, provided it be not beyond the time fixed for the meeting of the next general assembly.

12. No person shall, while holding any other office under the United States, or this state, execute the office of governor, except as hereinafter expressly provided.

13. The governor shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, and commute punishments after conviction, except in cases of impeachment.

14. The governor shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the time for which he shall have been elected.

15. There shall be a seal of this state, which shall be kept by the governor, and used by him officially, and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of Iowa.

16. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the people of the state of Iowa, sealed with the great seal of this state, signed by the governor, and countersigned by the secretary of state.

17. A secretary of state, auditor of public accounts, and treasurer, shall be elected by the qualified electors, who shall continue in office two years. The secretary of state shall keep a fair register of all the official acts of the governor, and shall, when required, lay the same, together with all papers, minutes, and vouchers relative thereto, before either branch of the general assembly, and shall perform such other duties as shall be assigned him by law.

18. In case of the impeachment of the governor, his removal from office, death, resignation, or absence from the state, the powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the secretary of state, until such disability shall cease, or the vacancy be filled.

19. If, during the vacancy of the office of governor, the secretary of state shall be impeached, displaced, resign, die, or be absent from the state, the powers and duties of the office of governor shall devolve upon the president of the senate; and should a vacancy occur by impeachment, death, resignation, or absence from the state, of the president of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives shall act as governor till the vacancy be filled.

ARTICLE SIXTH.

Judicial Department.

1. The judicial power shall be vested in a supreme court, district courts, and such inferior courts as the general assembly may from time to time establish.

2. The supreme court shall consist of a chief justice and two associates, two of whom shall be a quorum to hold court.

3. The judges of the supreme court shall be elected by joint vote of both branches of the general assembly, and shall hold their courts at such time and place as the general assembly may direct, and hold their offices for six years, and until their successors are elected and qualified, and shall be ineligible to any other office during the term for which they may be elected. The supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction only in all cases in chancery, and shall constitute a court for the correction of errors at law, under such restrictions as the general assembly may by

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