AusonIUs, tutor of Gratian, controversy as to his religion, iii. 356 and note S., iv. 110, note; promotion of, 357, note. AUTHARIs, son of Clepho, elected king of the Iombards, v. 347; recovers the greater part of Italy from the Franks and Greeks, 348; his adventurous gallantry and marriage with Theodelinda, daughter of the king of Bavaria, 353; death, ib. AUTUN stormed by the Gallic legions, ii. 19. Auvergne, Gallic province, descriptio and revolutions of, iv. 376. AUXILIARIES, how composed and emÉ. i. 151; ill effects of in the oman armies, 368; barbarian, increase of, under Constantine, ii. 324. AUXIMUM, v. Osimo. AvARs subdued by the Turks, v. 176; were a Turkish stock, ib. note S.; send an embassy to Justinian, 177 ; advance into Poland and Germany, ib.; embassy of the, to Justin II., 331; alliance with the Lombards, 333; defeat the Gepidae, and occupy their country, 334; extend their dominion after the ruin of the Gepidae, 376; perfidious attempt on Heraclius, 397; their alliance with the Persians and attack on Constantinople, 405; repulsed, 406; their country, Pannonia, reduced by Charlemagne, vi. 175. AvERNUs, lake, iv. 79, note. Averboes, Arabian philosopher, opinions of, vi. 404, note. AvebsA, town of, founded for the Normans, vii. 103 and 104, note G. AviceNNA, Arabian physician, vi. 402. Avienus, his embassy to Attila, with Trigetius and Leo, iv. 244. AVIGNON becomes the residence of the popes, viii. 215; Lives of the popes of, ib. note; sovereignty of, purchased from Jane queen of Naples, 216. AVITUs, the senator, embassy to Theodoric, iv. 233; made commander in Gaul by Maximus, 258; his origin and character, 259; villa, ib.; treats with the Visigoths, ib.; proclaimed emperor by the assembly of Arles, 260; fixes his residence at Rome, 263; profligacy and unpopularity, 264; deposed by count Ricimer, ib.; made bishop of Placentia, 265; death,


AviTug, bishop of Vienna, his answer to Gundobald king of the Burgundians, iv. 354. AwsITEs, Arabian tribe of, vi. 243. AxUCH, a Turkish slave, refuses to accept the confiscated fortune of Anna Comnena, vi. 119. AxUM, kings of, iii. 84, note M.; inscription of, v. 207, note M.; residence of the Negus of Abyssinia, 208; ruins of, ib. notes. AxUMITES, v. Abyssinians. AYESHA, daughter of Abubeker and wife of Mahomet, vi. 266; chastity suspected, 267; story of her opposing her father's elevation, 270 and note S.; hatred of Ali and his family, 274 and note S.; assists the rebellion of Telha and Zobeir, ib.; courage in the Day of the Camel, 275; respect and delicacy of Ali towards her, ib, and note M. AYoUBITEs, their descent, vii. 253, note. AYUB, father of Saladin, his prudent and determined conduct, vii. 254. Azimus, or Azimuntium, city of Thrace, alone holds out against the arms of Attila, iv. 206 and notes; its privilege violated by Peter, brother of the emperor Maurice, v. 381. AzYMs, furious debate concerning, between the Greek and Latin churches, vii. 280. AzzADIN, sultan of Iconium, takes refuge at Constantinople from the Mongols, viii. 13. Azzo, marquis of Lombardy, ancestor of the lines of Brunswick and Este, vii. 119, note.


BAALBEc, or Heliopolis, vi. 315; ruins of, described, 316. BABEC, father of Artaxerxes, i. 331, note. BABYLAs, St., bishop of Antioch, corpse of, transferred to the grove of Daphne by Gallus, iii. 169; pompous removal of, by the Christians at the command of Julian, ib. BABYLoN, that name applied to Rome by the early Christians, ii. 175; circumference of, 295, note; converted into a royal park, iii. 195; licentiousness of the women, 199, note.


BAccHANALs at Rome, ii. 210 and 211, note. BAccHUs, temple of, at Alexandria, iii. 418 and note S. BACON, distribution of, at Rome, iv. 84. BADOERI, dukes of Venice, their illustrious descent, v. 341, note. BADUARIUs, superintendent of the palace, marries Arabia daughter of Justin II., v. 341. BAErica, province of Spain, i. 155. BAFINA, queen of the Thuringians, becomes the mother of Clovis, by Childeric, iv. 346. BAGAUDAE, or Gaulish peasants, described, ii. 69 ; etymology of their name, ib. note; rebellion, ib.; quelled by Maximian, 70; their leaders, whether Christians?ib.; sell a free passage over the Alps to the troops of Honorius, iv. 55; confederations of the, in Gaul and Spain, 252. BAGAVAN, mount, ii. 79. BAGDAD founded by the caliph Almansor, vi. 394 and note; etymology of the name, 395, note; site, 395 and note S.; college at, 399; stormed and sacked by the Mongols, viii. 13; pyramid of ninety thousand heads erected at, by Timour, 53. BAHARITEs, Mamaluke dynasty of the, vii. 274 and note. BAHRAM, or Waranes, Persian general, birth, character, and exploits, v. 368; defeated by the Romans, 370; insulted by Hormouz, ib.; rebellion, ib.; defeats and deposes Chosroes, son of Hormouz, 372; usurps the sceptre, 374; defeated by Narses on the Zab, ib.; flight and death, ib. and note M. BAHREIN, district of Persia, vi. 198. BAIAN, chagan of the Avars, his pride and power, v. 376; perfidy, 378; takes Sirmium, ib.; razes Singidunum, 379; generosity, ib.; extent of his dominion, ib. BAIKAL, lake, described, iii. 308 and notes. BAJAzET I., sultan, son and successor of Amurath I., surnamed “Ilderim,” or “the Lightning,” viii.30; first of his family who assumed the title of sultan, ib. note S.; his conquests from the Euphrates to the Danube, 31; character and administration, ib. ; doseats Sigismund king of Hungary, 32;


puts the French prisoners to death, 33 and note M.; his hunting and hawking, 35; answer to the letter of Timour, 50; styled kaissar of Roum, 51; defeated by Timour at Angora, 54; made prisoner, 55. story of his iron cage, 56; death, 57; testimonies as to his harsh treatment by Timour, 58, 59; probable conclusion, 59; Von Hammer's explanation, 60, note M.; civil wars of his sons, 66. BAJAZET II., sultan, facilitates Lascaris' search for Greek MSS., viii. 117, quote. BALBATUs (v. Wabalathus). BALBINUs elected emperor with Maximus, i. 316; character, ib. (v. Maximus). BALBUs, Cornelius, family and rise of, i. 316, note. BALDw1N, count of Flanders, a leader in the fourth crusade, vii. 290; elected emperor of the East, 321; his government, 322; defeated and captured by the Comans and Bulgarians, 330 ; death, 331 and note. BALDw1N II., emperor of Constantinople, vii. 339; his misfortunes and mendicancy, 340; visits to England, ib.; disgraceful alliance with the Turks and Comans, 341; sale of relics to St. Louis, 342; escapes to Italy on the taking of Constantinople by the Greeks, 346. BALDwix, brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, his quarrel with Tancred, vii. 214 and note S.; adopted by the governor of Edessa, 215 and note S.; seizes that city and founds a principality, ib.; becomes king of Jerusalem, 230. BALDw1N II., king of Jerusalem, vii. 256. BALDw1N III., king of Jerusalem, vii. 256. Baldwin IV., king of Jerusalem, vii. 257. BALTHA OGL1, admiral of Mahomet II., punishment of his defeat, viii. 163. BALT1, or Balthae, family of Alaric, etymology of the name, iv. 24 and note S. DALT1c sea, i. 350, notes; subsidence of the, knowledge of, how acquired by the Romans, iii.203, nota


BALUze, character of his ‘Lives of the Popes of Avignon, viii. 215, note. BAMBYok, a name of Hierapolis, iii. 188, note S. BANCHoR, monastery of, iv. 309. BAPTIsis, ancient theory and practice of, iii. 21; deathbed, how regarded by the fathers, ib. note. BARADAEUs, James, monk, revives and gives the name of Jacobites to the sect of Monophysites, vi. 54. BARBARLANs introduced into the army by Probus, ii. 47; their mutual dissensions fomented by Diocletian, 74; he distributes the vanquished among the Roman provinces, 75; conversion of the, iii. 24, iv. 322, 324 ; its effects, 326; imbibed Arianism, 327; converted from that heresy, 337; laws of the, 364 sq.; best collection of, 366, note M. BARBARY, derivation of the name of that country, vi. 351, note; Moors of, become Mahometans, 353. BARBATIo, general, receives Gallus at Petorio, ii. 393; marches to the assistance of Julian in Gaul, 416; treachery and retreat of, ib. BARCHOCHEBAs rebels against Hadrian, ii. 222. BarcLAY, his ‘Apology for the Quakers,’ ii. 188, note. BARDANEs assumes the purple and the name of Philippicus, vi. 80; deposed, 80; prediction of an Asiatic prophet to, 89. BARDAs, uncle of Michael III., a protector of letters, vii. 39; his school at Magnaura, 40. BARDAs murdered by his uncle, the emperor Michael III., vi. 197. BARDs, Welsh, their legends neglected, iv. 392 and note S.; protected by the laws of queen Elizabeth, 398; account of the, ib. BARGUs accuses his patron Timasius, iv. 141. BARHAM, or Baharam, v. Varanes. BABI, conquest of, by the Greeks and Latins, vii. 97 ; unsuccessful attempts of the German emperors on, 99; besieged by Robert Guiscard, 114. BARLAAM, Calabrian monk, attacks and ridicules the monks of mount Athos respecting the light of mount Thabor, vii. 405; apostacy and flight, 406;


ambassador from Andronicus Palaeologus the Younger to pope Benedict XII., viii. 77; his instructions, 78; his learning and lectures on Homer, 108; connection with Petrarch, ib.; made a bishop in Calabria, 109. BARMECIDEs extirpated by Harun al Rashid, vi. 405; probable motives of that act, ib. note S. BARONCELLI, tribune of Rome, viii. 245. BARSUMAs, chief of the monks, votes at the second council of Ephesus, vi. 25. BARTHoLEMY, Peter, discovers the Holy Lance, vii. 220; submits to a judgment of God, and death, 222 and no'e M. BARTolus, the civilian, a pensioner of Charles IV., vi.193. BASIL I., the Macedonian, emperor of Constantinople, v. 95; not an Arsacid, ib. note S.; early history of, 96; bodily strength, 97; associated in the empire by Michael III., ib.; murders Michael, ib.; wise and glorious reign, 98; publishes the Basilics, 99; death, ib. ; genealogy of his dynasty, 100, note S.; his legal reforms, vii. 45, note S.; reduced by Chrysocheir, the Paulician, to sue for peace, 54; shoots three arrows through Chrysocheir's head, ib. ; alliance with the emperor Lewis II., 97. BASIL II., emperor of Constantinople, vi. 107; reduces the rebels Phocas and Sclerus, ib.; overthrows the Bulgarians, 108; penitence and death, ib.; conquers the Bulgarians, vii. 69; his horrible cruelty towards them, ib. BASIL, archbishop of Caesarea, transactions with Walens, iii. 252; Gibbon's statement respecting, corrected, ib. note S.; account of, 365; his pride, 366; founder of the monasteries of Pontus, iv. 309. BASIL the Great, his canonical epistles, iii. 36, note. BASIL, the monk, founder cf the Gnostic sect of Bogomites, burnt by Alexius Comnenus, vii. 56 and note. BASIL, St., Calabrian monks of, viii. 108 and note. BASIL, council of, proceedings against pope Eugenius IV., viii. 93; city de

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scribed, ib. note; negociations of the council with John II. Palaeologus, 94; council transferred to Ferrara, 95; deposes pope Eugenius IV., 103; dissolved, 104. BASILACIUs, Roman general, defeated by Alp Arslan, vii. 160. BASILICs, code, compiled by order of Basil I., vi. 99; account of, vii. 2, note, 45, note S. BASILIDIANs, a Gnostic sect, ii. 164; declined martyrdom, ib. note. BASILISCUs, brother of the empress Werina, commands an armament against the Wandals, iv. 284; lands at Cape Bona, 285; consents to a truce with Genseric, ib.; who destroys his fleet, ib.; disgraceful flight, 286; proclaimed emperor, v. 4; death, ib. BASILIUs, Roman senator, embassy to Alaric, iv. 92. BASSIANUs, name of Caracalla, i. 264, note. BASSIANUs, name of Elagabalus, i. 278: v. Elagabalus. BAssIANUs made Caesar by Constantine, : 139; conspiracy and execution, 30. BAssoRA, foundation of, under the Arabian Caliph Omar, vi. 293; described, 294; site of modern, ib. note S. BASTARNAE, i. 380; tribes, ib.; whether Germans or Gauls, ib. note S. BATAVIAN horse-guards, i. 239, note. BATAVIANs, how punished by Valentinian for losing their standard, iii. 257. BATHs, public, at Rome, described, iv. 85

BATNAE, Julian's reception at, iii. 187; etymology of the name, ib. note M. Batou, nephew of Octai, Khan of the Mongols, his conquests in Asia and Europe, viii. 14; march on Constantinople, and death, 19. BATTLE, trial by, when abolished in France, vii. 365, note; never abrogated in England, ib. BAvABIA, dukes of, abolished by Charlemagne, vi. 174. BAvARIANs in Pannonia and Noricum, iv. 174; disclaim the sovereignty of the Huns, 193; institutions of, ratified by the Merovingian kings, 365. BAYLE, refutation of St. Augustin on persecution, iv. 180, note.


BELISARIUS. BEARs, favourite of Walentinian I., iii. 246

BEAUsobre, character of his "Histoire Critique du Manichéisme, vi. 2, note.

BECKET, Thomas, constancy of, ii.250, 7vote.

BEDER, battle of, between Mahomet and the Koreishites, vi. 248.

BEDoweens, manners of the, vi. 198. '

BELA, a Hungarian prince, betrothed to a daughter of Manuel Comnenus, vi.


BELA IV., king of Hungary, defeated by Batou and the Mongols, viii. 14; flight, 15. BELENUs, tutelary deity of Aquileia, i. 320; thanked by the senate, ib. note. BELFRY, modern, whence derived, vii. 212, note. BELGAE, i. 157. BELGIC GAUL, province, i. 156. BELGRADE built on the ruins of Singidunum, v. 379. BELISARIUs, his birth, education, and services, v. 99; ‘Life,’ by Lord Mahon, ib. note S.; Von Hammer's etymology of his name, 100, note S.; chosen general for the African war, 101; his guards, ib.; firm discipline, 103 and 106; navigation to Africa, 104; lands at Caput Wada, 105 and note; project of landing at Carthage, 106 and note S.; advances to Grasse, 107; defeats Gelimer, 109; enters Carthage, ib.; his fleet anchors in the bay of Tunis, 110; he restores the fortifications of Carthage, 111 ; second defeat of Gelimer, 113; advances to Hippo Regius, 114; completes the conquest of Africa, ib.; hasty return to Constantinople, 118; his triumph, the first celebrated in that city and by a private general, ib.; consulship, 119; intrusts the command of Africa to the eunuch Solomon, 122; claims Lilybaeum from the Goths, 125; invades Sicily, 129; takes Palermo by a stratagem, ib.; enters Syracuse in triumph, 130; suppresses a rebellion at Carthage with 100 guards, ib. and note M.; invades Italy, 132; takes Naples, 133; his humanity, 184; enters Rome, 136; date, ib. notes; narrow escape from the Goths, 137; defence of Rome against, 188; restores the walls, 139; repulses a


general assault, 141; his vigilance and precautions, 142; uxoriousness, 144; letter to Justinian, 145; reeeives reinforcements, ib.; haughty reception of the Gothic ambassadors, 146; grants a truce, ib.; recovers many Italian cities, ib.; compels Vitiges to raise the siege of Rome, 147; and of Rimini, 148; arbitrary execution of Constantine, governor of Spoleto, 149; firmness during the defection of Narses, 150; takes Urbino, ib.; reduces Osimo, 153; lays siege to Ravenna, ib. ; evades the imprudent treaty sent by Justinian to Vitiges, 154; takes Ravenna by

em, ib.; refuses the kingdom of Italy, 155; 1ecalled by Justinian, ib.; his greatness, popularity, and virtues, 156; duped by his wife Antonina, 158; recalls her lover Theodosius, 159; persuaded by Photius to punish her, ib.; compelled by Theodora to pardon her, 160; second Persian campaign, 161; disgraced, ib.; pardon and mean submission, ib.; accepts the Italian command, 162; account of his Persian campaigns, 191; reception of the Persian ambassadors, 192; hastens the retreat of Chosroes, 193; recalled to the Italian war, ib.; lands at Ravenna, 218; letter to Justinian, 219; returns to Dyrrachium for reinforcements, ib.; sails to the Tiber, 221; forces the barriers of Totila, ib.; the misconduct of his officers obliges him to retreat, ib.; dissuades Totila from destroying Rome, 223; recaptures Rome, and holds it against Totila, 224; campaign in southern Italy and flight to Sicily, 225; final recall, ib. ; made general of the east and count of the domestics, 226; defends Constantinople from the Bulgarians, 244; accused of conspiring against Justinian, 246; disgrace, restoration, and death, ib. ; fortune confiscated, ib.; his beggary an idle fable, ib.; Lord Mahon's opinion on that point examined, 247, note S.; Le Beau's and Finlay's theories respecting the origin of the story, ib.; his reputed statue, ib. BRLLs, use of, when introduced, vi. 304 and note S. BELLONA, temple of, at Comana in Pontus, vii. 51.

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BELUs, tower of, at Babylon, vi. 295, notes. BENDER, i. 142. BENEDICT XI., pope, his curse of Anagni, viii. 215. BENEDICT XII., pope, embassy of Andronicus the Younger to, viii. 77; character, 79 and note. BENEDICT XIII., pope, viii. 254; deposed by the council of Constance, 256. BENEFICE, primitive name of a feudal possession, iv. 373; tenure of, ib. and note M. BENEvenTO, battle of, between Mainfroy, king of the two Sicilies, and Charles of Anjou, vii. 376. BENEvenTUM, dukes of, their dominions, v. 349; escapes the yoke of Charlemagne, vi. 174; siege of, by the Saracens, and heroic devotion of a citizen, vii. 100. BENJAMIN, patriarch of the Copts, his interview with Amrou, vi. 333. BENJAMIN of Tudela, his description of the rich's of Constantinople, vii. 13. BENTIvoglio, character as an historian, iii. 10, note. BERAN-BIRIG (Marlborough), battle of, between the Britons and Saxons, iv. 391 and note. BERBERs, Barbars, or Barbarians, account of that appellation, vi. 351 and note; properly applicable to the Moors, ib. BERENICE, her age when dismissed by Titus, vii. 23, note. BERENICE, or Myos Hormos, i. 413, note M. BERNARD, St., does not mention his own miracles, ii. 180, note; dissuades the persecution of the Jews, vii. 192 note, and note M.; character and mission, 247; convents founded by, ib.; proclaims the second crusade, 248; declines the command, ib.; object of his journey to Germany, ib. note M.; his character of the Ro viii. 194; exhortations against . of Brescia, 196. BERNIER, description of Aurengzebe's camp, i. 341, note. BERGEA, or Aleppo, Julian's reception at, iii. 183; anecdote of a Christian father and his apostate son, ib. BERTEzeNA (Bertè-Scheno), first leader of the Turks, v. 173; was proper y

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