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AERAS.

tempt to conduct one when raised to the papal throne as Pius II., ib. AERAs, Greek and Latin, how and when adopted, v. 95; remarkable of the world, ib., notes; arra of Caesar, account of, vi. 356; Gelalaean, vii. 166. AERIAL tribute, what, v. 67. 4STLANs, or Livonians, send ambassadors to Theodoric King of Italy, v.

15. AESTII, reduced by Hermanric, iii. 283; a collective name, ib. note S. AETHIoPIA, attempted reduction of, i. 138; Christian princes of, iii. 84 and note M.; Christians of, their commercial relations with Justinian, v. 61. AETIUs, surnamed the Atheist, account of, iii. 59; his talents for disputation, 60; patronised by the Arian bishops, ib. AETIUs, general of Placidia, character, iv. 175; supports the usurper John, 176; plots against his rival, Count Boniface, ib.; battle with, 184; flies to the Huns in Pannonia, 185; who compel Placidia to restore him, 221; seizes the administration of the West, ib. ; character of by Renatus, ib. sq.; wise and vigorous government, 222; connexion with the Huns and Alani, 223; defeats Clodion near Artois, 228; forms an alliance with Theodoric King of the Ostrogoths, 223; relieves Orleans, 234; defeats Attila at Chá}ons, 237; alone opposes him in Italy, 244; urges the marriage of his son Gaudentius with the Princess Eudoxia, 249; murdered by Valentinian III., ib. AFRICA, province of, i. 161; western, limits of the Roman dominion in, 162; tribute, 296; revolts from Diocletian, ii. 76; rapid growth of Christianity in, 212; the last province Christianized, ib. note; religious discord in, iii. 42; mal-administration of, by Count Romanus, 272; the Africans join the rebellion of Firmus the Moor, 273; quelled by Theodosius, 274; state of Africa described, 276; ancient fables respecting its interior, ib.; Gildo the Moor transfers that province from Honorius to Arcadius, iv. 16 ; revolt of Count Boniface, 176; invasion of the Wandals, 178; persecution of the Donatists, 179; desolated by the Vandals,

AHRIMAN.

181; view of the Wandal persecution in, 330; reduced by Belisarius, v. 114; Catholic church re-established by Justinian, 115; civil government reinodelled, ib.; taxes of, increased by Justinian, 210; revolt of led by Stoza, 211; reduced, 214; desolation of, ib.; first invasion of by the Saracens, vi. 342 and note S.; limits of their conquests, 347; their final reduction of, 352; extinction of Christianity in, 369; conquests of the Normans in, vii. 135. AGATHIAS, his account of the Franks, iv. 363 and note ; continued the history of Procopius, 40; his character of the Persian language, v. 186. AGATHY Rs1, vassal-tribe of the Alani, iii. 315. AGAUNUM, or St. Maurice, monastery of, sounded by Sigismond King of the Burgundians, iv. 356. AG ENTs (agentes in rebus), or spies, number of, under Constantine, ii. 3.31. AGIAMOGLANs, Turkish class of, viii. 74. AGLABITEs, Saracen dynasty of, founded, vi. 420. AGLAE, her passion for St. Boniface, ii. 277 ; Lord Hailes' opinion of that story, 278 mote M. AGNATs, what, v. 307; their right of inheritance, ib. AGNE3, daughter of the Duke of Brunswick, marries Andronicus the Younger, Emperor of Constantinople, vii. 395 and note. AGRARIAN laws, Roman, related only to the Ager Publicus, v. 304, note S. AGRICOLA defeats the Caledonians, i. 140; contemplates the reduction of Ireland, ib.; recalled, ib.; his forts in Scotland, 141, note S.; his origin, ii. 309. AGRICULTURE, progress of in the Western provinces, i. 189; decay of, in Italy, iv. 303 and note M. ; state of in the East, under Justinian, v. 55. AGRIvecTIGALEs, what, i. 302, note S. AGRIPPA, censor with Augustus, i. 197. AGRIPPINA, ambition of, i. 285. AHMED EBN ARABSHAH, his history of Timour, and testimony respecting Bajawet's iron cage, viii. 58. AHRIMAN, principle of evil among the Persians, i. 334; final defeat of, 335 and note S.

Aix-LA-CHAPELLE.

AIx-LA-CHAPELLE, Charlemagne's palace at, how decorated, viii. 275. AizNADIN, site of, vi. 306, note S.; battle of, between the Romans and Saracens, 307; date of, 309, note S. AJAx, his sepulchre, ii. 291. Akbah, lieutenant of Moawiyah, his conquests in Africa, vi. 346; his expedition confounded with that of Musa, 348, note S.; founds Cairoan, 349 and note S. ALANI invade Asia, ii. 39; repulsed by Tacitus, ib.; nation of the, described, iii. 315; worshipped a naked scimitar, ib.; vanquished by and united with the Huns, ib.; their ethnology examined, ib. note S.; join Radagaisus in invading Italy, iv. 45 overrun Gaul, 51; settle in Carthagena and Lusitania, 125; colonies of, in Gaul, 223 and notes; devoted to Aëtius, 224; arrival of the Turks among the, v. 176. ALARic, the Goth, learns the art of war under Theodosius, iii. 400; leads the Gothic revolt in the reign of Honorius, iv. 24; invades Greece, ib.; passes Therinopylae, 25; takes Athens, ib.; Corinth, Argos, and Sparta, 26; date of his invasion, 27, note S.; defeated by Stilicho, 28; escapes into Epirus, 29 ; concludes a treaty with Arcadius, ib.; made master-general of eastern Illyricum, 30; proclaimed King of the Visigoths, 31; invades Italy, ib.; defeated by Stilicho at Pollentia, 36; marches into Tuscany, 38; concludes a treaty with Honorius, ib.; defeated near Verona, 39, and note S. ; retreat, 39 ; renounces the service of Arcadius for that of Honorius, 57; appointed mastergeneral in Illyricum, ib.; demands reimbursement and a Western province as a settlement for the Goths, 58; requires hostages in security of his demands, 68; marches towards Rome, 69; blockades it, 90 ; insulting reception of the Roman ambassadors, 92; accepts a ransom, and raises the siege, 93; date of that event, 92, note S.; marches into Tuscany, 93; reinforced, 94; his proposals to the court of Ravenna, ib.; rejected by Olympius, ib.; renewed, 95; rage at the letter of Honorius, 96; takes the port of Ostia, 98; obliges the Romans to

ALBOIN.

elect Attalus emperor in place of Honorius, ib.; deposes him, iO1; his friendship renounced by Honorius, ib. ; third expedition against and sack of Rome, 102; moderation, ib.; evacuates the city, 109; ravages the south of Italy, ib., sq.; projects of conquest, 1.12; death and funeral, ib. ALARIC, King of the Visigoths, interview with Clovis near Amboise, iv. 357; defeated and killed by Clovis near Poitiers, 359. ALATHEUs and Saphrax, chiefs of the Ostrogoths, after their defeat by the Huns, save their infant king, Witheric, iii. 318; solicit Valens for permission to pass the Danube, 322; pass by force, 324; voluntary retreat, 351; death of Alatheus, 352. ALAUDA, Roman legion, i. 146, note; Gibbon's mistake corrected, ib. note S. ALAviv Us and Fritigern, judges of the Visigoths, conduct them to the Danube, iii. 318. ALBANIA, reduced by Trajan, i. 143. ALBANIANs, the, ravage the Morea, viii. 181. ALBERIC, son of Marozia, expels her new husband, Hugh IXing of Bul gundy, from Rome, and seizes the government, vi. 185; supposed to have restored the consuls and tribunes, ib, and note. ALBIGEois, persecution of the, vii. 58. ALBINUs, Clodius, Governor of Britain, family and character, i. 246; declares against Julianus, 247; accepts the rank of Caesar, 254; vanquished by Severus, 255; death, 257. ALBINUs, the Pontiff, conversion of, iii. 412, note; Gibbon's account of, from Jerom, corrected, ib. note S. ALBINUs, friend of Boethius, accused of treason, v. 30. AI, BocchARI compiles the Sonna, vi. 229. ALBoFLEDA, sister of Clovis, married to Theodoric the Great, iv. 350. ALBoIN, King of the Lombards, assists Justinian against the Goths, v. 231; Gibbon's mistake respecting his forces corrected, ib. note M.; early prowess of, 332; adventure at the banquet of Turisund, ib.; carries of Rosamond, daughter of the King of

ALBORNOz.

the Gepidae, 333; contracts an alliance with the Avars, and defeats the Gepidae, ib.; undertakes the conquest of Italy, 335; overruns the greater part, 337; besieges Pavia, 338; makes that city his capital, ib.; compels Rosamond to drink from her father's skull, 339; assassinated at her instigation, 340. ALBORNOz, Cardinal and Papal Legate, his character, and treatment of Rienzi, viii. 246 and note. ALCHYMY suppressed in Egypt by Diocletian, ii. 77; origin and progress of that study, 78; infatuation of the Arabians for, vi. 403. ALDUs MANUTIUs, his press, when established at Venice, viii. 118 and note; not the first Greek printer, ib. ALEMANNI, origin, i. 393; name, ib. ; etymology of, ib. note S.; method of fighting, ib.; invade Gaul and Italy, ib.; repulsed from Rome, 394; reputed defeat at Milan, ib.; invade Italy, ii. 13; defeated by Aurelian, ib.; their embassy, 14; re-enter Italy, ib.; again defeated by Aurelian, 15; vanquished by Constantius Chlorus at Langres and Windonissa, 75; establish themselves in Alsace and Lorraine, 412; defeated by Julian at Strasburg, 416; invade Gaul, iii. 257; defeated by Jovinus at Scarponna, 258; and on the Moselle, ib.; at Châlons, ib.; by Valentinian I. at Mount Solicinium, 260; invade Gaul under Priarius, 331; their settlements on the Rhine and in Gaul, iv. 349; defeated and subdued by Clovis at the battle of Tolbiac, ib.; institutions of, ratified by the Merovingian Kings, 365; invade Italy, v. 237; overthrown by Narses, 240; limits of their country under Charlemagne, vi. 174. ALEPPo, siege and capture of, by the Saracens under Abu Obeidah, vi. 322; taken and sacked by Nicephorus Phocas and Zimisces, 427; taken and sacked by Timour, viii. 51; cadhis of, their interview with him, 52; city burnt, 53. ALEXANDER, Archbishop of Alexandria, excommunicates Arius, iii. 53. ALEXANDER, uncle and colleague of Constantine VII., Porphyrogenitus, his vices and death, v. 101.

ALEXIUS.

ALEXANDER III., Pope, rejects the alliance of the Emperor Manuel, iii. 139; establishes the election to the papal throne in the college of cardinals, viii. 211. ALEXANDER, the Scribe, surnamed Psalidium, fiscal minister of Justinian in Italy, his oppressions, v. 217 and note S. ALEXANDER SEVERUs: v. Severus. ALEXANDRIA, massacre at, by Caracalla, i. 272; otherwise oppressed, ib. note G.; described, 413; tumults at, 414; religious disputes frequent, ib. note M.; statistical register, 415; taken by Diocletian, ii. 76; Christian church of, in the reign of Hadrian, 210; bishops of, their succession, ib. note; school of, iii. 46; Jews at, embrace the Platonic system, ib.; publish the “Wisdom of Solomon, 47; united the Mosaic faith and Grecian philosophy, ib.; Trinitarian controversy revived at, 53; awful earthquake at, 293; temple of Serapis at, described, 417; library of the Ptolemies destroyed, ib. note; a new one founded by Cleopatra, ib.: Gibbon's account corrected, ib. note S.; library of the Serapeum, when destroyed, 419, note S.; taken by Chosroes II., v. 293; patriarch of, his miraculous loan to Heraclius, 399; besieged by Amrou, vi. 333; taken, 335; date, ib. note and note S.; burning of the library of, 336; reasons for doubting that fact, ib. sq.; authorities in confirmation of, 338, notes M. and S. ALEXANDRIANs, character of the, i. 413. ALEXIUs I., son of John Comnenus, his character and education, vi. 116 : takes Constantinople and deposes Nicephorus Botaniates, 117; ascends the throne, ib.; character and policy, 118; a hypocrite, 119 ; efforts to convert the Paulicians, vii. 56; burns Basil, the monk, ib.; marches to the relief of Durazzo, 122; army, how composed, 123; defeat and flight, 125; able defence, 126; alliance with the emperor Henry III., 127; alliance with the Venetians, 130; naval iefeat, 131; invokes the aid of the Latins against the Turks, 171; sends an embassy to the council of Placentia, 180; induces the crusaders to

ALEXIUS.

cross the Bosphorus, 194; anxiety on the approach of the crusaders, 204; suspicious policy towards the Latins, 205; obtains the homage of the crusaders, 206 and 208, note; adopts Godfrey of Bouillon, 206; recovers Nice, 212; enlarges his empire during the crusades, 237. ALEXIUs II., Comnenus, Emperor of Constantinople, vi. 123; deposed by Andronicus, 128; and murdered, 129. ALEXIUs III., Angelus, usurps the throne of his brother Isaac, vii. 287; supineness and despondency on the approach of the crusaders, 300; flies from Constantinople, 305; receives and blinds Mourzoufle, 325; sent prisoner to Italy, 326. ALExIUs IV., son of Isaac Angelus, flies from his uncle, who had usurped his father's throne, vii. 288; forms an alliance with the French and Venetian crusaders, 296; his promises, 297; crowned with his father, 306; persuades the crusaders to remain at Constantinople, 307; deposed and murdered by Mourzoufle, 310. ALEx1Us Strategopulus, Caesar, and eneral of Michael Palaeologus, takes onstantinople, vii. 344. ALFRED the Great, religious rigour of, iv. 341; his ambassadors visit the shrine of St. Thomas at Madras, vi. 51 and note. ALGEBRA, invented by Diophantus, vi. 401. ALGEzike, name of the town of Count Julian, in Spain, vi. 356. ALHoRR, invasion of France by, vi. 386 and note S. ALI, son of Abu Taleb, embraces the doctrine of Mahomet, vi. 238; prowess, 252; marries Fatima, daughter of Mahomet, 268; character, 269 and 270, note M.; waives his claim to the caliphate in favour of Omar and Othman, 271; succeeds Othman, 272; his simple manners, ib.; how regarded by the Shiites, ib.; sect of “The Return” founded in his favour, ib. note S.; his inauguration, 274; reign, ib.; defeats the rebels Telha and Zobeir, 275; valour and humanity in the war. with Moawiyah, ib. and note S.; vanquished and assassinated, 276; date, ib. note S.;

AMALAFRIDA.

tomb at Cufa, 277 and notes; posterity, 280. ALIGERN, brother of Teias, defends.the royal treasure at Cumae, v. 235; intrepid conduct, 237; takes service under Narses, ib.; commandant at Cesena, 238. ALITURUs, a Jewish actor under Nero, ii. 236 and note. ALLECTUs murders Carausius and seizes Britain, ii. 72; slain, 73. ALLOBICH, commander of the guards, assassinated by order of Honorius, iv. 96. ALMA, mount, vineyard planted by the soldiers of Probus, ii. 51. ALMAMON, caliph, his splendour, vi. 395; encouragement of literature, 398; and astronomy, 401. ALMANSOR, caliph, founds Bagdad, vi. 394; his riches and splendour, 395; encouraged science, 398. ALMoHADEs, or Princes of Morocco, vii. 134. ALMoNDAR, Arab King of Hira, supported by Chosroes Nushirvan in his dispute with Arethas, v. 188. ALMUs, King of the Hungarians, vii. 71. ALP ARSLAN, son of Togrul Beg, sultan of the Turkmans, vii. 157; conquers Armenia and Georgia, 158; defeats and captures Romanus Diogenes, 161; assassinated by Joseph, the Carizmian, 163; dying reflections, ib.; character, 164; epitaph, ib. ALPHABET, Maeso-Gothic, invention of, by Ulphilas, iv. 323 and note M. ALPHONso the Chaste, his Spanish dominions, vi. 176. ALPs, passages of, ii. 127 and notes; route of Hannibal over, ib. note S.; roads over, 128. ALTAI, mountain of Central Asia, v. 172, note S., 173. ALYPTUs, commissioned by Julian to restore the temple of Jerusalem, iii. 159. . AMALA, King of the Goths, i. 379. AMALA, a name of hereditary sanctity and honour among the Ostrogoths, v. # * M.; Sanscrit etymology of, ib. 2. AMALI, royal line of the, v. 1 and note. AMALAFRIDA, sister of Theodoric the Great, Fo: Thrasimond, #: : of Africa, v. 125; captivit death, ib. ptivity

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AMALASONTHA.

AMALAsoNTHA, daughter of Theodoric, erects a splendid tomb for his remains, v. 34; her birth and character, 125; marries Eutharic, 126; becomes guardian of her son Athalaric, and regent of Italy, ib. ; her counsels directed by Cassiodorus, ib.; negociates with Justinian, 127; marries Theodotus, and so zes the throne of Italy, 128; imprisonment and death, ib. AMALPHI, story of the discovery of the Pandects at, v. 287 and note M.; Roman colony of, 348; city described, vii. 115; trade, 116; present state, ib. note G.; republic of, promoted pilgrimage and trade to the East, 172 and note. AMALRIC, or AMAURY, King of Jerusalem, character, vii. 252; unsuccessful attempt upon Egypt, 253. AMANDUs, leader of the Bagaudae, ii. 70. AMANTIUS, eunuch of Anastasius, outwitted by Justin, v. 36; beheaded on a charge of heresy, 37. AMAzoNs, existence of, examined, ii. 27, note and note M. AMBAss ADoRs, ancient treatment of, v. 205 and note. AMBER, i. 191 and 192 note; analysis of, v. 14, note. AMBITION, reflections on, vi. 132. AMBROSE, St., lively expression concerning heresy, iii. 56; his birth and early history, 376; refuses to the Empress Justina the liberty of Arian worship, 377; further disputes with her, 378; triumph of Ambrose, 379;

banished, but refuses to obey, 380;.

exhumes the bones of the martyrs Gervasius and Protasius, ib.; their miraculous power, 381; influence of Ambrose over Theodosius, 393; refuses to administer the eucharist to him after the massacre of Thessalonica, 394 ; refuses him admittance into the church, and subjects him to public penance, ib. sq.; character of Ambrose's writings, ib. note; refuses to acknowledge the usurper Eugenius, 402; opposes the petition of Symmachus in favour of the goddess of Victory, 410. AMBROSIUS AURELIAN, the Roman, defender of Britain from the Saxons, iv. 392 and notes; confounded with Natanleod, ib. note. AMELIUS, neo-Platonist, ii. 104.

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AMELOT de la Houssaie, character of his ‘Histoire de Venise,’ iv. 244, note. AMIDA, city described, ii. 407; be sieged by Sapor, ib. ; identical with Diarbekir, ib. note; captured by the Persians, 409; date of that event, ib. note S.; receives the banished citizens of Nisibis, iii. 225; long and destructive siege of by Cabades, v. 86. AMINA, the Zahrite, her marriage with Abdallah, son of Abdol Motalleb, vi. 217 ; whether a Jewess, ib. notes M. and S.; her dream after giving birth to Mahomet, ib. note S. AMIR, Turkish Prince of Ionia, his character and friendship for John Cantacuzene, viii. 25; rescue of, and delicacy towards the Empress Irene, ib. ; slain at Smyrna, 26. AMIRouTZEs, George, protovestiarius of Trebizond, letter on the capture of that city, viii. 182, note M. AMMATAs, brother of Gelimer, his rashness and death, v. 108. AMMIANUs MARCELLINUs, sarcasm respecting the power of Eusebius, ii. 387; character as a writer, 389, note; took part in the defence of Amida, 407, note; his character of the religion or superstition of Constantius II., iii.67; of the Christians, 96; account of the praeternatural obstacles to the rebuilding of the temple of Jerusalem, 160; account of the vices of the church of Rome under Valentinian, 255; his impartiality, 346; description of Roman manners in his own times, iv. 77. AMMON, the mathematician, his account of the walls of Rome corrected, iv. 88, note S. AMMONIUs, the monk, his body how honoured by Cyril of Alexandria, vii. 13.

AMMONIUS, neo-Platonist, ii. 104. AMoRIAN war, vi. 413. AMoRIUM, birthplace of the Emperor Theophilus, vi. 414; ruins of, ib. note S.; taken and destroyed by the caliph Motassem, 415. AMPoulle, Sainte, brought down for the baptism of Clovis, iv. 351, note. AMPHILochIUs, bishop of Iconium, orthodox bon mot of, iii. 364. AMPHITHEATRE of Titus described, ii. 59; height, ib. note. AMRou, converted to Mahometanism,

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