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AUSONIUS. A CSONIUS, tutor of Gratian, controversy
as to his religion, iii. 356 and note S.,
iv. 110, note; promotion of, 357, note. AUTHARIB, son of Clepho, elected king
of the Lombards, v. 347; recovers the greater part of Italy from the Franks and Greeks, 348; his adventurous gallantry and marriage with Theodelinda, daughter of the
king of Bavaria, 353; death, ib. AUTUN stormed by the Gallic legions,
ii. 19. AUVERGNE, Gallic province, description
and revolutions of, iv. 376. AUXILIARIES, how composed and em
ployed, i. 151 ; ill effects of in the Roman armies, 368; barbarian, in
crease of, under Constantine, ii. 324. AUXIMUM, v. Osimo. Avars subdued by the Turks, v. 176 ;
were a Turkish stock, ib. note S.; send an embassy to Justinian, 177; advance into Poland and Germany, ib.; embassy of the, to Justin II., 331; alliance with the Lombards, 333; defeat the Gepidæ, and occupy their country, 334 ; extend their dominion after the ruin of the Gepidæ, 376; perfidious attempt on Heraclius, 397; their alliance with the Persians and attack on Constantinople, 405; repulsed, 406 ; their country, Pannonia, reduced by Charle
magne, vi. 175. AVERNUS, lake, iv. 79, note. AVERROES, Arabian philosopher, opi
nions of, vi. 404, note. AVERSA, town of, founded for the Nor
mans, vii. 103 and 104, note G. AVICENNA, Arabian physician, vi. 402. AVIENUS, his embassy to Attila, with
Trigetius and Leo, iv. 244. AVIGNON becomes the residence of the
popes, viii. 215; Lives of the popes of, ib. note ; sovereignty of, purchased
from Jane queen of Naples, 216. AVITUS, the senator, embassy to Theo
doric, iv. 233; made commander in Gaul by Maximus, 258; his origin and character, 259 ; villa, ib. ; treats with the Visigoths, ib.; proclaimed emperor by the assembly of Arles, 260; fixes his residence at Rome, 263; profligacy and unpopularity, 264; deposed by count Ricimer, ib.; made bisbop of Placentia, 265 ; death, to.
BABYLON. Avitus, bishop of Vienna, his answer to
Gundobald king of the Burgundians,
iv, 354. Awsites, Arabian tribe of, vi. 243. Axuch, a Turkish slave, refuses to ac
cept the confiscated fortune of Anna
Comnena, vi. 119. Axum, kings of, iii. 84, note M.; in
scription of, v. 207, note M.; residence of the Negus of Abyssinia,
208; ruins of, ib. notes. AXUMITES, v. Abyssinians. AYESHA, daughter of Abubeker and
wife of Mahomet, vi. 266; chastity suspected, 267; story of her opposing her father's elevation, 270 and note S.; hatred of A li and his family, 274 and note S.; assists the rebellion of Telba and Zobeir, ib.; courage in the Day of the Camel, 275 ; respect and delicacy of Ali towards her, ib,
and note M. AYOUBITES, their descent, vii. 253, note. AYUB, father of Saladin, bis prudent
and determined conduct, vii. 254. AZIMUb, or Azimuntium, city of
Thrace, alone holds out against the arms of Attila, iv, 206 and notes ; its privilege violated by Peter, bro
ther of the emperor Maurice, v. 381. Azyms, furious debate concerning, be
tween the Greek and Latin churches,
vii. 280. Azzadin, sultan of Iconium, takes re
fuge at Constantinople from the Mon
gols, viii. 13. Azzo, marquis of Lombardy, ancestor
of the lines of Brunswick and Este, vii. 119, note.
BAALBEC, or Heliopolis, vi. 315; ruins
of, described, 316. Babec, father of Artaxerxes, i. 331,
note. BABYLAS, St., bishop of Antioch,
corpse of, transferred to the grove of Daphne by Gallus, iii. 169; pompous removal of, by the Christians at
the command of Julian, ib. BABYLON, that name applied to Romo
by the early Christians, ii, 175 ; circumference of, 295, note ; converted into a royal park, iii. 195 ; licentious ness of the women, 199, note.
BACCHANALS at Rome, ii. 210 and 211,
BACCHUS, temple of, at Alexandria, iii.
418 and note S.
Bacon, distribution of, at Rome, iv. 84.
BADOERI, dukes of Venice, their illus-
trious descent, v. 341, note.
BADUARIUS, superintendent of the pa-
lace, marries Arabia daughter of Jus-
tin II., v. 341.
BÆSICA, province of Spain, i. 155.
BAFINA, queen of the Thuringians, be-
comes the mother of Clovis, by Chil-
deric, iv. 346.
Bagaude, or Gaulish peasants, de-
scribed, ii. 69 ; etymology of their
name, ib. note ; rebellion, ib. ; quelled
by Maximian, 70; their leaders, whe-
ther Christians ? ib. ; sell a free pas-
sage over the Alps to the troops of
Honorius, iv. 55 ; confederations of
the, in Gaul and Spain, 252.
Bagavan, mount, ii. 79.
BAGDAD founded by the caliph Almar-
sor, vi. 394 and note ; etymology of
the name, 395, note ; site, 395 and
note S. ; college at, 399; stormed
and sacked by the Mongols, viii. 13;
pyramid of ninety thousand heads
erected at, by Timour, 53.
BaHarites, Mamaluke dynasty of the,
vii. 274 and note.
BAHRAM, or Varanes, Persian general,
birth, character, and exploits, v.368;
defeated by the Romans, 370 ; in-
sulted by Hormouz, ib.; rebellion,
ib.; defeats and deposes Chosroes,
son of Hormouz, 372; usurps the
sceptre, 374 ; defeated by Narses on
the Zab, ib.; flight and death, ib, and
BAHREIN, district of Persia, vi. 198.
Baian, chagan of the Avars, his pride
and power, v. 376 ; perfidy, 378;
takes Sirmium, ib.; razes Singidu-
num, 379; generosity, ib.; extent of
his dominion, ib.
Baikal, lake, described, ii. 308 and
BAJAZET I., sultan, son and successor of
Amurath I., surnamed “Ilderim," or
“the Lightning," viii. 30; first of his
family who assumed the title of sul.
tan, ib. note S.; his conquests from
the Euphrates to the Danube, 31;
character and administration, ib. ; dc-
fents Sigismund king of Hungary, 32;
puts the French prisoners to death,
33 and note M.; his hunting and
hawking, 35; answer to the let-
ter of Timour, 50; styled kaissar of
Roum, 51; defeated by Timour at
Angora, 54; made prisoner, 55 ·
story of his iron cage, 56 ; death, 57;
testimonies as to his harsh treatment
by Timour, 58, 59 ; probable conclu-
sion, 59; Von Hammer's explanation,
60, note M.; civil wars of his sons,
BAJAZET II., sultan, facilitates Lasca-
ris' search for Greek MSS., viii. 117,
BalbaTUS (v. Vabalathus).
Balbinos elected emperor with Maxi-
mus, i. 316 ; character, ib. (v. Maxi-
BALBus, Cornelius, family and rise of, i.
Baldwin, count of Flanders, a leader
in the fourth crusade, vii. 290;
elected emperor of the East,
321 ; his government, 322 ; defeated
and captured by the Comans and
Bulgarians, 330 ; death, 331 and
Baldwin II., emperor of Constantino-
ple, vii. 339; his misfortunes and
mendicancy, 340; visits to England,
ib.; disgraceful alliance with the
Turks and Comans, 341; sale of re-
lics to St. Louis, 342; escapes to
Italy on the taking of Constantinople
by the Greeks, 346.
Baldwi:7, brother of Godfrey of Bouil-
lon, his quarrel with Tancred, vii.
214 and note S.; adopted by the go-
vernor of Edessa, 215 and note S.;
seizes that city and founds a princi.
pality, ib. ; becomes king of Jerusa.
BALDWIN II., king of Jerusalem, vii.
BALDWIN III., king of Jerusalem, vii.
BALDWIN IV., king of Jerusalem, vii.
Baltha Ogli, admiral of Mahomet II.,
punishment of his defeat, viii. 163.
Balti, or Balthæ, family of Alaric,
etymology of the name, iv. 24 and
Baltic sea, i. 350, notes ; subsidence
of the, knowlege of, low acquired
by the Romans, iii. 203, nita
BALUZE, character of his Lives of the
Popes of Avignon,' viii. 215, note.
BAMBYCE, a name of Hierapolis, iii.
188, note S.
BANCHOR, monastery of, iv. 309.
BAPTISK., ancient theory and practice
of, iii. 21; deathbed, how regarded
by the fathers, ib. note.
BARADÆUS, James, monk, revives and
gives the name of Jacobites to the
sect of Monophysites, vi. 54.
BARBARIANS introduced into the army
by Probus, ii. 47; their mutual
dissensions fomented by Diocletian,
74; he distributes the vanquished
among the Roman provinces, 75;
conversion of the, iii. 24, iv. 322,
324 ; its effects, 326 ; imbibed
Arianism, 327 ; converted from that
heresy, 337 ; laws of the, 364 sq.;
best collection of, 366, note M.
BARBABY, derivation of the name of
that country, vi. 351, note ; Moors
of, become Mahometans, 353.
BARBATIO, general, receives Gallus at
Petorio, ii. 393; marches to the
assistance of Julian in Gaul, 416 ;
treachery and retreat of, ib.
BARCHOCHEBAS rebels against Hadrian,
BARCLAY, his 'Apology for the Quakers,'
ii. 188, note.
BARDANES assumes the purple and the
name of Philippicus, vi. 80 ; deposed,
80; prediction of an Asiatic prophet
ambassador from Andronicus Palæo-
logus the Younger to pope Benedict
XII., viii. 77; his instructions, 78;
his learning and lectures on Homer,
108 ; connection with Petrarch, ib.;
made a bishop in Calabria, 109.
BARMECIDES extirpated by Harun al
Rashid, vi. 405 ; probable motives
of that act, ib. note S.
BARONCELLI, tribune of Rome, viii.
BARSUMAS, chief of the monks, votes
at the second council of Ephesus, vi.
BARTHOLEMY, Peter, discovers the Holy
Lance, vii. 220; submits to a judg-
ment of God, and death, 222 and
the civilian, a pensioner of
Charles IV., vi. 193.
Basil I., the Macedonian, emperor of
Constantinople, v. 95 ; not an Arsa-
cid, ib, note S.; early history of, 96 ;
bodily strength, 97; associated in
the empire by Michael III., ib.;
murders Michael, ib.; wise and glo-
rious reign, 98 ; publishes the Basi-
lics, 99; death, ib. ; genealogy of his
dynasty, 100, note S.; his legal re-
forms, vii. 45, note S. ; reduced by
Chrysocheir, the Paulician, to sue
for peace, 54; shoots three arrows
through Chrysocheir's head, ib.;
alliance with the emperor Lewis II.,
Bardas, uncle of Michael III., a pro-
tector of letters, vii. 39; his school
at Magnaura, 40.
BARDas murdered by his uncle, the
emperor Michael III., vi. 197.
BARDS, Welsh, their legends neglected,
iv. 392 and note S.; protected by
the laws of queen Elizabeth, 398;
account of the, ib.
Bargus accuses his patron Timasius,
BARHAM, or Babaram, v. Varanes.
BABI, conquest of, by the Greeks and
Latins, vii. 97 ; unsuccessful at-
tempts of the German emperors on,
99; besieged by Robert Guiscard,
BABLAAM, Calabrian monk, attacks and
ridicules the monks of mount Athos
respecting the light of mount Thabor,
vii. 405; apostacy and flight, 406;
Basil II., emperor of Constantinople,
vi. 107; reduces the rebels Phocas
and Sclerus, ib.; overthrows the
Bulgarians, 108 ; penitence and
death, ib.; conquers the Bulgarians,
vii. 69 ; his horrible cruelty towards
Basil, archbishop of Cæsarea, trans-
actions with Valens, iii. 252; Gib-
bon's statement respecting, corrected,
ib. note S.; account of, 365; his
pride, 366; founder of the monas-
teries of Pontus, iv, 309.
Basil the Great, his canonical opistles,
iii. 36, note.
Basil, the monk, founder of the Gnostic
sect of Bogomites, burnt by Alexius
Comnenus, vii. 56 and noto.
Basil, St., Calabrian monks of, viü. 108
BASI, council of, proceedings against
pope Eugenius IV., viii. 93 ; city doo
scribed, ib. note ; negociations of the BEAB8, favourite of Valentinian I., ill.
council with John II. Palæologus, 246.
94 ; council transferred to Ferrara, BEAUSOBRE, character of his ‘Histoire
95; deposes pope Eugenius IV., 103; Critique du Manichéisme,' vi. 2,
EASILACIUS, Roman general, defeated BECKET, Thomas, constancy of, ii. 250,
by Alp Arslan, vii. 160.
Basilics, code, compiled by order of BEDER, battle of, between Mahomet
Basil I., vi. 99; account of, vii. 2, and the Koreishites, vi. 248.
note, 45, note S.
BEDOWEENS, manners of the, vi. 198..
BASILIDIANS, a Gnostic sect, ii. 164; BELA, a Hungarian prince, betrothed to
declined martyrdom, ib. note.
a daughter of Manuel Comnenus, vi.
BASILISCUS, brother of the empress
Verina, commands an armament BELA IV., king of Hungary, defeated
against the Vandals, iv. 284; lands by Batou and the Mongols, viii. 14 ;
at Cape Bona, 285; consents to a flight, 15.
truce with Genseric, ib.; who destroys BELENUS, tutelary deity of Aquileie,
his fleet, ib. ; disgraceful flight, 286 ; i. 320; thanked by the senate, ib. note.
proclaimed emperor, v. 4; death, ib. BELFRY, modern, whence derived, vii.
BABILIUS, Roman senator, embassy to 212, note.
Alaric, iv. 92.
BELG&, i. 157.
BASSIANUS, name of Caracalla, i. 264, BELGIC GAUL, province, i. 156.
BELGRADE built on the ruins of Singi-
BASSIANUS, name of Elagabalus, i. 278: dunum, v. 379.
BELISARIUS, his birth, education, and
BASSIANUS made Cæsar by Constantine, services, v. 99; 'Life,' by Lord
ii. 139; conspiracy and execution, Mahon, ib. note S.; Von Hammer's
etymology of his name, 100, note S.;
BASSORA, foundation of, under the chosen general for the African war,
Arabian Caliph Omar, vi. 293; de 101 ; his guards, ib. ; firm discipline,
scribed, 294; site of modern, ib. 103 and 106; navigation to Africa,
104 ; lands at Caput Vada, 105 and
BASTARNÆ, i. 380 ; tribes, ib.; whether note; project of landing at Carthage,
Germans or Gauls, ib, note S.
106 and note S.; advances to Grasse,
BATAVIAN horse-guards, i. 239, note. 107 ; defeats Gelimer, 109; enters
BATAVIANS, how punished by Valen Carthage, ib.; his fleet anchors in the
tinian for losing their standard, iii. bay of Tunis, 110; he restores the
fortifications of Carthage, 111 ; second
BATH8, public, at Rome, described, iv. defeat of Gelimer, 113; advances to
Hippo Regius, 114; completes the
BATNÆ, Julian's reception at, iii. 187 ; conquest of Africa, ib.; hasty return
etymology of the name, ib. note M. to Constantinople, 118; his triumph,
Batou, nephew of Octai, Khan of the the first celebrated in that city and
Mongols, his conquests in Asia and by a private general, ib.; consulship,
Europe, viii. 14; march on Constan 119; intrusts the command of Africa
tinople, and death, 19.
to the eunuch Solomon, 122 ; claims
BATTLE, trial by, when abolished in Lilybæum from the Goths, 125 ; in-
France, vii. 365, note; never abro vades Sicily, 129; takes Palermo by
gated in England, ib.
a stratagem, ib.; enters Syracuse in
BAVARIA, dukes of, abolished by Charle triumph, 130; suppresses a rebellion
magne, vi. 174.
at Carthage with 100 guards, ib. and
BAVARIANs in Pannonia and Noricum, note M. ; invades Italy, 132; takes
iv. 174; disclaim the sovereignty of Naples, 133; his humanity, 184 ;
the Huns, 193; institutions of, rati enters Rome, 136; date, ib. notes;
fied by the Merovingian kings, 365. narrow escape from the Goths, 137;
Ballk, refutation of St. Augustin on defence of Rome against, 138; rom
persecution, iv. 180, note.
stores the walls, 139; repulses &
general assault, 141; his vigilance BELUs, tower of, at Babylon, vi. 295,
and precaution s, 142 ; uxoriousness, notes.
144 ; letter to Justinian, 145; re BENDEB, i. 142.
Peives reinforcuments, ib.; haughty BENEDICT XI., pope, his curse of
Nception of the Gothic ambassadors, Anagni, viii. 215.
146 ; grants & truce, ib. ; recovers BENEDICT XII., pope, embassy of An-
many Italian cities, ib.; compels dronicus the Younger to, viii. 77;
Vitiges to raise the siege of Rome, character, 79 and note.
147; and of Rimini, 148; arbitrary BENEDICT XIII., pope, viii. 254 ; de-
execution of Constantine, governor of posed by the council of Constance,
Spoleto, 149 ; firmness during the 256.
dofection of Narses, 150; takes Ur BENEFICE, primitive name of a feudal
reduces Osimo, 153; lays possession, iv, 373; tenure of, ib.
siege to Ravenna, ib. ; evades the and note M.
imprudent treaty sent by Justinian BENEVENTO, battle of, between Main-
to Vitiges, 154; takes Ravenna by froy, king of the two Sicilies, and
stratagem, ib.; refuses the kingdom Charles of Anjou, vii, 376.
of Italy, 155; recalled by Justinian, BENEVENTUM, dukes of, their domi-
ib.; his greatness, popularity, and nions, v. 349; escapes the yoke of
virtues, 156; duped by his wife Charlemagne, vi. 174 ; siege of, by
Antonina, 158; recalls her lover the Saracens, and heroic devotion of
Theodosius, 159 ; persuaded by Pho a citizen, vii. 100.
tius to punish her, ib.; compelled by BENJAMIN, patriarch of the Copts, his
Theodora to pardon her, 160 ; second interview with Amrou, vi. 333.
Persian campaign, 161; disgraced, BENJAMIN of Tudela, his description of
ib.; pardon and mean submission, the ricb's of Constantinople, vii. 13.
ib. ; accepts the Italian command, BENTIVOGLIO, character as an historian,
162; account of his Persian cam iii, 10, note.
paigns, 191; reception of the Persian BERAN-BIRIG (Marlborough), battle of,
ambassadors, 192; hastens the retreat between the Britons and Saxons, iv.
of Chosroes, 193; recalled to the Ita 391 and note.
lian war, ib. ; lands at Ravenna, 218; BERBERS, Barbars, or Barbarians, ac-
letter to Justinian, 219; returns to count of that appellation, vi. 351 and
Dyrrachium for reinforcements, ib.; note; properly applicable to the
sails to the Tiber, 221; forces the Moors, ib.
barriers of Totila, ib. ; the misconduct BERENICE, her age when dismissed by
of his officers obliges him to retreat, Titus, vii. 23, note.
ib. ; dissuades Totila from destroying BERENICE, or Myos Hormos, i. 413,
Rome, 223; recaptures Rome, and note M.
holds it against Totila, 224; campaign BERNARD, St., does not mention his
in southern Italy and flight to Sicily, own miracles, ii, 180, note ; dissuades
225; final recall, ib.; made general the persecution of the Jews, vii. 192
of the east and count of the domes note, and note M.; character and
tics, 226; defends Constantinople mission, 247 ; convents founded by,
from the Bulgarians, 244; accused ib.; proclaims the second crusade,
of conspiring against Justinian, 246 ; 248; declines the command, ib.; ob
disgrace, restoration, and death, ib.; ject of his journey to Germany, ib.
fortune confiscated, ib. ; his beggary note M.; his character of the Romans,
an idle fable, ib.; Lord Mahon's viii. 194; exhortations against Arnold
of Brescia, 196.
note S.; Le Beau's and Finlay's BERNIER, description of Aurengzebe's
theories respecting th
origin of the
camp, i. 341, note.
story, ib.; his reputed statue, ib. BEREA, or Aleppo, Julian's reception
BELLs, use of, when introduced, vi. 304 at, iii. 183; anecdote of a Christian
and note S.
father and his apostate son, ib.
Bellona, temple of, at Comana in BERTEZENA (Bertė-Scheno), first leader
Pontus, vii. 61.
of the Turks, v. 173; was propery