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according already ambiguity animals appears applied argu argument assertion belief belong Book called cause chapter classification collective entity combined common compared conclusion connection consideration considered consists contained deduction defect defined definition designated discourse distinct divided division effect Elements entities error essential evidence example exhibition existence exposition expression fact faculties fallacy fictitious field genus give given head idea important included individual induction infer instance language less Logic matter means ment mentioned methodization mind mode nature necessary object observed occasion operation paronymous partial particular perhaps person physical practical premises present probably produced properties proposition prove question reader reasoning reduced referred regard relation respect result rules sense signs simple speak species supposed syllogism syllogistic taken term theory thing tion true truth universal Whately Whately's Elements whole word
Side 280 - Thus if a sophist has to defend one who has been guilty of some serious offence, which he wishes to extenuate, though he is unable distinctly to prove that it is not such, yet if he can succeed in making the audience laugh at some casual matter, he has gained practically the same point.
Side 156 - Syllogisms; and the axioms or canons by which their validity is to be proved: viz. first, if two Terms agree with one and the same third, they agree with each other: second, if one Term agrees and another disagrees with one and the same third, these two disagree with each other.
Side 280 - ... well, but after all, the man is a rogue, and there is an end of it;" now in reality this was (by hypothesis) never the question ; and the mere assertion of what was never denied, ought not, in fairness, to be regarded as decisive; but practically...
Side 65 - Language affords the signs by which these operations of the mind are expressed and communicated. An act of apprehension expressed in language, is called a term; an act of judgment, a proposition ; an act of reasoning, an argument; (which, when regularly expressed, is a syllogism...
Side 221 - By the name of fallacy it is common to designate any argument employed, or topic suggested, for the purpose, or with a probability, of producing the effect of deception, — of causing some erroneous opinion to be entertained by any person to whose mind such argument may have been presented.
Side 89 - an expression which explains any term, so as to separate it from every thing else," as a boundary separates fields. A Nominal Definition (such as are those usually found in a dictionary of one's own language) explains only the meaning of the term, by giving some equivalent expression, which may happen to be better known. Thus you might define a
Side 186 - the whole of a genus or class are likely to agree in any point wherein many species of that genus agree :' or in other words, 'that if one of two properties, &c.
Side 186 - the property which has hitherto belonged to this sheep will remain unchanged ;' when we infer the same property of all sheep, we assume that ' the property which belongs to this individual belongs to the whole species ;' if, on comparing sheep with some other kinds of horned animals,' and finding that all agree in ruminating, we infer that ' all horned animals ruminate...
Side 243 - to allow every man an unbounded freedom of speech must always be, on the whole, advantageous to the State ; for it is highly conducive to the interests of the Community, that each individual should enjoy a liberty perfectly unlimited, of expressing his sentiments.
Side 66 - Whatever term can be affirmed of several things, must express either their whole essence, which is called the Species ; or a part of their essence (viz. either the material part, which is called the Genus, or the formal and distinguishing part, which is called Differentia, or in common discourse, Differentia.