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the founder of the Mongol race, ib. note M. . BERTHA, mother of Hugo king of Italy, her gallantries, vii. 25. BERTHA, daughter of Hugo king of Italy, married to Romanus, son of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, vii. 24; her equivocal descent, 25; changes her name to Eudoxia, ib. BERYTUs, famous school of law at, ii. 317 and note; overthrown by an earthquake in the reign of Justinian, v. 252 and note. BEssarion, bishop of Nice, viii. 96; er for the Greeks at the Council of Florence, 100; made a cardinal, 101; poverty, 102, note; his residence in Italy, character and learning, 113; story of his losing the tiara, ib. and note M.; refuses the patriarchate of Constantinople, 123. BEssas, general of Justinian, killed in leading the assault of Petra, v. 202; his unfeeling avarice when governor of Rome during the siege by Totila, 220; flies at his entrance, 222. BEssi, or minor Goths, v. 37, note. BEThlKM, residence of St. Jerom, resort of Roman fugitives to, after the sack of Rome, iv. 108; occupied by Tancred, vii. 224, note S. BEzABDE, taken by Sapor, ii. 410; site of, ib. note S.; besieged by Constantius, 411. BIBLE, early translated into Arabic, vi. 215 and note. BINDOEs, a Sassanian prince, deposes and imprisons Hormouz, v. 370; puts him to death, 372 and note M. BINESEs, the Persian ambassador, takes possession of Nisibis for Sapor, iii. 224. BIRTH, prerogative of, the least invidious of all distinctions, i. 305. Bishops, question of their divine origin, ii. 190, note; at first the same as presbyters, 191; subsequently superior, ib.; original jurisdiction of, 192; called angels in Asia, ib. note; progress of their authority, 194; claimed to be the vicegerents of Christ and successors of the apostles, ib.; metropolitans and primates, 195; ambition of the Roman pontiff, ib.; bishops first seen at court in the reign of Alexander Severus, 259; condition and number under the Christian em
perors, iii. 27; rural, ib. note; equal powers of, 28; election of, ib.; violent and corrupt mode of,29; at first vested in the people, ib.; afterwards usurped by the cimperors, ib. note M.; bishops alone had the power of ordination, 30 ; claimed perpetual obedience from the ordained, 31; income of, 33; exclusive privilege of being tried by their peers, 35; judged the clergy in civil cases, ib.; power of arbitration, ib.; spiritual censorship, 36; exercised on the highest officers except the emperors, ib.; orthodox of the West, banished by Constantine II., 80; conduct in exile, 81; contributed much to the establishment of the French monarchy, iv. 352. BissENI, Turkish tribe, vii. 79 and note S. BissExtile, superstitious regard of the Romans for, iii. 235; Gibbon's explanation of the, corrected, ib. note S. BITHYNIA, i. 162; plundered by the Goths, 398. BLACHERNAE, suburb of Constantinople, ii. 295, note. BLEDA, brother and colleague of Attila, king of the Huns, iv. 193; slain by Attila, 195. BLEMMYEs, invade Egypt, ii. 76; described, 77. BLINDING, various modes of, vii. 369. BLöDEL, legendary name of Bleda, brother of Attila, iv. 193, note S. BLUEs, or orthodox faction of the Hippodrome, patronized by Justinian, v. 50; their dress, manners, and lawless violence, ib. BoADICEA, i. 140. BoccAccio, one of the restorers of Greek learning in Italy, viii. 110; his (reputed) version of Homer, ib. and note M. BOCHARA conquered by the Saracens, vi. 300. BoETHIUS, praetorian praefect, murdered with Aétius, iv. 250. BoethIUs, his explanation of the Trinity, iii. 55, note; character and studies of, v.27; his alleged visit to Athens, 28 and note S.; patriotism, 29; accused of treason, 30; confined in the tower of Pavia, ib. ; composes his “Consolation of Philosophy,’ 31; inhuman execution of, ib.; works translated by Alfred the
Great, 32; canonized, ib.; question as to his Christianity, ib. note S. BoHEMIA, united to the Germanic body by Charlemagne, vi. 175. BoHEMOND, son of Robert Guiscard, vii. 119 ; commands his father's fleet at Durazzo, 121; exploits against the Greeks, 126; a leader in the first crusade, 198; march to Constantinople, 203; motives, 205 and note M.; flattering reception by Alexius Comnenus, 206; takes Antioch, and acquires the sovereignty of it, vii. 217 ; his design to arm the West against the Byzantine empire, 238; clandestine departure, ib. and note ; death, ib. BoLINGBROKE, Lord, observations on the encouragement of learning by the popes, viii. 116, note. BoLSENA, lake, Amalasontha strangled in an island of, v. 128; described, ib. note. BondoCAR, or BIBARs, sultan of Egypt, destroys Antioch, vii. 275; concerned in the attempt to assassinate Edward I., ib. note M. BoNIFACE, count, general of Placidia, character, iv. 175; betrayed into a revolt by his rival Aëtius, 176; invites the Wandals into Africa, ib.; repentance, 181; defeated by Genseric, ib.; besieged in Hippo Regius, 182; joined by Aspar and his forces, 183; again defeated by Genseric, ib.; escapes to Ravenna, 184; battle with Aëtius and death, ib.; medals of, ib., and note S. Bon IFACE, marquis of Montferrat, elected leader of the fourth crusade, vii. 294; adopts the cause of Alexius, son of Isaac Angelus, 296; clemency after the capture of Constantinople, 313; sells Candia to the Venetians, 323; exchanges the provinces beyond the Hellespont for the kingdom of . Thessalonica, or Macedonia, 324; killed by the Bulgarians, 333. Bonifack VIII., pope, his furious contest with Philip le Bel of France, viii. 214; seized and insulted at Anagni by Nogaret and Colonna,215; death and character, ib.; instituted the jubilee, 217. BoxDFACE, St., procures relics for Aglaé, ii. 277. Box:IET, Greek imperial, vii.367, note.
BoxOSUs, general of Aurelian, marries a Goth, ii. 11, note; and Proculus, their revolt in Gaul suppressed by Probus, ii. 50. Book, people of the, Jews and Christians so called by the Arabians, vi. 215, 368 and note. BoRAK, or mysterious horse cf Mahomet, vi. 230. BordEAUx described, iv. 128 and note. BordERERs, what troops so called, ii. 321; discontent and desertions of, ib. BorgiTEs, Mamaluke dynasty of the, vii. 274 and note. BoRYSTHENES, navigation of the by the Russian traders, vii. 85. Bosphorus, kingdom of, reduced by Trajan, i. 143, 395; acquired by the Goths, 396 ; reduced by Agrippa, ib. note. Bosphonus, Strait of, described, ii.288; actual width, ib. note S. Bosphorus, city of, besieged by the Turks, v.175. BosTRA, or Bosra, i. 143, note S.; vi. 202, note; siege of by the Saracens, 303; Syriac etymology of the name, ib. and note; betrayed by the governor Romanus, 304. BossueT's Universal History, i. 165, mote. BotANY, state of that science among the ancients, vi. 402. Both ERIC, commandant of Thessalonica, murdered by the populace, iii. 391. Boucicault, marshal, assists the emperor Manuel Palaeologus against the Turks, viii. 37. Boulogn E, v. Gessoriacum. Boursa, taken and plundered by Timour, viii. 56. BowiDEs, Persian dynasty of, vi. 422. BRAGA, capital of the Suevi in Spain, taken by Theodoric II., iv. 263. BRANCALEoNE, podestà of Rome, his vigorous administration, viii. 203. BRANDENBURG, Wandals of, v. 121, note. BREAD, distribution of at Rome, iv. 84. BRENCKMAN, his ‘Historia Pandoctarum,’ v. 287, note. BREMEN, burnt by the Hungarians, vii. 75. BREoNEs, tribe of Rhaetians, iv. 234 and note. BREQUIGNY, M. de, his Life of PosthuInus, i. 391, note.
BRETAGNE, part of Armorica so called, iv. 392 and notes. BRIDGET, ST., of Sweden, Fo the death of pope Urban W., viii. 250. BRIENNE, Walter de, duke of Athens, defeated and killed by the Catalans, vii. 385. BRIGANTEs, war of Antoninus Pius with, i. 145, note; situation of, 157. BRITAIN, conquered by the Romans, i. 139; province described, 156; importance of, ii. 71; how peopled, iii. 265; invaded by the Scots and Picts, 268; rescued by Theodosius, 271; revolt of Maximus in, 359; emigration from under him, 360; St. Ursula and destined brides of the emigrants, ib. note; legions recalled from by Stilicho, iv. 34; invaded by the Scots of Ireland, 53 ; revolt of the army in, and election of various emperors, 54; revolt of, 130; its independence confirmed by Honorius, 131; government of till the descent of the Saxons, 132 and note; cities, ib. and note; tyrants, 133; church, its poverty, 134; Pendragon of, ib.; descent of the Saxons in, 386; Heptarchy, 389; Gildas' description of, ib.; long resistance of against the barbarians, 390; wars in, ib. sq.; the Britons fly to Wales and Cornwall, 391; and Gaul, ib.; desolation of Britain, 394; language of, how modified by the Saxon invasion, 395 and note S.; inhabitants of, whether exterminated by the Saxons, 396; servitude of, ib.; sold their children, 397; relapse into barbarism, ib.; Britons in Armorica and Wales, their manners, 398; obscure state of Britain, 399; Christianity introduced into by pope Gregory the Great, v. 360. BRITONs, character of the, i. 140. BRITONs of France, reduced and chastised by Charlemagne, vi. 173. BRITTIA, island, whether distinct from Britain, iv. 399, note S. BRossEs, president de, his description of the Euxine, v. 194, note. BRUCE, James, on the Roman wall in Scotland, i. 141, note S. BRUCHIUM, quarter of Alexandria, library in, iii. 417, note S. BRUNswick, house of, genealogy, vii. 119, note.
BRUTUS, revered by the Romans, i. 209; his virtue questioned, ib. note M
BRUTUs, the Trojan, his colonizaticin of Britain a fable, iii. 265. BUCRLIN, duke of the Alemanni, invades Italy, v. 237; his fabulous exploits, ib. note; ravages southern Italy, 238; defeated at Casilinum by Narses, and slain, 239. BUFFALOEs, introduced into Italy by the Lombards, v. 351. BUFFox, burning glasses of, v. 72. BUGIA, African town, captured by the Saracens, vi. 347. BULGARIA, revolts from Isaac Angelus, vii. 286; second kingdom of established, ib. BUL.GARIANs, their ethnology, v. 167, note S.; history, 168; inroads on the eastern empire, 171; under Zabergan, threaten Constantinople, 243; repulsed by Belisarius, 244; kingdom of overthrown by Basil II., vi. 108; their name, how applied by the French, vii. 57 and note; emigration of the, 64; their descent, ib. and 65, note S.; account of the, ib.; situation of the kingdom, ib.; first kingdom of the, 67; overthrown by Basil II., 69; tactics, 73; war of against the Latin sovereigns of Greece, 329. BUNSEN, Chev., explanation of Pliny on the Roman walls, ii. 16, note S. BURGESSEs, court of at Jerusalem, vii. 235. BURGUNDIANs vanquished by Probus, ii. 44; a German race, ib. note S.; on the Elbe, account of the, iii.261 ; fabulous descent from the soldiers of Drusus, ib. and 262 note; deceived by Valentinian, 262; join Radagaisus in invading Italy, iv. 45; overrun Gaul, 51; settle permanently in Gaul, 128; their limits, 129; invade Belgium, 224; defeated and driven to the mountains of Savoy, ib.; settlements on lake Leman, 349; boundaries of their kingdom, 353; finally conquered by the Franks, 356; join the troops of Vitiges, v. 150. BURGUNDy, vineyards of, i. 190 and note W. BURNET, character of his “Sacred Theory of the Earth," ii. 176, note. BURNING GLASSEs of Archimedes and Proclus, v. 7] ; of Buffon, 72 note.
BURTON, Dr., work on the Ante-Nicene Fathers, iii. 52, note M. Busiris, in Egypt, destroyed by Diocletian, ii. 76; four several places of that name, vi. 392 note. Butler, character of his ‘Lives of the Saints,’ v. 358 note. Buze NTINUs (Bazentinus), river, sepulchre of Alaric constructed in, iv. 112 and note S. Buzurg MIHIR, the Persian philosopher, preceptor of Hormouz, v. 367; introduced chess and the fables of Pilpay into Persia, ib. note. ByRoN, Lord, swam from Sestus to Abydus, ii. 290, note M. By abhus, i. 228. BozANTINE history, defects of, vi. 68; dynasties, review of and reflections on, 132; empire, view of its government, literature, &c. from the time of Heraclius to the invasion of the Franks, vii. 5, sqq.; revenue, 13; coinage, ib. note S.; emperors, their pomp and luxury, 14; palace, 15; furniture and attendance, 16; titles, 17; officers of the palace, state and army, 19; adoration of the cmperors, 20; reception of ambassadors, 21; processions, 22; acquire the province of Lombardy, 98; historians, editions of, viii. 185, note; character of the Bonn edition, ib. note M. Byzantin Es, wars of the, by whom best described, ii. 287, note; used the columns of Darius as altars, 289, note. Byzantium, siege of by Severus' generals, i. 256; fortifications destroyed, 257; how far ruined, ib. note M.; taken by Maximin, ii. 135; besieged by Constantine, 147; advantageous situation, 287; when founded, ib. note; rebuilt by Pausanias, ib.; revenues derived from the fishery, 293, mote (v. Constantinople). Byzas, founds Byzantium, ii. 287, note.
destroyed by Mahomet, 254; desecrated by Abu Taher, the Carmathian, 419. CABADEs, or Kobad, king of Persia, his war with the Romans, v. 85; takes Amida, 86; occupies the straits of Caucasus, 88; troubled reign of, 181; desires his son, Nushirvan, to be adopted by Justin the emperor, 182 and note M. CADESIA, battle of between the Arabians and Persians, date, vi. 291, note S.; description of, 292; site of, ib. note; ruins, ib. note S. CADIJAH, marries Mahomet, vi. 218; his affection and respect for her, 268. CADIz, founded, i. 296, note. CAECILIAN, bishop of Africa, Constantine's liberality to, iii. 32; contest with Majorinus and Donatus, 43, acknowledged lawful primate, ib.; banishes the Donatist leaders, 44. CAECILIUs (or Lactantius), date of his treatise ‘De Mortibus Persecutorum,” iii. 14 and note; probably not composed by Lactantius, ib.; account of the vision of Constantine and Licinius, ib. CAELESTIAN, senator of Carthage, misfortunes of, iv. 187. CAESAR, JULIUS, his motive for invading Britain, i. 140, note; degraded the senate, 197, note; deified, 207; provoked his fate, 209; sword of, captured by the Gergovians, iv. 376. CAESAR and Augustus, those titles explained, i. 208; use of as a family distinction, 209, note W. CAESARs, first, their policy, i. 137,139; adverse to military merit in a subject, ib.; family of the, 212; their marriage with foreigners forbidden, vii. 23; exceptions, 24; empire of the, checked the progress of the human mind, 44. “CarsARs' of Julian, account of that work, iii. 179. CAESAREA, capital of Cappadocia, taken by Sapor, i. 405; taken and sacked by Chosroes II., v. 392. CAESAREA, in Syria, plundered and burnt by the adherents of Firmus, iii. 273; abandoned by Constantine, son of Heraclius, surrenders to the Saracens, vi. 325. CAESARIUs, son of the duke of Naples,
assists Pope Leo IV. against the Saracens, vi. 411. CAF, mountain of Central Asia, v.173; creed of the Mahometans respecting, ib. note S. CAFFA, Genoese colony of, vii. 408 and note. CAGAN, v. Khan. CAHINA, queen of the Berbers or Moors, her alleged method of defence against the Saracens, vi. 352; death, ib. CAIRo, meaning of the name, vi. 331; when founded, ib.; besieged by Amaury, king of Jerusalem, vii. 253. CAIRoAN, in the kingdom of Tunis, foundation of, vi. 349 and note S. CAIUs, v. Gaius. CALABRIA, that name given to Bruttium, v. 349 note; preservation of the Greek language in, viii. 108. CALED, his conduct at the battle of Ohud, vi. 249; conversion to Islam, 250; his massacres, 254 and note S.; gallantry at Muta and election as general, 258; surnamed “Sword of God,” ib.; victories of, 291; virtual leader in the Syrian war, 302; succours Abu Obeidah at the siege of Bosra, 303 and note S.; personal prowess at Damascus, 305; letter to Amrou, ib.; takes Damascus by storm, 310 ; his inflexibility, 311 ; pursues and slays the exiled Damascenes, 312; value of that story, 313, note S.; defeats the Gassanites, 318; gains the victory at Jermuk, ib. ; his death and tomb, 326; unjustly treated by Omar, ib. note S. CALEDONIA, when Christianized, ii. 213 and note; the country and its inhabitants described, iii. 266. CALEDONIAN war under the emperor Severus, i. 265. CALEDONIANs, defeated by Agricola, i. 140; retire northwards, 141. CALIGULA assassinated, i. 211; Gibbon corrected, ib. note W.; character, 217; attempts to place his statue in the temple of Jerusalem, ii. 154. CALIL BASHA, vizier of Mahomet II., his interview with that Sultan, viii. 151. CALIPH, meaning of that title, vi. 269 and 271, note S.; first four caliphs compared, 273; characters of, 287; conquests of the caliphs, 289; subdue Persia, 290; empire of the, 372;
triple division of the caliphate, 394; magnificence of the, 395, sq.; their patronage of learning, 399; horrible treatment of by their Turkish guards, 417 and note; other causes of their decline and fall, 419 ; their abasement, 422; invite the Bowides, 423; Fatimite of Egypt, their gloomy magnificence and political weakness, vii. 251; deposed by Noureddin, 253; Abbasside, extinction of by the Mongols, viii. 13. CALISTUS II., pope, prohibits the use of private arms at Rome, viii. 193. CALLIGRAPHES, epithet of Theodosius the Younger, iv. 163. CALLINICUM, monks and populace of, burn a converticle and synagogue, iii. 393; St. Ambrose dictates their pardon to Theodosius, ib.; battle near, between Belisarius ard the Persians, v. 101. CALLINICUs of Heliopolis, inventor of the Greek fire, vi. 382 and note M. CALLIXENE, priestess of Ceres, rewarded by Julian, iii. 151, note. CALMUCKs, black, migrations of the, iii. 314 and notes. CALocerus, rebellion of, in Cyprus, ii. 357 and notes. CALo-JonANNES, Comnenus, emperor of Trebizond, attempts to organize a confederacy against Mahomet II., viii. 181, note M. CALO-JoHN (John or Joannices), receives from pope Innocent III. the title of king of Bulgaria, vii. 286 ; assists the revolt of the Greeks against the Latins, 329; defeats and takes Baldwin I., 330; besieges Thessalonica, 334; assassinated, ib. CALPURNIUs, date of, ii. 28, note S.; eclogue on the accession of Carus, 53 and note ; description of the Amphitheatre, 60, note. CALVARY, improperly called a Hill, iii. 157, note M.; annual fair on, vii. 172. CALVIN, his system compared with St. Augustine's, iv. 183, note; his doctrine of the eucharist, vii. 59; his conduct towards Servetus examined, 60 and note. CALYDONIAN boar, tusks of, at Beneventum, v. 134. CALYcADNUs, river, Frederick Barbarossa drowned in, vii. 246 and mote S. CAMARAE, ships on the Euxine, i. 396.