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vi. 253; assists the rebellion of Moawiyah, 277; birth and character, 328; anecdote of his sword, 329; invades Egypt, ib.; date, ib. note S.; takes Memphis, 331; besieges Alexandria, 333; his capture and escape, 834; takes Alexandria, 335; recaptures it twice, ib.; burns the library, 336; administration of Egypt, 338; opens a canal between the Nile and Red Sea, 339 and note ; his description of Egypt, 340; takes Tripoli, 342, note S. AMRou, brother of Jacob the Sossarite, captured by the Samanides and sent prisoner to Bagdad, vi. 422. AMURATH I., Sultan of the Turks, his conquests in Europe, viii. 28; crushes the Slavonians at Corsova, 30; killed, ib. and note M. ; his testimony in a civil suit rejected by the mufti, ib. AMURATH II., Sultan, takes Adrianople, viii. 69; besieges Constantinople, 71; recalled to Boursa, 72; character, 125; reign, ib. ; orthography of his name, ib. note; double abdication, 126; nature of his retirement, ib. note M.; death, 127; conduct at the battle of Warna, 132; erects a column to the memory of Ladislaus, ib. note. AMYCUs, dwelling of, on the Bosphorus, ii. 288, note. ANA chorets, origin of, iv. 306; multitude of, at Nitria, 307; their way of life, 319. ANACLETUS, pope, confers the crown of Sicily on count Roger II., vii. 133; grandson of Leo the Jew, viii. 220. ANAH, or Anatho, city of, described, iii. 193 and note S.; inhabitants transplanted into Syria by Julian, ib. ANAGNI, residence of the popes, viii. 214; cursed by pope Benedict XI., 215 and note. ANASTASIA, sister of Constantine, marries Bassianus, ii. 139; marries Optatus, 348. ANASTASIA declared empress by her husband Tiberius II., v. 343. ANASTAsia, Gregory's orthodox conventicle at Constantinople, why so called, iii. 367. ANASTASIUs, becomes emperor of the East by marrying Ariadne, v. 5; war with Theodoric the Ostrogoth, 16; relieved his subjects from taxa
tion, 63; character of, by Lydus, ib. note M. ; parsimony and treasure, 64; builds a wall from the Propontis to the Euxine, 80; war with Persia, 85; founds the city of Daru, 86; religious troubles at Constantinople under, vii. 33; implores the mercy of the Catholics in the Circus, 34. ANASTARIUS II., emperor of Constantinople, vi. 81; his defence of Constantinople against the Arabs, 378. ANASTASIUs, patriarch of Constantinople, his tergiversation and punishment, vi. 144, note M. ANASTASIUs, St., martyrdom of, v. 394. ANATHo, v. Anah. ANATOLIA, conquered by the Mongols, viii. 13; division of, among the Turkish emirs, 24. ANATOLIUs, master of the offices, killed in Julian's retreat, iii. 212; Julian's grief for his loss, 214. ANATOMY, state of that science among the Greeks and Arabians, vi. 402. ANBAR, reduced by Caled, vi. 291; site and foundation of, ib. note S. ANCONA, besieged by Frederick Barbarossa, vii. 138 and note. ANCYRA, marble of, i. 138, note; council of, ii. 202; taken by Chosroes II., v. 393. ANDAGEs, the Ostrogoth, slays Theodoric at Châlons, iv. 237. ANDALUSIA, Spain so called by the Arabs, vi. 353, note; probable etymology of the name, ib. ANDALUSIAN ARABs, subdue Crete and Sicily, vi. 407. ANDERIDA (Andredes Ceaster) destroyed by the Saxons, iv. 394; site, ib. note. ANDERSON’s History of Commerce, character of that work, vii. 84, note. ANDIANs, or Quartodecimans, their unorthodox mode of fixing Easter made capital by Theodosius, iii. 374. ANDRAGATHIUs, general of cavalry to Maximus, puts Gratian to death, iii. 360. ANDREw, St., his body transported to Constantinople, iii. 427; adopted as the spiritual founder of that city, 428, note. ANDEONICUs I., grandson of Alexius Comnenus, his character and adventures, vi. 123; treason and imprison- . ment, 124; escape, ib.; appointed
to the Cilician frontier, 126; intrigue with Philippa, daughter of Raymond of Poitou, ib.; with Theodora queen of Jerusalem, ib.; settles among the Turks of Asia Minor, ib.; submission to Manuel, and pardon, 127; seizes the empire, 128; visits the sepulchre of Manuel, ib.; puts Alexius II. and his mother Maria to death, 129; his reign, ib.; tyranny, 130; deposed by Isaac Angelus, ib.; Iniserable death, 131. ANDRONICUs II., or Elder, Palaeologus, associated in the empire by his father Michael, vii. 371; denies him Christian burial, 375; character of, 388; his disputes with the patriarch Athanasius, ib.; associates his son Michael in the empire, 390; his wars with his grandson Andronicus the Younger, 392; dethroned by him, 393; turns Inonk under the name of Anthony, 394; death, ib. and note M. ANDRONICUs III., or Younger, Palaeologus, grandson of the Elder, character, vii. 390; kills his brother Manuel,391; three civil wars against his grandfather, ib. ; dethrones him, 392; reign and death, 394; marriages, 395; his defeat by Orchan the Turk, viii. 23; sends an embassy to pope Benedict XII., 77. ANDRONICUs I., surnamed Gidon, second emperor of Trebizond, vii. 327, note M. ANDRONICUs, president of Libya, his cruelty and rapine, iii. 37; excommunicated by Synesius, ib. ANGAMALA, bishop of, metropolitan of India and patriarch of the Nestorians, vi. 51. ANGELs, an Asiatic name for bishops, ii. 192, note. ANGLEs invade Britain, iv. 388. ANGLo-SAxons, laws against idolatry, iv. 341 and note. ANGoRA, battle of, between Timour and Bajazet, viii. 54. ANIANUs, bishop of Orleans, defends that city against Attila, iv. 232. ANICIAN family at Rome, high antiquity of, iv. 72; first public office obtained by, ib. note S.; their name proverbial for wealth and splendour, 73. Aniorus JULIAN, the first senator who embraced Christianity 73.
ANSEs, Gothic demigods, i. 380. ANTALAs the Moor, admonishes Justinian to recall Solomon and his nephews, v. 213. ANTAR, romance of, a vivid picture of Arabian manners, vi. 206, note M. ANTEs, Slavonian tribe, v. 168, note S.; occupy Moldavia and Wallachia, 170. ANTHEMIUs, grandfather of the emperor, assumes the government of the i. on the death of Arcadius, iv. 160. ANTHEMIUs named emperor of the West by Leo the Great, iv. 280; history, ib.; acknowledged by the senate and people of Rome, ib.; marries his daughter to Ricimer, ib.; his religious toleration, 281; invites the Britons to assist the Gauls, 288; breach with Ricimer, 291; killed by him in the sack of Rome, 293. ANTHEMIUs, the architect, his philosophical contrivances for annoying Zeno, v. 72; plans the church of St. Sophia at Constantinople, 73. ANTHIMUs, bishop of Nicomedia, execution of, ii. 271, note. ANTHROPomoRPHISM, its prevalence among the monks of Egypt and Catholics of Africa, vi. 7. ANTICUs, title of Justinian, v.170, note. ANTIGONUs, pretended vision of, iii. 14, note. ANTINöUs, i. 214 and note. ANTIoch captured by Sapor, i. 404; date, ib. notes; battle of, betweep Aurelian and Zenobia, ii. 23; church of, 208; council of, iii. 74; composes a semi-Arian creed, ib.; deposes and exiles Athanasius, ib.; Olympic games at, 167 and note; Malala's error respecting, ib. note S.;
cathedral of, shut up by Julian, 170; his residence in that city, 182; licentiousness of the inhabitants, ib.; their hatred of Julian, 183; scarcity and public discontent, ib.; insulting songs against Julian, 184; who retaliates by his Misopogon, 185; persecution at for magic, how occasioned, 243, note; sedition at, against Theodosius, 389; his sentence, 390; grants the city a free pardon, ib.; taken and burnt by Nushirvan, v. 190; great earthquake at, 252 ; taken by Chosroes II., 392; taken by the Saracens under Abu Obeidah, vi. 322; degraded to a provincial town, 323; date of its capture, ib. note and note S.; recovered by Nicephorus Phocas, 426 and note S.; betrayed to sultan Soliman, vii. 170; taken by the crusaders, 215; state of, at that time, 216; gates, ib. and note S.; princes of, disclaim the supremacy of the kings of Jerusalem, 230 and note S.; occupied and ruined by the sultan Bondocar, 275. ANTIochus, restores Chosroes to the throne of Armenia, ii. 369. ANTIOCHUs, proconsul of Greece, under Acadius, iv. 24. ANTI-TRIBoNIANs, origin of that legal sect, v. 258, note. ANToNINA, wife of Belisarius, assists Theodora in her plot against John of Cappadocia, v. 70; birth and character, 101; reproaches pope Sylverius for his treachery, 144; her boldness and activity, 146; her secret history, 157; connection with Theodosius, 158; surprised with her lover by Belisarius, ib.; persecutes her son Photius, 159; who persuades Belisarius to punish her, ib.; procures an ignominious pardon for Belisarius, 162; prevents the marriage of her daughter Joannina with Anastasius, nephew of Theodora, 227; founds a convent, 246. ANToNINEs, the, found a school at Athens, i. 194, note; adoption of the, 214; assigned salaries to the Athenian professors, v. 91; favoured all the sects equally, 92. ANToNINUs PIUs, wall of in Scotland, i. 141; policy, 144 sq.; reign and character, 215; Gibbon's mistakes respecting, ib. note W.
ANTONINUs, M. Aur., defensive wars, i. 145; obliges the Quadi and Marcomanni to supply troops, 151, note; reign and character, 215; his “Meditations,” 216; rejected the services of barbarians, ib. note M.; his excessive indulgence, 221; deifies Faustina, 222; associates Commodus in the empire, ib.; distress from the German conspiracy, 370, note; his supposed edict, and treatment of the Christians, ii. 256; Gibbon's account corrected, ib. note M.; his o the most fatal to the Christians, 20. ANTONINUs, name of Geta and Caracalla, i. 265. ANTONINUs, name of Elagabalus, i.279 : v. Elagabalus. ANTONINUs, Arrius, executed, i. 228. ANTONINUs, proconsul of Asia, his remark to the Christians who sought martyrdom, ii. 252. ANTONINUs, minister of Sapor, opposes peace with the Romans, ii. 405. ANTONIUS, L., revolt of, i. 211, note. ANTONY, St., and his monks, announce the sanctity of Athanasius to the Alexandrians, iii. 82, note; founder of monasticism, history of, iv. 306. ANTONY, Mark, presents the library of Pergamus to Cleopatra, iii. 417, *ote. ANTRUSTION, rank of, among the Franks, iv. 367 and note; fine for the murder of, 368. ANULINUs, prefect, murdered, i. 320. ANULINUs, praetorian prefect, declares for Maxentius, ii. 115. ANULINUs, master of Diocletian, ii. 64. APAMEA, or Corna, junction of the Tigris and Euphrates at, iii. 194, note. APER, Arrius, praetorian prefect, ii. 61; killed by Diocletian for the imputed murder of Numerian, 62; pun concerning, 63, note. APHARBAN, ambassador of Narses to Galerius, ii. 85. APHDAL, sultan, restores the authority of the Fatimite caliphs in Palestine, vii. 223 and note. Apocalypse, the, tacitly rejected by the council of Laodicea, ii. 175, note; causes of its present-reception, ib.; Wetstein's interpretation of, ib. note M.; why rejected by the Alogians, 207, note.
Apocaucus, great duke or admiral, ccnspires against John Cantacuzene, vii. 397; massacred, 400. APOLLINARIs, son of Sidonius, killed at the battle between Clovis and Alaric II., iv. 360. APOLLINARIs, bishop of Laodicea, his doctrine of the divine incarnation, vi. 9; account of, ib.; his heresy condemned, 10. ApollinaRIs, his forcible elevation to the patriarchate of Alexandria, vi. 60; his massacres, ib. Apollon IATEs, lake, i. 399. Apollonius, ambassador of Marcian to Attila, firm and courageous conduct of, iv. 220. ApolloNIUs of Tyana, ii. 22 and note. Apologists, early Christian, relied too much on prophecy, ii. 218; which they misused and adulterated, ib. ApostATEs, Christian, their numbers small, ii. 254, note G.; the penitent, how treated, 254 and note. ApostLEs declined the office of legislation, ii. 190; whether they suffered martyrdom, 232 and note; influence of their relics at Rome, v. 357. APPARITORs, what, ii. 313. Apsim AR deposes Leontius and ascends the throne, vi. 78; executed by Justinian II., 79. APULIA conquered by the Normans, vii. 105; counts of, 106. AQUEDUCTs, Roman, i. 185; v. 21 and note M. AQUILEIA besieged by Maximin, i. 319; by Jovinus, general of Julian, iii. 119 ; taken and destroyed by Attila, iv. 240,241; name applied to Forum Julia, ib. note. AQUITAIN, Gallic province, i. 156; occupied by the Goths, iv. 128; described, ib.; increased by the addition of Septimania, ib. and note S.; conquered by the Franks, 360; revolt of, punished by Charlemagne, vi. 173.
AquyRION, palace of Constantine, his death at, ii. 363.
ARABIA, daughter of Justin II., married to Baduarius, superintendent of the palace, v. 341.
ARABIA, attempted reduction of, i. 138; coasts of ravaged by Trajan, 143; part of, made a Roman province, ib. note S.; enlarged by Severus, ib.;
description of, vi. 195; best works on the ancient geography and anteMahometan history of, 196, note S.; division of, into the Sandy, Stony, and Happy, I97; horses of, 199; cities, 200; Roman province of, 202 and note ; jurisdiction of the Turks in, 203; religious sects settled in, 214; subdued by Mahomet, 254; Christians not excluded from, ib. note; one of the provinces of Syria, called Arabia by *. Romans, 303. ARABIC of the Koran taught as a dead language at Mecca, vi. 373. ARABs, condition of, under the Roman empire, i. 161; assist the Romans against the Persians, ii. 370; their predatory life, ib. note; their friendship cultivated by Valens, iii. 339, notes; often fought naked, ib. ; prophecy of their perpetual independence discussed, v. 364 and note M.; vi. 202 and note; their military virtues, 203; domestic freedom and character, 204; oratory, 205; their singular views as descendants of the outlaw Ismael, 206; robberies, ib. ; civil wars and private revenge, 207; annual truce, ib.; language and alphabet, 208; proverbs, ib. notes; love of poetry, 209; hospitality and generosity, ib.; examples of, ib.; religion, 210; human sacrifices, 213 and note S.; Jewish rites, ib. ; accepted the Old Testament, 216 ; incontinence of the, 266; sovereignty of the, how lost, 284; union of the, 285; military tactics, 292; their conquests of Persia under the caliphs Omar and Othman, 296; of Transoxiana, 299; invade and conquer Syria, 300–325; their estimation of monks, 302 and notes M. and S.; further conquests after that of Syria, 326; naval exploits, 327; invade Egypt, 329; invade Africa, 342; convert and adopt the Moors, 353; ravage the coasts of Andalusia, ib. ; invade Spain, 355; date, 356 and note ; prosperity of Spain under the, 364; limits of their conquests, 374; besiege Constantinople, ib.; second siege of Constantinople by, and destruction cf their fleet, 378380; invade France, 384; conquests in, 386, note S.; expelled from, 389 and note S.; introduction of learning
among, 398; libraries, 400; real progress in the sciences, ib.; want of erudition and taste, 403; take Sicily, 408; invade Italy, 409; threaten Rome, 410; their military character and tactics, vii. 32. ARABIC, king of the Goths, passes the Danube, ii. 360. ARAXEs, river, described, v. 402, note (v. Aboras). ARBALIST, or cross-bow, unknown to the Orientals, vii. 213 and note. ARBELA, chariots at the battle of, i. 344, note. ARBETIo, veteran general of Constantine, opposes the revolted Procopius, iii. 241. ARBETIo, general of Julian, presides as a judge at Chalcedon, iii. 126. ABBogASTEs, the Frank, becomes general of Theodosius, iii. 384; puts Victor, son of Maximus, to death, 385; created master-general in Gaul, 397; his ambition, ib.; shuts up Valentinian in the palace of Vienna, ib.; puts him to death, 398; bestows the purple on Eugenius, ib.; defeat by Theodosius and suicide, 402; a pagan, ib. note M. ARCADIUS, son of Theodosius, raised to the purple, iii. 364; succeeds to the empire of the East, iv. 1; marries Eudoxia, daughter of Bauto, the Frank, 8; encourages the revolt of Gildo, the Moor, 16; pomp and luxury of the court of Arcadius, 136; governed by Eutropius, 138; unjust law against treason, 142; condemns Eutropius at the demand of Tribigild and persuasion of Eudoxia, 146; base submission to the rebels Gainas and Tribigild, 148; death, 158; supposed testament, 159; column of, at Constantinople, vii. 325, note. ARCH of Constantine, how constructed, ii. 134; inscription on, iii. 15. ARCHERY, how esteemed by the ancients, v. 102 and note. ARCHILoCHIUs, bishop of Iconium, his interview with Theodosius and practical argument against Arianism, iii. 364. ARCHIPELAGo, etymology of the name, vii. 6. ARCHITECTURE, Roman, its magnificence shown by existing ruins, i. 181;
Gothic, oldest model of, v. 22 and note M. ARDABURIUs leads an army against the usurper John, iv. 172; carried prisoner into Ravenna, 173; successful conspiracy against John, ib. ARDARIC, king of the Gepidae, victory over the Huns, iv. 247; occupies the palace of Attila and country of Dacia, 248. AREOBINDUs, exarch of Justinian, killed at Carthage by Gontharis, v.212. ARETHAs, chief of the Arab tribe Gassan, supported by the Romans in his dispute with Almondar, v. 188; his intractable spirit when in the service of Belisarius, 192. ARETHAs, St., prince of Negra, martyrdom of, v. 207, notes. ARETHUSA, or Restan, its site and foundation, iii. 166, note. ARETINUs, Leonardus Brunus, account of, viii. 255, note. ARGENTARIA (or Colmar), battle of, iii. 332; site, ib. note. ARGY RUs, officer of Constantine Monomachus, transactions with the Normans, vii. 108. ARIADNE, daughter of Leo and Verina, gives her hand and empire to Anastasius, v. 5. ARLANISM communicated to the barbarians by Ulphilas, iv. 327; their conversion from, 337, 340. ARIANs, proscribed throughout the East by Theodosius, iii. 369; why less firm in adversity than the orthodox party, ib. ARII, tribe of the, described, ii. 44. ARINTHAEUs, Julian's general of horse, iii. 192. ARINTHEUs, general of Valens, his extraordinary beauty, strength, and valour, iii. 241 and note; distinguishes himself against Procopius, ib. ; commands against the Goths, 285. ARIOvISTUS, seizes two-thirds of the land of the Sequani for himself and followers, iv. 371. ARISTIDEs, philosopher and Christian, ii. 215. ARISTOBULUs, minister of Carus and Diocletian, ii. 65. Aristotle, philosophy of, adopted by the Arabians, vi. 400 ; character of his dialectics, 401; studied by the