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anecdote of his sword, 329; builds a wall from the Propontis to
nople, his tergiversation and punish-
captured by the Samanides and sent Anastasius, St., martyrdom of, v. 394.
ANATHO, v. Anah,
conquests in Europe, viii. 28; crushes viii. 13; division of, among the
civil suit rejected by the mufti, ib. in Julian's retreat, iii. 212; Julian's
ople, viii. 69; besieges Constanti Anatomy, state of that science among
ric at Châlons, iv. 237.
titude of, at Nitria, 307; their way Arabs, vi. 353, note ; probable ety-
mology of the name, ib.
Sicily on count Roger II., vii. 133; Sicily, vi. 407.
grandson of Leo the Jew, viii. 220. ANDERIDA (Andredes Ceaster) de-
iii. 193 and note S. ; inhabitants trans ib, note.
planted into Syria by Julian, ib. ANDERSON'S History of Commerce,
214; cursed by pope Benedict XI., ANDIANS, or Quartodecimans, their un-
orthodox mode of fixing Easter made
ries Bassianus, ii. 139; marries Op ANDRAGATHIUS, general of cavalry to
Maximus, puts Gratian to death, iii.
ANDREW, St., his body transported to
venticle at Constantinople, why so the spiritual founder of that city,
East by marrying Ariadne, v. 5; Comnenus, his character and adven-
ANDRONICUS. to the Cilician frontier, 126 ; intrigue with Philippa, daughter of Raymond of Poitou, ib. ; with Theodora queen of Jerusalem, ib.; settles among the Turks of Asia Minor, ib.; submission to Manuel, and pardon, 127; seizes the empire, 128; visits the sepulchre of Manuel, ib.; puts Alexius II. and his mother Maria to death, 129; 'jis reign, ib. ; tyranny, 130; deposed by Isaac Angelus, ib.;
zniserable death, 131. ANDRONICUS II., or Elder, Palæologus,
associated in the empire by his father Michael, vii. 371 ; denies him Christian burial, 375; character of, 388 ; his disputes with the patriarch Athanasius, ib.; associates his son Michael in the empire, 390; his wars with his grandson Andronicus the Younger, 392 ; dethroned by him, 393; turns mnonk under the name of Anthony,
394 ; death, ib. and note M. ANDBONICUS III., or Younger, Palæolo
gus, grandson of the Elder, character, vii. 390; kills his brother Manuel,391; three civil wars against his grandfather, ib. ; dethrones him, 392; reign and death, 394; marriages, 395; his defeat by Orchan the Turk, viii. 23; sends an embassy to pope Bene
dict XII., 77. ANDRONICUS I., surnamed Gidon, second
emperor of Trebizond, vii. 327,
note M. ANDRONICUS, president of Libya, his
cruelty and rapine, iii. 37 ; excom
inunicated by Synesius, ib. ANGAMALA, bishop of, metropolitan of
India and patriarch of the Nesto
rians, vi. 51. Angels, an Asiatic name for bishop's,
ii. 192, note. ANGLES invade Britain, iv. 388. ANGLO-SAXONs, laws against idolatry,
iv. 341 and note. ANGORA, battle of, between Timour and
Bajazet, viii. 54 ANIANUS, bishop of Orleans, defends
that city against Attila, iv. 232. ANICIAN family at Rome, high anti
quity of, iv. 72 ; first public office obtained by, ib. note S. ; their name proverbial for wealth and splendour,
73. ANIOTUS JULIAN, the first senator who
embraced Christianity 73.
ANTIOCH. ANNA COMNENA, her history of her
father Alexius I., vi. 117; ccntemplates dethroning her brother John 119; how punished, ib.; her learning, vii. 41 and note ; acoount of,
204, note. ANNE, daughter of the emperor Roma
nus, marries Wolodounir, great prince
of Russia, vii. 26. ANNIBALDI, Italian family, viii. 220. ÜNNIBALIANUS, general of Probus, ii.
44. ANNONA, tax under Justinian, v. 66. ANSARB, or auxiliaries of Medina, vi.
244. ANSES, Gothic demigods, i. 380. ANTALAS the Moor, admonishes Justi
nian to recall Solomon and his ne
phews, v. 213. ANTAR, romance of, a vivid picture of
Arabian manners, vi. 206, note M. ANTES, Slavonian tribe, v. 168, note S.;
occupy Moldavia and Wallachia, 170. ANTHEMIUS, grandfather of the em
peror, assumes the government of the East on the death of Arcadius, iv.
160. ANTHEMIUS named en peror of the
West by Leo the Great, iv. 280; history, ib.; acknowledged by the senate and people of Rome, ib. ; marries his daughter to Ricimer, ib.; his religious toleration, 281; invites the Britons to assist the Gauls, 288; breach with Ricimer, 291; killed by
him in the sack of Rome, 293. ANTHEMIUS, the architect, his philoso
phical contrivances for annoying Zeno, v. 72; plans the church of St.
Sophia at Constantinople, 73. ANTAIMUS, bishop of Nicomedia, exe
cution of, ii. 271, note. ANTHROPOMORPHISM, its prevalence
among the monks of Egypt and
Catholics of Africa, vi. 7. ANTICUS, title of Justinian, v, 170, note. ANTIGONUS, pretended vision of, iii.
14, note. Antinous, i. 214 and note. ANTIOCH captured by Sapor, i. 404 ;
date, ib. notes; battle of, betweep Aurelian and Zenobia, ii. 23; church of, 208; council of, iii. 74; composes & semi-Arian creed, ib.; deposes and exiles Athanasius, ib.; Olympic games at, 167 and nate; Malala's error respecting, ib. note S.;
APOCALYPSE, cathedral of, shut up by Julian, 170; ANTONINUB, M. Aur., defensive wars, i. his residence in that city, 182; li 145 ; obliges the Quadi and Marco centiousness of the inhabitants, ib.; manni to supply troops, 151, note ; their hatred of Julian, 183; scarcity reign and character, 215; his “Meand public discontent, ib.; insulting ditations,' 216; rejected the sersongs against Julian, 184; who re vices of barbarians, ib. note M.; his taliates by his Misopogon, 185; per excessive indulgence, 221 ; deifies secution at for magic, how occa Faustina, 222; associates Commodus sioned, 243, note ; sedition at, against in the empire, ib. ; distress from the Theodosius, 389; his sentence, 390 ; German conspiracy, 370, note; his grants the city a free pardon, ib.; supposed edict, and treatment of the taken and burnt by Nushirvan, v. Christians, ii. 256; Gibbon’s ac190; great earthquake at, 252 ; count corrected, ib. note M.; his taken by Chosroes II., 392; taken reign the most fatal to the Christians, by the Saracens under Abu Obe ib. idah, vi. 322 ; degraded to a provin ANTONINUS, name of Geta and Caracial town, 323; date of its capture, calla, i. 265. ib. note and note S. ; recovered by ANTONINUS, name of Elagabalus, i. 279 : Nicephorus Phocas, 426 and note S.; v. Elagabalus. betrayed to sultan Soliman, vii. 170; ANTONINUS, Arrius, executed, i. 228. taken by the crusaders, 215; state ANTONINUS, proconsul of Asis, his reof, at that time, 216 ; gates, ib. and mark to the Christians who sought note S.; princes of, disclaim the su martyrdom, ii. 252. premacy of the kings of Jerusalem, ANTONINUS, minister of Sapor, opposes 230 and note S. ; occupied and ruined peace with the Romans, ii. 405. by the sultan Bondocar, 275.
ANTONIUS, L., revolt of, i. 211, note. ANTIOCHUS, restores Chosroes to the ANTONY, St., and his monks, announce throne of Armenia, ii. 369.
the sanctity of Athanasius to the ANTIOCHUS, proconsul of Greece, under Alexandrians, iii. 82, note; founder Acadius, iv. 24.
of monasticism, history of, iv. 306. ANTI-TRIBONIANS, origin of that legal ANTONY, Mark, presents the library sect, v. 258, note.
of Pergamus to Cleopatra, iii. 417, ANTONINA, wife of Belisarius, assists note.
Theodora in her plot against John of ANTRUSTION, rank of, among the Franks, Cappadocia, v. 70; birth and cha iv. 367 and note ; fine for the murder racter, 101; reproaches pope Sylve
of, 368. rius for his treachery, 144; her bold ANULINUS, prefect, murdered, i. 320. ness and activity, 146; her secret ANULINUS, prætorian prefect, declares history, 157; connection with Theo for Maxentius, ii. 115. dosius, 158; surprised with her lover ANULINUS, master of Diocletian, ii. 64. by Belisarius, ib.; persecutes her son APAMEA, or_Corna, junction of the Photius, 159 ; who persuades Beli Tigris and Euphrates at, iii. 194, note. sarius to punish her, ib.; procures AFER, Arrius, prætorian prefect, ii. 61 ; an ignominious pardon for Belisarius, killed by Diocletian for the imputed 162; prevents the marriage of her murder of Numerian, 62; pun condaughter Joannina with Anastasius, cerning, 63, note. nephew of Theodora, 227 ; founds a APHARBAN, ambassador of Narses to convent, 246.
Galerius, ii. 85. ANTONINES, the, found a school at APHDAL, sultan, restores the authority
Athens, i. 194, note; adoption of of the Fatimite caliphs in Palestine, the, 214 ; assigned salaries to the vii. 223 and note. Athenian professors, v. 91 ; favoured APOCALYPSE, the, tacitly rejected by all the sects equally, 92.
the council of Laodicea, ii. 175, note ; ANTONINUS Pius, wall of in Scotland, causes of its present reception, ib.;
i. 141 ; policy, 144 sq.; reign and Wetstein's interpretation of, 16. note character, 215; Gibbon's mistakes M.; why rejected by the Alogians, respecting, ib. note W.
APOCAUCUS. APOCAUCUS, great duke or admiral,
ccnspires against John Cantacuzene,
vii. 397; massacred, 400. APOLLINARIS, son of Sidonius, killed at
the battle between Clovis and Alaric
II., iv. 360. APOLLINARIS, bishop of Laodicea, his
doctrine of the divine incarnation, vi. 9; account of, ib.; his heresy con
demned, 10. APOLLINARIS, his forcible elevation to
the patriarchate of Alexandria, vi.
60; his massacres, ib. APOLLONIATES, lake, i. 399. APOLLONIUS, ambassador of Marcian to
Attila, firm and courageous conduct
of, iv. 220. APOLLONIUS of Tyana, ii. 22 and note. APOLOGISTS, early Christian, relied too
much on prophecy, ii. 218; which
they misused and adulterated, ib. A POSTATES, Christian, their numbers
small, ii. 254, note G.; the penitent,
how treated, 254 and note, APOSTLES declined the office of legisla
tion, ii. 190; whether they suffered martyrdom, 232 and note ; influence
of their relics at Rome, v. 357. APPARITORS, what, ii. 313. APSIMAR deposes Leontius and ascends
the throne, vi. 78; executed by Jus
tinian II., 79. APULIA conquered by the Normans,
vii. 105; counts of, 106. AQUEDUCTS, Roman, i. 185; v. 21 and
note M. AQUILEIA besieged by Maximin, i. 319 ;
by Jovinus, general of Julian, iii. 119; taken and destroyed by Attila, iv. 240, 241 ; name applied to Forum
Julia, il, note. AQUITAIN, Gallic province, i. 156; oc
cupied by the Goths, iv. 128; described, ib. ; increased by the addition of Septimania, ib. and note S.; conquered by the Franks, 360; revolt of, punished by Charlemagne, vi.
173. AQUYRION, palace of Constantine, his
death at, ii. 363. ARABIA, daughter of Justin II., mar
ried to Baduarius, superintendent of
the palace, v. 341. ARABIA, attempted reduction of, i.
138 ; coasts of ravaged by Trajan, 143; part of, made a Roman province, ib. note 8.; cnlorged by Severus, ib. ;
ARABS. description of, vi. 195; best WOTES on the ancient geography and anteMahometan history of, 196, note S.; division of, into the Sandy, Stony, and Happy, 197; borses of, 199; cities, 200; Roman province of, 202 and note ; jurisdiction of the Turks in, 203; religious sects settled in, 214; subdued by Mahomet, 254 ; Christians not excluded from, ib. note ; one of the provinces of Syria,
called Arabia by the Romans, 303. Arabic of the Koran taught as a dead
language at Mecca, vi. 373. ARABS, condition of, under the Roman
empire, i. 161; assist the Romans against the Persians, ii. 370; their predatory life, ib. note; their friendship cultivated by Valens, iii. 339, notes; often fought naked, ib. ; prophecy of their perpetual independence discussed, v. 364 and note M.; vi, 202 and note ; their military virtucs, 203; domestic freedom and character, 204 ; oratory, 205; their singular views as descendants of the outlaw Ismael, 206; robberies, ib. ; civil wars and private revenge, 207; annual truce, ib.; language and alphabet, 208 ; proverbs, ib. notes ; love of poetry, 209; hospitality and generosity, ib.; eramples of, ib. ; religion, 210; human sacrifices, 213 and note S. ; Jewish rites, ib. ; accepted the Old Testament, 216 ; incontinence of the, 266 ; sovereignty of the, how lost, 284; union of the, 285; military tactics, 292; their conquests of Persia under the caliphs Omar and Othman, 296; of Transoxiana, 299 ; invade and conquer Syria, 300-325; their estimation of monks, 302 and notes M. and S. ; further conquests after that of Syria, 326; naval exploits, 327 ; invade Egypt, 329; invade Africa, 342; convert and adopt the Moors, 353; ravage the coasts of Andalusia, ib. ; invade Spain, 355 ; date, 356 and note ; prosperity of Spain under the, 364 ; limits of their conquests, 374 ; besiege Constantinople, ib.; second siege of Constantinople by, and destruction of their fleet, 378380; invade France, 384 ; conquesta in, 386, note S.; expelled from, 389 and note S.; introduction of learning
ARAFIC. among, 398; libraries, 400; real progress in the sciences, ib. ; want of erudition and taste, 403; take Sicily, 408; invade Italy, 409; threaten Rome, 410; their military
character and tactics, vii. 32. ARARIC, king of the Goths, passes the
Danube, ii. 360. ARAXES, river, described, v. 402, note
(v. Aboras) ARBALIST, or cross-bow, unknown to
the Orientals, vii. 213 and note. ABBELA, chariots at the battle of, i. 344,
note. ARBETIO, veteran general of Constan
tine, opposes the revolted Procopius,
iii. 241. ARBETIO, general of Julian, presides as
a judge at Chalcedon, iii. 126. ABBOGASTES, the Frank, becomes ge
neral of Theodosius, iii. 384 ; puts Victor, son of Maximus, to death, 385 ; created master-general in Gaul, 397 ; his ambition, ib.; shuts up Valeptinian in the palace of Vienna, ib.; puts him to death, 398 ; bestows the purple on Eugenius, ib.; defeat by Theodosius and suicide,
402 ; a pagan, ib. note M. ARCADIUS, son of Theodosius, raised
to the purple, iii. 364 ; succeeds to the empire of the East, iv. 1; marries Eudoxia, daughter of Bauto, the Frank, 8; encourages the revolt of Gildo, the Moor, 16; pomp and luxury of the court of Arcadius, 136; governed by Eutropius, 138; unjust law against treason, 142; condemns Eutropius at the demand of Tribigild and persuasion of Eudoxia, 146; base submission to the rebels Gainas and Tribigild, 148; death, 158; supposed testament, 159 ; column of, at Constantinople, vii. 325,
note. Arch of Constantine, how constructed,
ii. 134 ; inscription on, iii. 15. ARCHEBY, how esteemed by the an
cients, v. 102 and note. ARCHILOCHIUS, bishop of Iconium, his
interview with Theodosius and practical argument against Arianism, iii.
364. ARCHIPELAGO, etymology of the name,
vii. 6. ABCHITECTURE, Roman, its magnificence
sbown by existing ruins, i, 181;
note M. ARDABURIUS leads an army against the
usurper John, iv. 172 ; carried prisoner into Ravenna, 173; successful
conspiracy against John, ib. ARDARIC, king of the Gepidæ, victory
over the Huns, iv. 247 ; occupies the palace of Attila and country of Dacia,
248. AREOBINDUS, exarch of Justinian, killed
at Carthage by Gontharis, v. 212. ARETHAS, chief of the Arab tribe Gassan,
supported by the Romans in his dispute with Almondar, v. 188; his intractable spirit when in the service
of Belisarius, 192. ARETHAS, St., prince of Negra, mar
tyrdom of, v. 207, notes. ARETHUBA, or Restan, its site and foun
dation, iii. 166, note. ARETINUS, Leonardus Brunus, account
of, viii. 255, note. ARGENTARIA (or Colmar), battle of, iii.
332; site, ib. note. ARGYRUS, officer of Constantine Mono
machus, transactions with the Nor
mans, vii. 108. ARIADNE, daughter of Leo and Verina,
gives her hand and empire to Anas
tasius, v. 5. ARIANISM communicated to the barba
rians by Ulphilas, iv. 327; their
conversion from, 337, 340. ARIANS, proscribed throughout the East
by Theodosius, iii. 369; why less firm in adversity than the orthodox
party, ib. ARII, tribe of the, described, ii. 44. ARINTHÆUS, Julian's general of horse,
iii. 192. ARINTHEUS, general of Valens, his ex
traordinary beauty, strength, and valour, üi. 241 and note; distin. guishes himself against Procopius, ib. ; commands against the Goths,
285. ARIOVISTUS, seizes two-thirds of the
land of the Sequani for himself and
followers, iv. 371. ARISTIDES, philosopher and Christian,
ii. 215. ARISTOBULOS, minister of Carus and
Diocletian, ii. 65. ARISTOTLE, philosophy of, adopted by
the Arabians, vi. 400 ; character of his dialectics, 401; studied by the