Latins in a corrupt version, vii.

ARIU8, character of, iii. 53 and note ;

trial and excommunication, ib.; his
numerous party, ib.; origin of his
heresy, ib. note; decision on, referred
to the council of Nice, 54 ; his sen-
timents respecting the Trinity and
Logos, ib. ; assumed moderation of
his followers, 56; eighteen sects of,
58; tenets of the three principal, 59,
sq.; dissemination of Arianism in the
East, 61 ; Constantine's letter to
Arius and Alexander, 63; Arius
banished by Constantine, 64; his sect
branded with the name of Porphy-
rians, ib. ; recalled with honour, 65 ;
sudden and horrible death, ib. and
note ; first introduced sacred music,
88, note M.; prevalence of his sect

in the East under Valens, 250.
ARIUS, paternal severity of, v. 293.
ABLES, council of, iii. 39, 78; annual

assembly of the seven provinces of
Gaul at, iv. 134; taken by Ab-

derame, vi. 386.
ARMENIA, a Roman province, i. 143 ;

conquered by the Persians, 403 ; its
state under the Persians, ii. 79; re-
volt, ib. ; nobles of, 80 ; recovered by
the Persians, 82 ; by the Romans, 88;
when christianized, 213; the first
nation that embraced Christianity,
ib. note M., 368 and note M. (cf.
ii. 24, note M.); Christian priests
expelled after the death of Tiridates,
368 ; polytheists of, invite Sapor, ib.;
Chosroes restored to the throne, 369;
made tributary to Persia, ib. ; its
history after Tiridates, ib. note M. ;
Romans compelled to abandon, by the
treaty of Dura, 220; reduced to
a Persian province by Sapor, 278;
restored to an independent neutrality,
280; divided between the Romans
and Persians, Iv. 168; date, ib. note
M. ; languages used in, and invention
of an Armenian alphabet, ib. note ;
Western Armenia made subject to the
Romans on the death of Arsaces, ib.;
acknowledges Chosroes, 169; further
revolutions, ib. and note M. ; reduced
to a Persian province, 170; new di-
vision with the Romans, ib. ; con-
quered by the Mongols, viii. 13 and

sote M,
ARMENIANS, schism of the, vi. 57 and

note; adopt the Eutychian heresy,

58; present state of their church, ib.
ARMENTARIUS, surname of Galerius,

ii. 67.
ARMORICA, its independence confirmed

by Honorius, iv. 131 ; revolutions
and form of government, ib. and
note M.; united to the kingdom of
Clovis, 353 ; British settlement in,
391 and note S.; western part
called Cornwall and Lesser Britain
(Bretagni), 392 and note S.; formed

a powerful state, 432.
ARMOUR, use of, abandoned by the

Roman infantry, iii. 405.
Arms of the Roman soldiers, i. 149.
Army, Roman, numbers under Hadrian

and his successors, i. 153; how posted,
ib. ; how governed by Augustus, 210;
obedience of, and exceptions, 211;
the latter understated by Gibbon, ib.
note W. ; licence of, how encouraged,
212, 259 ; how regulated and sta-
tioned by Constantine, ii. 319; per-
nicious distinction in, 321 ; numbers
of, under the successors of Constan-
tine, 323 ; slaves admitted into, ib.;
constitution of under Constantine,
ib.; Gibbon's view corrected, 324,
note S.; mutilation to escape service
in, 324 ; heavy fines on recusants,
ib.; vcrease of barbarian auxiliaries,

Arnold of Brescia, his theological stu-

dies under Abelard, viii. 195; dis-
putes the temporal power of priests,
ib.; condemned in the council of the
Lateran, ib.; flies to Zurich, 196 ;
effects a revolution at Rome, 197;

reign, ib.; burnt, ib.
ARNULPH, duke of Moravia, checks the

progress of the Hungarians, vii. 75.
AROMATICS, use of, i. 192 and notes

W. and M.
ARPAD, king of the Hungarians, vii.

71; royal Hungarian house of, 80.
ARRAGON, name whence derived, i. 155,

ARRECHIS, duke of Benevento de pre-

serves his territory from the arms of

Charlemagne, vi. 174.
ARRIAN, his description of the Euxine,

v. 198.
ARSACES Tiranus, king of Armenia,

account of, ii. 370, note M.; charac-
ter, iii. 189; refuses to assist Julian
against the Persians, ib.; chronology

of his rolgo, ib. note S. ; his treachery,
205; imprisonment of by Sapor,
and death, 278; another version of
his catastrophe by M. St. Martin, ib.

note M.
ARBACES, reigns in Western Armenia as

vassal of Arcadius, iv. 168.
ARBACIDES of Armenia, deification of

the, ii. 79; degraded from the royal
dignity, iv. 169; duration of their

dynasty, 170 and note S.
ARSENITES, schism of the, at Constan-

tinople, vii. 371.
ABSENIUS, bishop, Athanasius falsely

charged with the murder of, iii. 72.
ARBENIUS, tutor of Arcadius, iv. 7.
ARSENIUS, patriarch of Nice, guardian

of the infant emperor John Lascaris,
vii. 361 ; becomes patriarch of Con-
stantinople, 369 ; excommunicates
the emperor Michael Palæologus, ib.;
banishment and death, 370; nature

of the charges against, ib. note M.
AKTABAN, king of Parthia, defealed by

Artaxerxes, i. 331.
ARTABAN, an Armenian prince, stabs

the usurper Gontharis, and re-esta-
blishes the Roman dominion at Car-
thage, v. 212 and note ; con res
against Justinian, 226; detected and
pardoned, ib.; appointed to command

an expedition against Sicily, 229.
ARTABANUS, Armenian prince, retires

to the court of Leo I. of Constanti-
nople, vi. 96; history of his de-

scendants, ib.
ARTABAZUS, a Persian in the service of

Justinian, occupies Verona, v. 215;

killed, ib.
ARTASIRES (Ardaschir), successor of

Chosroes, deposed from the throne
of Armenia by Babran, king of Per-

sia, 169.
ABTAVASDES appointed commander do

the Armenian army, ii. 80.
ARTAVASDE8 seizes the Byzantine

throne on the death of Leo III., and

Asia, 343; whether defeated by Al.
Severus, 344 and note S.; his an-
daunted resolution, 345; reign, cha-
racter, and maxims, 346; code, ib,

and note.
ABTAXERXES succeeds Sapor in Persia,

iii. 280, note.
ARTEMIUS, duke of Egypt, executed at

Antioch, iii. 127; his character, ib.

ARTEMON, followers of described, ii.

ARTEMITA, residence of Chosroes II.,

v. Dastagerd.
ARTHUR, king, exploits against the

Saxons, iv. 393 ; traditions respect-
ing, gradually embellished, ib.;
round table, ib. ; Greek poem Te-

specting, ib. note S.
ARTILLERY, Roman, i. 152.
ARTois, count of, brother of Louis IX.,

storms Massoura, vii. 272; slain, 273.
ABTOGEBAB8A, siege of, by Sapor, and

brave defence of the consort of Ar-

saces Tiranus, iii. 278 and note M.
Abts, decline of, under Diocletian, ii.

103; in the age of Constantine, 134.
ABVANDUB, prætorian præfect in Gaul,

trial of, iv. 288 sq.
ABZANENE, province of, ii. 87 and

ARZEMA (or Buran), queen of Persia,

deposed, vi. 291 and note S.
As, Roman, weight and value of the, v.

Asan, Bulgarian chief, excites a revolt

from Isaac Angelus, vii. 286.
Asatys of the Ancients,' Mahomet

charged with taking his doctrines

from the, vi. 224, note S.
Asbad, the Gepid, slays Totila, v. 234 ;

killed, ib.
ASCALON, battle of, between the Cru-

saders and Fatamites, vii. 229.
" ASCENSIO IBalx,' when written, vi. 3,

note M.
ASCETICS, Christian, ii. 187; in second

associates his post to I sentury

, 188, note ; account of, iv.

S.; put

stantine Copronymus, ib.; restores ASCLEPIODATUS, general of Probus, ii.
image-worship, 143.

ARTAXERIES (Ardshir) restores the ASCLEFIODOTUS, defeats Allectus in

Persian monarchy, i. 331 ; date, ib. Britain, ii. 73.
note ; incorrectly charged with into ASGARD, residence of Odin, 1. 377.
lerance, 339, note M.; establishes A8AXB, or“ Companions” of Mahomet,
his authority, ib.; ambition, 340, vi. 237, note S.
313; commands the Ronjans to leave Asia, Roman provinces in, i. 160 ; pro
Vab. VII.

ASIA MINOR, vince of, ib.; boundary of Asia and Africa, 161; revolutions of, 330; how accounted for by Montesquieu, iii. 299, note; nomadic tribes of, described, 302, note S.; seven churches

of, ruined by the Turks, vii. 24. Asia Minor conquered by Chosroes II.,

v. 393; by the Turks, vii. 168. ASIARCH, office of, ii. 205, note. Asiatic tribute, raised by Pompey, i.

295; Plutarch's statement examined,

ib, note S. ASIATICS, ignorant of the art and genius

of history, vi. 290. Asinius QUADRATUs, his account of the

Alemanni, i. 393, notes. ASPACURAS, vassal of Sauromaces, made

king of the Iberians by Sapor, iii. 278. ASPAR, son of Ardaburius, assists his

father in reducing the usurper John, and restoring Placidia, iv. 173; goes to the assistance of count Boniface in Africa, 183; refuses the eastern empire from religious motives, 278; recommends his steward, Leo of Thrace, as emperor, 279 ; murdered

by him, v. 3. ASPER, Turkish coin, its value, viii.

71, note and note M. Assassins, or Ismaelians, account of,

viii. 12 and notes ; extirpated by Holagou, khan of the Mongols, ib.;

histories of, ib, and note M. ASSEMBLIES of the people abolished by

the Roman emperors, i. 205. ASSYRIA, Roman province of, i. 143;

described, iii. 194 ; assumes the name of Adiabene, ib. note ; canals, 195 ; fertility, ib. and 208, note : revenue, 196 and note ; invaded by Julian, 196; conquered by the Arabian

caliph Omar, vi, 293. Asta besieged by Alaric, iv. 35. ASTARTE, name of the moon, i. 282

and note S. ; image brought to Rome, ASTERIUS, count, marches against the

Vandals in Spain, iv. 177. ASTINGI, an illustrious Vandal race, ii.

359. ASTOLPHUS, king of the Lombards,

takes Ravenna, and finally expels the exarchs, vi. 153; threatens

Rome, 155 ; defeated by Pepin, 16. ASTROLOGY, belief of the Romans in,

iv. 83; professed by the Arabian astronomers, vi. 401,

ATHANASIUS, ST. ASTRONOMY encouraged by the caliph

Almamon and his successors, vi. 101. ASTURIANS, i. 156. ATABEKS, Turkish tribe of Syria, vii.

249. ATAULPH, the Goth, his marriage with

Placidia, i. 367, note G. ATAALARIC, son of Amalasontha, ap

pointed king of Italy by the testament of his grandfather Theodoric, v. 34; his education and character,

127 ; death, ab. ATHANARIC, judge of the Visigoths,

lends the Goths against Valens, iii. 285 ; defeated, 286; interview and trcaty with Valens on the Danube, ib.; defeated by the Huns on the Dniester, 318; retires into Caucaland, ib. ; reappears among the Goths, 349; visits Theodosius at Constantinople, 350; death and funeral, ib.; persecuted the Christian Goths, iv.

323. ATHANASIUS, St., acts of spiritual

power, iii. 36 ; unable to comprehend the divinity of the Logos, 50; hatred of the Arians, 58; defended the S&bellianism of Marcellus, ib. ; deposed and banished by Constantine, 65; account of the death of Arius, ib. note; character and adventures of, 69, 899. ; zeal for the Catholic doctrine of the Trinity, ib.; defective biographies of, ib, note ; skill in divination, 70 and note; irregularity of his election, 71 and note ; popularity, 71; resists Constantine, ib.; charges against him, 72; summoned to appear before the council of Tyre, ib. ; brings Arsenius thither, whom he had been accused of murdering, ib. ; interview with Constantine, 73 ; charged with intercepting ine comfleet, ib.; first exile to Trèves, 74 ; restored by Constantine II., ib.; again deposed and exiled by the council of Antioch, ib. ; residence at Rome, ib, and note ; acquitted by the Italian bishops, 75; summoned to Milan by Constans, ib. ; acquitted by the Latin prelates at the council of Sardica, ib.; restored by Core stantius on the demand of Constans, 76; interview with Constantius at Antioch, ib.; enters Alexandria in triumph, 77; arraigned in the courcils of Arles and Milan, 78; seal

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ATHANASIUS. and arguments of his friends, 79; condemned and deposed, 80; third expulsion from Alexandria, 82 ; intrepid behaviour, 84; disappears for six years, ib. ; sheltered by the monks of the Thebais, 85; various adventures, 86; invectives against Constantius, 87; restoration, 174 ; again expelled by Julian, 175; again retires to the desert, 176; Jovian's excessive admiration for him, 229; restored, ib. ; date of his death, ib. note ; assumed fifth exile, and death, 251; introduced monasticism at Rome, iv. 308; not the author of

the famous creed, 335, note. İThanasios, patriarch of Constanti

nople, secretly anathematiscs Andronicus the Elder, Palæologus, vii.

388; recall and second retirement, 389. ATHELSTAN subdues Cornwall, iv. 391,

note. ATHENAIB, daugliter of the Athenian

sophist Leontius, history of, iv. 164; marries Theodosius the Younger, ib.; assumes the Christian name of Eu

docia, ib. (v. Eudocia). ATHENIANS, fleet of the, ii. 146, note. ATHENS, number of citizens, i. 170,

371, note; sack of, by the Goths, 402; taken by Alaric, iv. 25; walls of, restored by Justinian, v. 80 ; schools of, their history, 89; professors, how paid, 91; Hadrian's library at, ib. ; fatal influence of Christianity upon the schools, 92; they are suppressed by Justinian, 93; city assigned to Otho de la Roche, with the title of Grand Sire, vii. 384; succession of the Latin sovereigns of, and origin of the title of Duke, 385, note S.; conquered by the Catalans, 386 ; an appanage of the kings of Sicily, ib.; subject to the Accaioli, ib.; present state of, ib.; modern Greek" dialect of, 387

and note. ATKOB, mount, absurd tenets of the

monks of, vii. 404. ATHRAVA, name of the Persian priests

in the Zendavesta, i. 337, note S. ATLAS, mount, described, i. 162 an./

note. ATMEIDAN, or ancient Hippodrome of

Constantinople, ii. 297. ATROPATENE, province, restored to

Persis by the Armenians, ii. 369.

ATTILA. Atsiz, the Carizmian, lieutenant of

Malek Shah, his conquests in Syria,

vii. 176. ATTACOTTI, Caledonian tribe of, ac

cused of cannibalism, iii. 270; akin

to the Scoti, ib, note S. Attalus, præfect of Rome, made em

peror by Alaric, iv. 98 ; character, 99; negociations with Honorius, and insolence, ib.; ill success of his African armainent, 100; betrayed by Jovius, 101; ignominiously deposed by Alaric, ib. ; leads the chorus at the wedding of Adolphus, 115 ; ambassador between Adolphus and Jovinus, 122; abandoned by Adolphus, 123; mutilated and banished

to Lipari by Honorius, ib. ATTALUS of Auvergne, adventures of,

iv, 378. ATTICA ravaged by Alaric, iv, 26. ATTILA (Etzei), king of the Huns, the

hero of the Nibeiungen Lied, iv. 191, note S.; dictates andlitions of peace to Theodosius the Younger, 193; etymology of his name, ib. note S.; his genealogy, person, and character, 194 ; discovers the sword of Mars, 195; puts his brother and colleague Bleda to death, ib.; conquers Scythia and Germany, 196 ; his power overstated by Gibbon, 197, note S. ; alliance with Genseric and invasion of the Eastern empire, 199 ; defcars the Romans on the Utus, 200; at Marcianopolis, ib. ; in the Chersonesus, ib.; ravages Thrace and Macedonia, ib. ; dictates a peace to Theodosius the Younger, 205 ; insulting embassies, 207 sq.; contemptuous reception of Maximin, 210; royal village and palace of Attila, 211; site, 212 and note M.; simple way of life, 213; behaviour to the Roman ambassadors, ib.; marries Escam, 214 and note M.; progress to, and residence at, the royal village, ib. ; banquet, 215; sends Eslaw and Orestes to reprimand Theodosius for his attempt to assassinate him, 217; pardons the culprits and concludes an advantage ous treaty, 218; insolent message to the courts of Ravenna and Constantinople, 220; declares himself the lover of the princess Elonoria, 229; is refused her hand, 230; ina


ATTUARII. vades Gaul, 231 ; besieges Orleans, 232; retires to Châlons on the approach of Aëtius and Theodoric, 234 ; address to his troops, 235; a fatalist, ib.; defeated, 237; retires across the Rhine, 239; repeats bis demand for Honoria, ib.; invades Italy, ib.; takes Aquileia, 240; ravages Lombardy, 241; site of his encampment, 245 and note; receives an embassy from Valentinian III., ib.; grants a peace on receiving the dowry of Honoria, ib.; marries Ildico, 246;

death, ib. ; funeral, 247. ATTUARII, Frankish tribe, subdued by

Julian, iii. 110. Arys and CYBELE, story of, allegorized

by Julian, iji. 140; excellence of

Catullus' poem on, ib. note. Auctions, tax on, i. 299. AUGURS, their functions, iii. 407 ; office

of, coveted by the most illustrious

Romans, 408.
AUGUSTAN history, why silent

specting the Christians, ii. 230,

note M. AUGUSTI and Cæsars, relative powers,

ii. 67, note M., 96. AUGUSTIN, St., a Manichæan, ii. 164,

note ; sentiments on persecution, iii. 423, notes ; account of the prodigies performed by the relics of St. Stephen, 430; character of his work `De Civitate Dei,' ib. note ; account of the defeat of Radagaisus, iv.48; his ‘City of God' occasioned by the sack of Rone by Alaric, 103; sentiments on persecution, 179 and note ; death at Hippo, 182; character, ib.; library, ib.; learning and genius, 183; theological system, ib.; compared with Calvin's, ib. note ; history of his

relics, v, 114, note, AUGUSTULUS made emperor of the West

by his father Orestes, iv. 296; compelled to resign by Odoacer, 299; his name of Romulus, 300; banished to

the castle of Lucullus, in Campania, AUGUSTUS, his moderation, i. 138;

testament, 139 ; recovers the standard of Crassus, ib.; his policy pursued by Hadrian and the Antonines, 145; situation of, after the battle of Actium, 196; reforms the senate, 197; affects to resign supreme power, 198; nominated emperor, ib.; divides

AUREUS. the provinces with the senate, 201 ; retains the military command and numerous guards at Rome, 202 ; also the consular and tribunician offices, ib.; is made supreme pontiff and censor, 204 ; but the latter under an altered title, ib. note 8. : institutes the Consilium, 206, note S.; his origin and family, 208; character and policy, 209; retained the image of liberty, ib. ; his fear of the army, 210; restores the ancient discipline, 211 and note ; adopts Tiberius, 212; his Rationarium or Register, 295 and note W.; taxes introduced by, 298 sq.; orders sacrifices at Jerusalem, ii. 153; his moderation in the use of wine, iv, 85, note; his ostentatious

modesty, vi. 194. Augustus, that title explained, i. 208;

implied something divine, ib. note S. AURASIUS, mount, in Numidia, be

sieged by Solomon the eunuch, v.

123. AURELIAN recommended by Claudius

as his successor, ii. 8; origin and services, 9; heroic valour, ib. note ; adopted by Ulpius Crinitus, 10; successful reign, ib. ; severe discipline, ib.; treaty with the Goths, 11 ; relinquishes Dacia to them, 12; defeats the Alemanni, 13; finally vanquishes them, 15; fortifies Rome, 16; extent of his walls, 17 and note S. ; tranquillizes Gaul, 19; expedition against Zenobia, 22 ; defeats her, 23; besieges Palmyra, 24 ; treatment of the captive Zenobia, 25; puts Longinus to death, 26 ; suppresses the rebellion of Firmus in Egypt, ib. ; triumph, 27; magnificence, 29; suppresses a sedition at Rome, 30; cruelty, 31 ; expedition into the East, 32; assassinated, ib.; whether he persecuted the Christians, 261, note G.; his design of vineyards along the coast of Etruria, iv. 85 and

note. AURENGZEBE, camp of, i. 341, note ;

last of the Great Moguls who re

tained their entire empire, viii. 66. AUREOLUS elected emperor, ii. 1; de

feated and besieged at Milan, 2; attempts to negociate with Claudius,

4; executed, ib. AUREUS, value of that coin under Con

stantine, ii. 338, notes.


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