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Gwynedd over that of Deheubarth, and to remind the The Welsh king of that district, and the other Welsh princes, that the head of the House of Idwal was the Pendragon.

The sons of Hywel naturally resented such a claim. Had not their father's authority extended over Deheubarth and Powys, and even into Gwynedd ? In a word, had not Hywel Dda been Pendragon since the death of Idwal Voel? Had he not also framed a code of laws which were acknowledged throughout Cambria ? Had he not visited Rome and done other things that had caused his name to become a byeword for good in the mouths of its utterers ? And were they to submit tamely to the dictates of the Princes of Gwynedd ? Certainly not. Idwal might have fallen gloriously while battling against the common foe. Hywel, their father, might have admired such conduct. But with them national rights were forgotten, and personal pique and vanity were intensified to such a degree that nothing but an intestine war could assuage their wounded pride and importance. Iago and Ieuaf assembled their forces, and marched Owain and

, through Montgomeryshire. But their further progress sons of was checked by the appearance of Owain, Rhodri, and Hywel other sons of Hywel, with their warriors. Then ensued Battle of "Gwaith Carno." The men of Gwynedd obtained the Carno, 949 victory. After their exploits at this battle Iago and Ieuaf appear to have pursued the discomfited South Walians, and to have invaded South Wales on two occasions. But the latter were by no means crushed, for they afterwards ravaged North Wales as far as Conway. We are not informed whether they sailed to this place, or whether they arrived there by land. They were attacked and again overcome, and driven

The Welsh southwards by the successful northmen, who once more

visited South Wales in an hostile manner.

After ten years' warfare, Owain ap Hywel, and other princes, acknowledged Ieuaf and Iago as paramount

sovereigns of Wales. Ieuaf and Iago could not agree, Death of and at length Iago got rid of his brother, either by ,

blinding, hanging, or imprisoning him. This happened

in 964. Iago did not enjoy his undivided sway more Expulsion than ten years, for in 974 he was driven forth by his of Iago,

nephew, Hywel Ddrwg, son of Ieuaf.

964.

974,

LEADING EVENTS.

The Death of Rhodri Mawr, Pendragon

877 A.D. Anarawd's Victory

880
The Death of Mervyn, Prince of Powys

903
The Death of Cadell, Prince of Deheubarth and Powys,
and the Accession of his son Hywel Dda ....

..... 909
The Death of Anarawd, Prince of Gwynedd, and the
Accession of his son Idwal Voel........

915 The Death of Idwal Voel

940 The Death of Hywel Dda

948 The First Battle of Carno

949 Banishment of Iago ap Idwal Voel by Hywel Ddrwg ap Ieuaf ap Idwal Voel...

974

1 This Hywel was one of the Welsh princes who are reported to have rowed the puny-bodied, lustful-minded, Dunstan-guided Edgar at Chester,

CHAPTER XI.

FROM THE FALL OF DUNSTAN TO THE RISE OF EDRIC

OF MERCIA.

We have read that Dunstan 'was the chief man in the Dunstan. kingdom. He continued to hold this position up to the accession of Ethelred, the second son of King Edgar. During all these years he appears to be the only man of great ability in the country. We do not read of a single layman of mark, except the king, in those days. Hence Dunstan must have the credit of keeping the land in quietness.

A great fleet was built, consisting of 3,600 stout ships according to one authority, and of 4,800 according to another authority. Following the example of Agricola, the King caused his fleet to sail round the island : this was done during the summer months. Its appearance had the desired effect of showing all who saw it the power of the Saxon king. Dunstan had friendly intercourse with the Pope and foreign potentates. He showed his influence in the Church by the promotion of his friends and partisans to important bishoprics. He was the means of raising Oswald, nephew of Archbishop Odo, to the see of Worcester, and Ethelwold to that of Winchester. It is worthy of note that members

Flor. of Worcester. Dr. Lingard, forgetting that these ships were small ones, observes: “The number appears to me enormous, I have therefore retrenched a cipher.” This retrenchment was most unjustifiable.

2 Matt. of Westminster..

The Coronation of

Dunstan. of the same family held the most important sees: thus,

Dunstan was the successor of an uncle as Archbishop of Canterbury; and Oswald became Archbishop of York. Both Oswald and Ethelwold worked with a will to expel the secular clergy from their abodes, and to place regulars in the large monasteries.

Unlike that of other kings, the coronation of Edgar Edgar, 973

did not immediately follow his election. He was a boy of sixteen? when he ascended the throne: this fact contradicts the statement that his coronation was delayed to the thirteenth' or fourteenth year of his reign, through the influence of Dunstan and the power of the Pope, in consequence of his misdeeds. We see the master mind of Dunstan in this : an uncrowned and unanointed king would have less authority than one fully armed by the pomp and ceremony of coronation and sanctification; the former would be in a state of pupilage to the Church ; the latter would be free and independent, for he was king by the blessing of the Church as well as by the election of the Witan and the voice of the people.

If Edgar was careless as to his own acts, he was kind to the middle and poor classes, and encouraged temperance.In his manner he was cautious, mild, humble, liberal, and merciful ;s and so brave that, though he was both short and thin, he challenged the King of Scotland to meet him in single combat, because he had called him “

a sorry little fellow.” In summer he joined his fleets. In winter he travelled throughout the land, in order to see that the laws were observed, and justice administered : and in his days there was no private thief or highway robber.

Saxon Chronicle. 2 Will of Malmesbury. : Flor. of Worcester.

Upon the death of Edgar the Saxon Chronicle Death of pathetically observed :

Edgar, 975 God grant him that his good deeds be more availing than his misdeeds for his soul's safety

on the longsome journey." The month of July, in the year of grace 975, was a grievous month to Dunstan, for Edgar died in that month and that year. With the death of his pupil and obedient king fell the power of the great churchman. Dunstan has been called the Becket and the Wolsey of his days. But neither Becket nor Wolsey established fleets and courts of law, and administered justice through the medium of their respective kings. And both Becket and Wolsey fell the victims of their Sovereign's ingratitude and hate. Whereas Dunstan ruled the land, and at the same time established the ascendency of his order, while professing to honour and obey four puppet kings. Upon the death of Edgar, his son Edward became

Edward, king, through the influence of Dunstan. His step- the mother Elfrida and some of the nobility opposed his Martyr, election. Edward was Dunstan's nominee. But Elfrida was determined to remove the former, and to compass the overthrow of the latter. Woman's wit was more than a match for the Archbishop's power. Elfrida had sacrificed her first husband in order to wed Edgar. And she now determined to rule once more as queen through her son, a boy of seven years of age. She was helped by Elfere, ealdorman of Mercia. Elfere took the part of the secular priests, and drove

1 Will. of Malmesbury.

975 to 978.

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