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BERTHA. the founder of the Mongol race, ib.
note M. BERTHA, mother of Hugo king of Italy,
her gallantries, vii. 25. BERTHA, daughter of Hugo king of
Italy, married to Romanus, son of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, vii. 24; her equivocal descent, 25; changes
her name to Eudoxia, ib. BERYTUS, famous school of law at, ii.
317 And note; overthrown by an earthquake in the reign of Justinian,
v. 252 and note, BESSARION, bishop of Nice, viii. 96;
manager for the Greeks at the Council of Florence, 100; made a cardinal, 101 ; poverty, 102, note ; his residence in Italy, character and learning, 113; story of his losing the tiara, ib. and note M. ; refuses the patriarchate
of Constantinople, 123. Bessas, general of Justinian, killed in
leading the assault of Petra, v. 202; his unfeeling avarice when governor of Rome during the siege by Totila,
220; flies at his entrance, 222. Bessi, or minor Goths, v. 37, note. BETALEM, residence of St. Jerom, resort
of Roman fugitives to, after the gack of Rome, iv. 108; occupied by Tan
cred, vii. 224, note S. BEZABDE, taken by Sapor, ii. 410; site
of, ib. note S.; besieged by Constan
tius, 411. BIBLE, early translated into Arabic, vi.
215 and note. BINDOES, a Sassanian prince, deposcs
and imprisons Hormouz, v.370; puts
him to death, 372 and note M. BINESES, the Persian ambassador, takes
possession of Nisibis for Sapor, iii.
224. Birth, prerogative of, the least invi
dious of all distinctions, i. 305. BISHOPS, question of their divine ori
gin, ii. 190, note; at first the samo as presbyters, 191; subsequently superior, ib.; original jurisdiction of, 192; called angels in Asia, ib, note; progress of their authority, 194; claimed to be the vicegerents of Christ and successors of the apostles, ib.; metropolitans and primates, 195; ambition of the Roman pontiff, ib.; bishops first seen at court in the reign of Alexander Severus, 259; condition and number under the Christian em
BOETHIUS. perors, iii. 27; rural, ib. note ; equal powers of, 28; election of, ib. ; violent and corrupt mode of, 29; at first vested in the people, ib.; afterwards usurped by the cmperors, ib, note M.; bishops alone had the power of ordination,
claimed perpetual obedience from the ordained, 31; income of, 33; exclusive privilege of being tried by their peers, 35; judged the clergy in civil cascs, ib.; power of arbitration, ib.; spiritual censorship, 36; exercised on the highest officers except the emperors, ib.; orthodox of the West, banished by Constantine II., 80; conduct in exile, 81; contributed much to the establishment
of the French monarchy, iv. 352. BISSENI, Turkish tribe, vii. 79 and
note S. BI8SEXTILE, superstitious regard of the
Romans for, iii. 235; Gibbon's ex
planation of the, corrected, ib. note S. BITHYNIA, i. 162; plundered by the
Goths, 398. BLACHERNÆ, suburb of Constantino
ple, ii. 295, note. BLEDA, brother and colleague of Attila,
king of the Huns, iv. 193; slain by
Attila, 195. BLEMYYES, invade Egypt, ii. 76; de
scribed, 77. BLINDING, various modes of, vii. 369. BLÖDEL, legendary name of Bleda,
brother of Attila, iv, 193, note S. Blues, or orthodox faction of the Hip
podrome, patronized by Justinian, v. 50; their dress, manners, and law
less violence, ib. BOADICEA, i. 140. Boccaccio, one of the restorers of Greek
learning in Italy, viii. 110; his (reputed) version of Homer, ib. and
note M. BOCHara conquered by the Saracens,
vi, 300. Boethius, prætorian præfect, murdered
with Aëtius, iv. 250. BOETHIUS, his explanation of the Tri
nity, iii. 55, note ; character and studies of, v. 27; his alleged visit to Athens, 28 and note S.; patriotism, 29; accused of treason, 30; confined in the tower of Pavia, ib. ; composes his ‘Consolation of Philosophy,' 31; inhuman execution of, ib. ; works translated by Alfred the
BOHEMIA. Great, 32; canonized, ib.; question
as to his Christianity, ib, note S. Bohemia, united to the Germanic body
by Charlemagne, vi. 175. BOHEMOND, son of Robert Guiscard, vii.
119; commands his father's fleet at Durazzo, 121; exploits against the Greeks, 126; a leader in the first crusade, 198; march to Constanti. nople, 203; motives, 205 and note M.; flattering reception by Alexius Comnenus, 206 ; takes Antioch, and acquires the sovereignty of it, vii. 217 ; his design to arm the West against the Byzantine empire, 238 ; clandestine departure, ib. and note ;
death, ib. BOLINGBROKE, LORD, observations on
the encouragement of learning by the
popes, viii. 116, note, BOLSENA, lake, Amalasontha strangled
in an island of, v. 128; described, ib.
note. RONDOCAR, or BIBARS, sultan of Egypt,
destroys Antioch, vii. 275 ; concerned in the attempt to assassinate Edward
I., ib. note M. BONIFACE, count, general of Placidia,
character, iv. 175; betrayed into a revolt by his rival Aëtius, 176; invites the Vandals into Africa, ib.; repentance, 181 ; defeated by Genseric, ib.; besieged in Hippo Regius, 182 ; joined by Aspar and his forces, 183; again defeated by Genseric, ib.; escapes to Ravenna, 184; battle with Aëtius and death, ib.; mcdals of, ib.,
and note S. BONIFACE, marquis of Montferrat,
elected leader of the fourth crusade, vii. 294 ; adopts the cause of Alexius, son of Isaac Angelus, 296 ; clemency after the capture of Constantinople, 313; sells Candia to the Venetians, 323; exchanges the provinces beyond the Hellespont for the kingdom of Thessalonica, or Macedonia, 324;
killed by the Bulgarians, 333. BonifaCE VIII., pope, his furious con
test with Philip le Bel of France, viii. 214; seized and insulted at Anagni by Nogaret and Colonna, 215; death and character, ib.; instituted
the jubilee, 217. BONIFACE, St., procures relics for Aglaë,
ii. 277. BONNET, Greck imperial, vii. 367, note.
BREQUIGNY. Bonosus, general of Aurelian, marries
a Goth, ii. 11, note ; and Proculus, their revolt in Gaul suppressed by
Probus, ii. 50. Book, people of the, Jews and Chris
tians so called by the Arabians, vi.
215, 368 and note. BORAK, or mysterious horse ct Maho
met, vi. 230. BORDEAUX described, iv. 128 and note. BORDERERS, what troops so called, ii.
321 ; discontent and desertions of, ib. BORGITES, Mamaluke dynasty of the,
vii. 274 and note. BORYSTHENES, navigation of the by the
Russian traders, vii. 85. BOSPHORUS, kingdom of, reduced by
Trajan, i. 143, 395; acquired by the Goths, 396 ; reduced by Agripp,
ib, note. BOSPHORUS, Strait of, described, ii. 288;
actual width, ib. note S. BOSPHORUS, city of, besieged by the
Turks, v. 175. Bostra, or Bosra, i. 143, note S.; vi.
202, note; siege of by the Saracens, 303; Syriac etymology of the name, ib, and note ; betrayed by the gover
nor Romanus, 304. BOSSUET's Universal History, i. 165,
note. BOTANY, state of that science among
the ancients, vi. 402. BOTHERIC, commandant of Thessalo
nica, murdered by the populace, iii.
391. BOUCICAULT, marshal, assists the em
peror Manuel Palæologus against the
Turks, viii. 37. BOULOGNE, o Gessoriacum. BOURSA, taken and plundered by Ti
mour, viii, 56. BOWIDES, Persian dynasty of, vi. 422. BRAGA, capital of the Suevi in Spain,
taken by Theodoric II., iv. 263. BRANCA LEONE, podestà of Rome, his
vigorous administration, viii. 203. BRANDENBURG, Vandals of, v. 121, nce. BREAD, distribution of at Rome, iv. 84, BRENCKMAN, his ‘Historia Pandic
tarum,' v. 287, note, BREUEN, burnt by the Hungarians, vii.
75. BREONES, tribe of Rhætians, iv. 234
and note: BREQUIGNY, M. de, his Life of Posthree
inus, i. 391, note.
iv. 392 and notes.
the death of pope Urban V., viii.
defeated and killed by the Catalans,
with, i. 145, note ; situation of, 157.
139; province described, 156; im-
Gregory the Great, v. 360.
tised by Charlemagne, vi. 173.
Britain, iv. 399, note S.
of the Euxine, v. 194, note.
Scotland, i. 141, note S.
library in, iii. 417, note S.
209; his virtue questioned, ib. note
Britain a fable, iii. 265.
vades Italy, v. 237; his fabulous ex-
Narses, and slain, 239.
the Lombards, v. 351.
Saracens, vi. 347.
vii. 286; second kingdom of esta-
note S.; history, 168 ; inroads on the
Latin sovereigns of Greece, 329.
the Roman walls, ii. 16, note S.
ii. 44 ; a German race, ib. note 8.;
the troops of Vitiges, v. 150.
Proclus, v. 71.; of Buffon, 72 note.
BURTON. BURTON, Dr., work on the Ante-Nicene
Fathers, iii. 52, note M. Bugiris, in Egypt, destroyed by Dio
cletian, ii. 76; four several places of
that name, vi. 392 note. BUTLER, character of his ‘Lives of the
Saints,' v. 358 note. BUZENTINUS (Bazentinus), river, sepul
chre of Alaric constructed in, iv. 112
and note S. Buzurg Mihir, the Persian philoso
pher, preceptor of Hormouz, v. 367; introduced chess and the fables of
Pilpay into Persia, ib. note. Byron, Lord, swam from Sestus to
Abydus, ii. 290, note M. BYBRHUS, i. 228. BYZANTINE history, defects of, vi. 68 ;
dynasties, review of and reflections on, 132; empire, view of its government, literature, &c. from the time of Heraclius to the invasion of the Franks, vii. 5, sqq.; revenue, 13; coinage, ib. note S.; emperors, their pomp and luxury, 14 ; palace, 15; furniture and attendance, 16; titles, 17 ; officers of the palace, state and army, 19; adoration of the cmperors, 20; reception of ambassadors, 21; processions, 22 ; acquire the province of Lombardy, 98; historians, editions of, viii. 185, note; character of the Bonn edition, ib.
note M. BYZANTINES, wars of the, by whom best
described, ii. 287, note; used the columns of Darius as altars, 289,
note. BYZANTIUM, siege of by Severus' generals, i. 256; fortifications destroyed, 257; how far ruined, ib. note M.; taken by Maximin, ii. 135; besieged by Constantine, 147; advantageous situation, 287; when founded, ib. note ; rebuilt by Pausanias, ib.; revenues derived from the fishery, 293,
note (v. Constantinople). Byzas, founds Byzantium, ii. 287, note.
CÆSARIUS. destroyed by Mahomet, 254 ; de secrated by Abu Taher, the Carra.
thian, 419. CABADEB, or Kobad, king of Persia, his
war with the Romans, v. 85; takes Amida, 86 ; occupies the straits of Caucasus, 88; troubled reign of, 181 ; desires his son, Nushirvan, to be adopted by Justin the emperor, 182
and note M. CADESIA, battle of between the Ara
bians and Persians, date, vi. 291, note S.; description of, 292 ; site of, ib.
note; ruins, ib. note S. CADIJAH, marries Mahomet, vi. 218;
his affection and respect for her,
268. Cadiz, founded, i. 296, note. Cæcilian, bishop of Africa, Constan
tine's liberality to, iii. 32 ; contest with Majorinus and Donatus, 43, acknowledged lawful primate, ib. ;
banishes the Donatist leaders, 44. Cæcilius (or Lactantius), date of his
treatise De Mortibus Persecutorum,' iii. 14 and note ; probably not composed by Lactantius, ib. ; account of the vision of Constantine and Li
cinius, ib. CÆLESTIAN, senator of Carthage, mis
fortunes of, iv. 187. CÆSAR, Julius, his motive for invading
Britain, i. 140, note; degraded the senate, 197, note; deified, 207; provoked his fate, 209; sword of,
captured by the Gergovians, iv. 376. CÆSAR and Augustus, those titles ex
plained, i, 208; use of as family
distinction, 209, note W. CÆSARS, first, their policy, i. 137, 139;
adverse to military merit in a subject, ib.; family of the, 212; their marriage with foreigners forbidden, vii. 23 ; exceptions, 24; empire of the, checked the progress of the
human mind, 44. ‘CASARS’ of Julian, account of that
work, iii. 179. CÆSAREA, capital of Cappadocia, taken
by Sapor, i. 405; taken and sacked
by Chosroes II., v. 392. CÆSAREA, in Syria, plundered and
burnt by the adherents of Firmus, iii. 273; abandoned by Constantine, son of Heraclius, surrenders to the
Saracens, vi. 325. CÆSARIUS, son of the duke of Naples
Caala, or temple of Mecca, seven
poems of, vi. 209 and note; its antiquity, 211; site of, ib. and note M.
.; description of, 212; rites of, ib. ; black stone, ib. and notes ; idols of
CAF. assists Pope Leo IV. against the
Saracens, vi. 411. Car, mountain of Central Asia, v. 173;
creed of the Mahometans respecting,
ib. note S. CAFFA, Genocse colony of, vii. 408 and
note. CAGAN, v. Khan. Carina, queen of the Berbers or Moors,
her alleged method of defence against
the Saracens, vi. 352; death, ib. CAIRO, meaning of the name, vi. 331;
when founded, ib.; besieged by
Amaury, king of Jerusalem, vii. 253. CAIROAN, in the kingdom of Tunis,
foundation of, vi. 349 and note S. Caius, v. Gaius. CALABRIA, that name given to Brut
tium, v. 349 note ; preservation of
the Greek language in, viii. 108. CALED, his conduct at the battle of
Ohud, vi. 249; conversion to Islam, 250 ; his massacres, 254 and note S.; gallantry at Muta and election as general, 258 ; surnamed “Sword of God,” ib. ; victories of, 291 ; virtual leader in the Syrian war, 302 ; succours Abu Obeidah at the siege of Bosra, 303 and note S.; personal prowess at Damascus, 305; Ictter to Amrou, ib.; takes Damascus by storm, 310; his inflexibility, 311; pursues and slays the exiled Damascenes, 312; value of that story, 313, note S. ; defeats the Gassanites, 318; gains the victory at Jermuk, ib.; his death and tomb, 326 ; unjustly
treated by Omar, ib. note S. CALEDONIA, When Christianized, ii. 213
and note ; the country and its inha
bitants described, iii. 266. CALEDONIAN war under the emperor
Severus, i. 265. CALEDONIANS, defeated by Agricola, i.
140; retire northwards, 141. CALIGULA assassinated, i. 211 ; Gibbon
corrected, ib. note W.; character, 217; attempts to place his statue in
the temple of Jerusalem, ii. 154. Calil Babna, vizier of Mahomet II.,
his interview with that Sultan, viii.
151. CALIPH, meaning of that title, vi. 269
and 271, note S. ; first four caliphs compared, 273 ; characters of, 287; conquests of the caliphs, 289; subdue Persia, 290 ; empire of the, 372;
CAMARE. triple division of the caliphate, 394 ; magnificence of the, 395, sq.; their patronage of learning, 399; horrible treatment of by their Turkish guards, 417 and note; other causes of their dccline and fall, 419; their abasement, 422; invite the Bowides, 423 ; Fatimite of Egypt, their gloomy magnificence and political weakness, vii. 251 ; deposed by Noureddin, 253; Abbasside, extinction of by the Mon
gols, viii. 13. CALISTUS II., pope, prohibits the use
of private arms at Rome, viii. 193. CALLIGRAPHES, epithet of Theodosius
the Younger, iv. 163. CALLINICUM, monks and populace of,
burn a converticle and synagogue, iii. 393; St. Ambrose dictates their pardon to Theodosius, ib.; battlo near, between Belisarius and the
Persians, v. 101. CALLINICUS of Heliopolis, inventor of
the Greek fire, vi. 382 and note M. CALLIXENE, priestess of Ceres, rewarded
by Julian, iii. 151, note. CALMUCKS, black, migrations of the,
iii. 314 and notes. CALOCERUS, rebellion of, in Cyprus, ii.
357 and notes. Calo-JOHANNES, Comnenus, emperor
of Trebizond, attempts to organize a confederacy against Mahomet II.,
viii. 181, note M. CALO-JOHN (John or Joannices), re
ceives from pope Innocent III. the title of king of Bulgaria, vii. 286 ; assists the revolt of the Greeks against the Latins, 329; defeats and takes Baldwin I., 330; besieges Thes
salonica, 334 ; assassinated, ib. CALPURNIU8, date of, ii. 28, note S.;
eclogue on the accession of Carus, 53 and note ; description of the Am
phitheatre, 60, note. Calvary, improperly called a Hill, iii.
157, note M.; annual fair on, vii. 172. CALVIN, his system compared with St.
Augustine's, iv. 183, note ; his doctrine of the eucharist, vii. 59; his conduct towards Servetus examined,
60 and note. CALYDONIAN boar, tusks of, at Bene
ventum, v. 134. CALYCADNUB, river, Frederick Barba
rossa drowned in, vii. 246 and note S. CAMARE, ships on the Euxine, i. 396.