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BERTHA. the founder of the Mongol race, ib.

note M. BERTHA, mother of Hugo king of Italy,

her gallantries, vii. 25. BERTHA, daughter of Hugo king of

Italy, married to Romanus, son of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, vii. 24; her equivocal descent, 25; changes

her name to Eudoxia, ib. BERYTUS, famous school of law at, ii.

317 And note; overthrown by an earthquake in the reign of Justinian,

v. 252 and note, BESSARION, bishop of Nice, viii. 96;

manager for the Greeks at the Council of Florence, 100; made a cardinal, 101 ; poverty, 102, note ; his residence in Italy, character and learning, 113; story of his losing the tiara, ib. and note M. ; refuses the patriarchate

of Constantinople, 123. Bessas, general of Justinian, killed in

leading the assault of Petra, v. 202; his unfeeling avarice when governor of Rome during the siege by Totila,

220; flies at his entrance, 222. Bessi, or minor Goths, v. 37, note. BETALEM, residence of St. Jerom, resort

of Roman fugitives to, after the gack of Rome, iv. 108; occupied by Tan

cred, vii. 224, note S. BEZABDE, taken by Sapor, ii. 410; site

of, ib. note S.; besieged by Constan

tius, 411. BIBLE, early translated into Arabic, vi.

215 and note. BINDOES, a Sassanian prince, deposcs

and imprisons Hormouz, v.370; puts

him to death, 372 and note M. BINESES, the Persian ambassador, takes

possession of Nisibis for Sapor, iii.

224. Birth, prerogative of, the least invi

dious of all distinctions, i. 305. BISHOPS, question of their divine ori

gin, ii. 190, note; at first the samo as presbyters, 191; subsequently superior, ib.; original jurisdiction of, 192; called angels in Asia, ib, note; progress of their authority, 194; claimed to be the vicegerents of Christ and successors of the apostles, ib.; metropolitans and primates, 195; ambition of the Roman pontiff, ib.; bishops first seen at court in the reign of Alexander Severus, 259; condition and number under the Christian em

BOETHIUS. perors, iii. 27; rural, ib. note ; equal powers of, 28; election of, ib. ; violent and corrupt mode of, 29; at first vested in the people, ib.; afterwards usurped by the cmperors, ib, note M.; bishops alone had the power of ordination,

claimed perpetual obedience from the ordained, 31; income of, 33; exclusive privilege of being tried by their peers, 35; judged the clergy in civil cascs, ib.; power of arbitration, ib.; spiritual censorship, 36; exercised on the highest officers except the emperors, ib.; orthodox of the West, banished by Constantine II., 80; conduct in exile, 81; contributed much to the establishment

of the French monarchy, iv. 352. BISSENI, Turkish tribe, vii. 79 and

note S. BI8SEXTILE, superstitious regard of the

Romans for, iii. 235; Gibbon's ex

planation of the, corrected, ib. note S. BITHYNIA, i. 162; plundered by the

Goths, 398. BLACHERNÆ, suburb of Constantino

ple, ii. 295, note. BLEDA, brother and colleague of Attila,

king of the Huns, iv. 193; slain by

Attila, 195. BLEMYYES, invade Egypt, ii. 76; de

scribed, 77. BLINDING, various modes of, vii. 369. BLÖDEL, legendary name of Bleda,

brother of Attila, iv, 193, note S. Blues, or orthodox faction of the Hip

podrome, patronized by Justinian, v. 50; their dress, manners, and law

less violence, ib. BOADICEA, i. 140. Boccaccio, one of the restorers of Greek

learning in Italy, viii. 110; his (reputed) version of Homer, ib. and

note M. BOCHara conquered by the Saracens,

vi, 300. Boethius, prætorian præfect, murdered

with Aëtius, iv. 250. BOETHIUS, his explanation of the Tri

nity, iii. 55, note ; character and studies of, v. 27; his alleged visit to Athens, 28 and note S.; patriotism, 29; accused of treason, 30; confined in the tower of Pavia, ib. ; composes his ‘Consolation of Philosophy,' 31; inhuman execution of, ib. ; works translated by Alfred the

BOHEMIA. Great, 32; canonized, ib.; question

as to his Christianity, ib, note S. Bohemia, united to the Germanic body

by Charlemagne, vi. 175. BOHEMOND, son of Robert Guiscard, vii.

119; commands his father's fleet at Durazzo, 121; exploits against the Greeks, 126; a leader in the first crusade, 198; march to Constanti. nople, 203; motives, 205 and note M.; flattering reception by Alexius Comnenus, 206 ; takes Antioch, and acquires the sovereignty of it, vii. 217 ; his design to arm the West against the Byzantine empire, 238 ; clandestine departure, ib. and note ;

death, ib. BOLINGBROKE, LORD, observations on

the encouragement of learning by the

popes, viii. 116, note, BOLSENA, lake, Amalasontha strangled

in an island of, v. 128; described, ib.

note. RONDOCAR, or BIBARS, sultan of Egypt,

destroys Antioch, vii. 275 ; concerned in the attempt to assassinate Edward

I., ib. note M. BONIFACE, count, general of Placidia,

character, iv. 175; betrayed into a revolt by his rival Aëtius, 176; invites the Vandals into Africa, ib.; repentance, 181 ; defeated by Genseric, ib.; besieged in Hippo Regius, 182 ; joined by Aspar and his forces, 183; again defeated by Genseric, ib.; escapes to Ravenna, 184; battle with Aëtius and death, ib.; mcdals of, ib.,

and note S. BONIFACE, marquis of Montferrat,

elected leader of the fourth crusade, vii. 294 ; adopts the cause of Alexius, son of Isaac Angelus, 296 ; clemency after the capture of Constantinople, 313; sells Candia to the Venetians, 323; exchanges the provinces beyond the Hellespont for the kingdom of Thessalonica, or Macedonia, 324;

killed by the Bulgarians, 333. BonifaCE VIII., pope, his furious con

test with Philip le Bel of France, viii. 214; seized and insulted at Anagni by Nogaret and Colonna, 215; death and character, ib.; instituted

the jubilee, 217. BONIFACE, St., procures relics for Aglaë,

ii. 277. BONNET, Greck imperial, vii. 367, note.

BREQUIGNY. Bonosus, general of Aurelian, marries

a Goth, ii. 11, note ; and Proculus, their revolt in Gaul suppressed by

Probus, ii. 50. Book, people of the, Jews and Chris

tians so called by the Arabians, vi.

215, 368 and note. BORAK, or mysterious horse ct Maho

met, vi. 230. BORDEAUX described, iv. 128 and note. BORDERERS, what troops so called, ii.

321 ; discontent and desertions of, ib. BORGITES, Mamaluke dynasty of the,

vii. 274 and note. BORYSTHENES, navigation of the by the

Russian traders, vii. 85. BOSPHORUS, kingdom of, reduced by

Trajan, i. 143, 395; acquired by the Goths, 396 ; reduced by Agripp,

ib, note. BOSPHORUS, Strait of, described, ii. 288;

actual width, ib. note S. BOSPHORUS, city of, besieged by the

Turks, v. 175. Bostra, or Bosra, i. 143, note S.; vi.

202, note; siege of by the Saracens, 303; Syriac etymology of the name, ib, and note ; betrayed by the gover

nor Romanus, 304. BOSSUET's Universal History, i. 165,

note. BOTANY, state of that science among

the ancients, vi. 402. BOTHERIC, commandant of Thessalo

nica, murdered by the populace, iii.

391. BOUCICAULT, marshal, assists the em

peror Manuel Palæologus against the

Turks, viii. 37. BOULOGNE, o Gessoriacum. BOURSA, taken and plundered by Ti

mour, viii, 56. BOWIDES, Persian dynasty of, vi. 422. BRAGA, capital of the Suevi in Spain,

taken by Theodoric II., iv. 263. BRANCA LEONE, podestà of Rome, his

vigorous administration, viii. 203. BRANDENBURG, Vandals of, v. 121, nce. BREAD, distribution of at Rome, iv. 84, BRENCKMAN, his ‘Historia Pandic

tarum,' v. 287, note, BREUEN, burnt by the Hungarians, vii.

75. BREONES, tribe of Rhætians, iv. 234

and note: BREQUIGNY, M. de, his Life of Posthree

inus, i. 391, note.

BRETAGNE.
BRETAGNE, part of Armor ca so called,

iv. 392 and notes.
BBIDGET, ST., of Sweden, prophesies

the death of pope Urban V., viii.

250.
BRIENNE, Walter de, duke of Athens,

defeated and killed by the Catalans,

vii. 385.
BRIGANTES, war of Antoninus Pius

with, i. 145, note ; situation of, 157.
BRITAIN, conquered by the Romans, i.

139; province described, 156; im-
portance of, ii. 71; how peopled, iii.
265; invaded by the Scots and Picts,
268; rescued by Theodosius, 271;
revolt of Maximus in, 359; emigra-
tion from under him, 360 ; St. Ursula
and destined brides of the emigrants,
ib. note; legions recalled from by
Stilicho, iv. 34; invaded by the Scots
of Ireland, 53; revolt of the army
in, and election of various emperors,
54 ; revolt of, 130; its independence
confirmed by Honorius, 131 ; govern-
ment of till the descent of the Saxons,
132 and note; cities, ib. and note;
tyrants, 133; church, its poverty,
134; Pendragon of, ib.; descent of
the Saxons in, 386 ; Heptarchy, 389 ;
Gildas' description of, ib.; long re-
sistance of against the barbarians,
390 ; wars in, ib. sq.; the Britons fly
to Wales and Cornwall, 391; and
Gaul, ib. ; desolation of Britain, 394 ;
language of, how modified by the
Saxon invasion, 395 and note S.;
inhabitants of, whether exterminated
by the Saxons, 396; servitude of,
ib.; sold their children, 397 ; relapse
into barbarism, ib.; Britons in Ar-
morica and Wales, their manners,
398; obscure state of Britain, 399;
Christianity introduced into by pope

Gregory the Great, v. 360.
BRITons, character of the, i. 140.
Britons of France, reduced and chas-

tised by Charlemagne, vi. 173.
Brittia, island, whether distinct from

Britain, iv. 399, note S.
BBOSSES, president de, his description

of the Euxine, v. 194, note.
BRUCE, James, on the Roman wall in

Scotland, i. 141, note S.
BRUCHIUM, quarter of Alexandria,

library in, iii. 417, note S.
BBUNSWICK, house of, genealogy, vii.

119, note.

BURNING GLASSES.
BRUTUS, revered by the Romans, i.

209; his virtue questioned, ib. note

M.
Brutus, the Trojan, his colonizatica oi

Britain a fable, iii. 265.
BUCBLIN, duke of the Alemanni, in-

vades Italy, v. 237; his fabulous ex-
ploits, ib. note; ravages southern
Italy, 238; defeated at Casilinum by

Narses, and slain, 239.
Buffaloes, introduced into Italy by

the Lombards, v. 351.
Buffon, burning glasses of, v. 72.
BUGIA, African town, captured by the

Saracens, vi. 347.
BULGARIA, revolts from Isaac Angelus,

vii. 286; second kingdom of esta-

blished, ib.
BULGARIANS, their ethnology, v. 167,

note S.; history, 168 ; inroads on the
eastern empire, 171; under Zabergan,
threaten Constantinople, 243; re-
pulsed by Belisarius, 244; kingdom
of overthrown by Basil II., vi. 108;
their name, how applied by the
French, vii. 57 and note ; emigration
of the, 64; their descent, ib. and 65,
note S.; account of the, ib. ; situation
of the kingdom, ib.; first kingdom of
the, 67 ; overthrown by Basil II.,
69; tactics, 73; war of against the

Latin sovereigns of Greece, 329.
BUNSEN, Chev., explanation of Pliny on

the Roman walls, ii. 16, note S.
BURGESSES, court of at Jerusalem, vii.

235.
BURGUNDIANS vanquished by Probus,

ii. 44 ; a German race, ib. note 8.;
on the Elbe, account of the, iii. 261;
fabulous descent from the soldiers of
Drusus, ib. and 262 note; deceived
by Valentinian, 262; join Radagaisus
in invading Italy, iv. 45; overrun
Gaul, 51; settle permanently in Gaul,
128; their limits, 129; invade Belo
gium, 224 ; defeated and driven to
the mountains of Savoy, ib.; settle-
ments on lake Leman, 349; bounda-
ries of their kingdom, 353; finally
conquered by the Franks, 356 ; join

the troops of Vitiges, v. 150.
BURGUNDY, vineyards of, i. 190 and

note W.
BURNET, character of his

• Sacred
Theory of the Earth,' ii. 176, note.
PURNING GLASSES of Archimedes and

Proclus, v. 71.; of Buffon, 72 note.

BURTON. BURTON, Dr., work on the Ante-Nicene

Fathers, iii. 52, note M. Bugiris, in Egypt, destroyed by Dio

cletian, ii. 76; four several places of

that name, vi. 392 note. BUTLER, character of his ‘Lives of the

Saints,' v. 358 note. BUZENTINUS (Bazentinus), river, sepul

chre of Alaric constructed in, iv. 112

and note S. Buzurg Mihir, the Persian philoso

pher, preceptor of Hormouz, v. 367; introduced chess and the fables of

Pilpay into Persia, ib. note. Byron, Lord, swam from Sestus to

Abydus, ii. 290, note M. BYBRHUS, i. 228. BYZANTINE history, defects of, vi. 68 ;

dynasties, review of and reflections on, 132; empire, view of its government, literature, &c. from the time of Heraclius to the invasion of the Franks, vii. 5, sqq.; revenue, 13; coinage, ib. note S.; emperors, their pomp and luxury, 14 ; palace, 15; furniture and attendance, 16; titles, 17 ; officers of the palace, state and army, 19; adoration of the cmperors, 20; reception of ambassadors, 21; processions, 22 ; acquire the province of Lombardy, 98; historians, editions of, viii. 185, note; character of the Bonn edition, ib.

note M. BYZANTINES, wars of the, by whom best

described, ii. 287, note; used the columns of Darius as altars, 289,

note. BYZANTIUM, siege of by Severus' generals, i. 256; fortifications destroyed, 257; how far ruined, ib. note M.; taken by Maximin, ii. 135; besieged by Constantine, 147; advantageous situation, 287; when founded, ib. note ; rebuilt by Pausanias, ib.; revenues derived from the fishery, 293,

note (v. Constantinople). Byzas, founds Byzantium, ii. 287, note.

CÆSARIUS. destroyed by Mahomet, 254 ; de secrated by Abu Taher, the Carra.

thian, 419. CABADEB, or Kobad, king of Persia, his

war with the Romans, v. 85; takes Amida, 86 ; occupies the straits of Caucasus, 88; troubled reign of, 181 ; desires his son, Nushirvan, to be adopted by Justin the emperor, 182

and note M. CADESIA, battle of between the Ara

bians and Persians, date, vi. 291, note S.; description of, 292 ; site of, ib.

note; ruins, ib. note S. CADIJAH, marries Mahomet, vi. 218;

his affection and respect for her,

268. Cadiz, founded, i. 296, note. Cæcilian, bishop of Africa, Constan

tine's liberality to, iii. 32 ; contest with Majorinus and Donatus, 43, acknowledged lawful primate, ib. ;

banishes the Donatist leaders, 44. Cæcilius (or Lactantius), date of his

treatise De Mortibus Persecutorum,' iii. 14 and note ; probably not composed by Lactantius, ib. ; account of the vision of Constantine and Li

cinius, ib. CÆLESTIAN, senator of Carthage, mis

fortunes of, iv. 187. CÆSAR, Julius, his motive for invading

Britain, i. 140, note; degraded the senate, 197, note; deified, 207; provoked his fate, 209; sword of,

captured by the Gergovians, iv. 376. CÆSAR and Augustus, those titles ex

plained, i, 208; use of as family

distinction, 209, note W. CÆSARS, first, their policy, i. 137, 139;

adverse to military merit in a subject, ib.; family of the, 212; their marriage with foreigners forbidden, vii. 23 ; exceptions, 24; empire of the, checked the progress of the

human mind, 44. ‘CASARS’ of Julian, account of that

work, iii. 179. CÆSAREA, capital of Cappadocia, taken

by Sapor, i. 405; taken and sacked

by Chosroes II., v. 392. CÆSAREA, in Syria, plundered and

burnt by the adherents of Firmus, iii. 273; abandoned by Constantine, son of Heraclius, surrenders to the

Saracens, vi. 325. CÆSARIUS, son of the duke of Naples

C.

Caala, or temple of Mecca, seven

poems of, vi. 209 and note; its antiquity, 211; site of, ib. and note M.

.; description of, 212; rites of, ib. ; black stone, ib. and notes ; idols of

CAF. assists Pope Leo IV. against the

Saracens, vi. 411. Car, mountain of Central Asia, v. 173;

creed of the Mahometans respecting,

ib. note S. CAFFA, Genocse colony of, vii. 408 and

note. CAGAN, v. Khan. Carina, queen of the Berbers or Moors,

her alleged method of defence against

the Saracens, vi. 352; death, ib. CAIRO, meaning of the name, vi. 331;

when founded, ib.; besieged by

Amaury, king of Jerusalem, vii. 253. CAIROAN, in the kingdom of Tunis,

foundation of, vi. 349 and note S. Caius, v. Gaius. CALABRIA, that name given to Brut

tium, v. 349 note ; preservation of

the Greek language in, viii. 108. CALED, his conduct at the battle of

Ohud, vi. 249; conversion to Islam, 250 ; his massacres, 254 and note S.; gallantry at Muta and election as general, 258 ; surnamed “Sword of God,” ib. ; victories of, 291 ; virtual leader in the Syrian war, 302 ; succours Abu Obeidah at the siege of Bosra, 303 and note S.; personal prowess at Damascus, 305; Ictter to Amrou, ib.; takes Damascus by storm, 310; his inflexibility, 311; pursues and slays the exiled Damascenes, 312; value of that story, 313, note S. ; defeats the Gassanites, 318; gains the victory at Jermuk, ib.; his death and tomb, 326 ; unjustly

treated by Omar, ib. note S. CALEDONIA, When Christianized, ii. 213

and note ; the country and its inha

bitants described, iii. 266. CALEDONIAN war under the emperor

Severus, i. 265. CALEDONIANS, defeated by Agricola, i.

140; retire northwards, 141. CALIGULA assassinated, i. 211 ; Gibbon

corrected, ib. note W.; character, 217; attempts to place his statue in

the temple of Jerusalem, ii. 154. Calil Babna, vizier of Mahomet II.,

his interview with that Sultan, viii.

151. CALIPH, meaning of that title, vi. 269

and 271, note S. ; first four caliphs compared, 273 ; characters of, 287; conquests of the caliphs, 289; subdue Persia, 290 ; empire of the, 372;

CAMARE. triple division of the caliphate, 394 ; magnificence of the, 395, sq.; their patronage of learning, 399; horrible treatment of by their Turkish guards, 417 and note; other causes of their dccline and fall, 419; their abasement, 422; invite the Bowides, 423 ; Fatimite of Egypt, their gloomy magnificence and political weakness, vii. 251 ; deposed by Noureddin, 253; Abbasside, extinction of by the Mon

gols, viii. 13. CALISTUS II., pope, prohibits the use

of private arms at Rome, viii. 193. CALLIGRAPHES, epithet of Theodosius

the Younger, iv. 163. CALLINICUM, monks and populace of,

burn a converticle and synagogue, iii. 393; St. Ambrose dictates their pardon to Theodosius, ib.; battlo near, between Belisarius and the

Persians, v. 101. CALLINICUS of Heliopolis, inventor of

the Greek fire, vi. 382 and note M. CALLIXENE, priestess of Ceres, rewarded

by Julian, iii. 151, note. CALMUCKS, black, migrations of the,

iii. 314 and notes. CALOCERUS, rebellion of, in Cyprus, ii.

357 and notes. Calo-JOHANNES, Comnenus, emperor

of Trebizond, attempts to organize a confederacy against Mahomet II.,

viii. 181, note M. CALO-JOHN (John or Joannices), re

ceives from pope Innocent III. the title of king of Bulgaria, vii. 286 ; assists the revolt of the Greeks against the Latins, 329; defeats and takes Baldwin I., 330; besieges Thes

salonica, 334 ; assassinated, ib. CALPURNIU8, date of, ii. 28, note S.;

eclogue on the accession of Carus, 53 and note ; description of the Am

phitheatre, 60, note. Calvary, improperly called a Hill, iii.

157, note M.; annual fair on, vii. 172. CALVIN, his system compared with St.

Augustine's, iv. 183, note ; his doctrine of the eucharist, vii. 59; his conduct towards Servetus examined,

60 and note. CALYDONIAN boar, tusks of, at Bene

ventum, v. 134. CALYCADNUB, river, Frederick Barba

rossa drowned in, vii. 246 and note S. CAMARE, ships on the Euxine, i. 396.

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