CAMEL. CAXEL, Arabian, described, vi. 199;

day of the, victory of Ali over the rebels Tolka and Zobeir so called,

275. CAMELOPARDALIS, or giraffe, i. 231, note;

Gibbon corrected, 232, note M. CAMISARDB of Languedoc, compared

with the African Circumcellions, iii.

95. CAMP, Roman, i. 152. Campagna of Rome, reduced to a wil.

derness, v. 356. CAMPANIA, i. 157; desulation of, from

the imperial policy, ii. 336. Campania, or Champagne, iv. 235, note. CAMPBIRE, its use and cultivation in

the East, vi. 295 and note. Camus, a liquor in use among the

Huns, distilled from barley, iv. 211. Canada, compared with ancient Ger

many, i. 351. Candia, modern name of Crete, whence

derived, vi. 408 (v. Crete). CANDIDIANUS put to death by Licinius,

ii. 136. CANINIAN law on manumissions, ii. 37,

note. CANNIBALISM of the Crusadurs, vii. 211. CANNON, enormous one procured by

Mahomet II. for the siege of Constan

tinople, viii. 152; bursts, 160. Canoes, Russian, described, vii. 86. CANTABRIANS, i. 156. CANTACUZENE, John, character of his

History, vii. 390; assists the younger Andronicus in his rebellion against his grandfather, 391 and 392, note M.; his character, 396 ; opulence, ib.; regent in the minority of John Palæologus, 397 ; attacks upon his regency, ib.; declared a public enemy, 398; assumes the purple at Demotica, ib. ; flight and reception by the Cral or despot of the Servians, 399; civil war, ib. ; alliance with the Turks, 400; admitted into Constantinople by Facciolati, great duke, 401; coronation, 402; reign, ib.; associates his son Matthew, 403 ; abdication and retirement to a convent, 404; war with the Genoese and destruction of his feet, 409; alliance with the Venetians, 410; naval defeat, 411; humiliating treaty with the Genoese, ib.; his friendship and alliance with Amir, Turkish prince of lonia, vui, 25; marries his

CARACALLA. daughter to Orchan, Turkish prince of Bithynia, 26; negociations with pope Clement VI., at Avignon, viü.

79. CANTACUZENE, Matthew, associated

in the empire by his father, John,

vii. 403. CANTELORIUS, his treatise • De Præ

fecto Urbis,' ii. 313, note. CANTEMIR, character of his history of

the Ottoman empire, viii. 22, note. CAPELIANUS, defeats the Gordians, i.

315. CAPICULI, or troops of the Porte, viii.

155 and note. Capita, assessment by, erroneously re

ferred by Gibbon to persons, ii. 338, note S.; meant pieces of land, ib.

and 341, note S. CAPITATION-Tax under Constantine, ii.

337; Gibbon's error respecting, corrected, ib. note S. ; two meanings of, explained, ib.; how levied in Gaul,

338. Capito, ATEIUS, his voluminous legal

works, v. 275 ; nature of his legal tenets, 278; founder of a legal sect,

279. Capitol of Rome, destruction of, ii.

237, note ; new, dedicated by Domitian, ib.; roof of described, iv. 256, note; first gilded by Catulus, ib.; becomes the residence of the civil magistrate, 289, note ; described, viii. 200 and note S.; absurd description of, by a writer of the middle

ages, viii. 285. CAPITOLINE games, when instituted,

viii. 226, note. CAPIZUCCHI, Italian family, viii. 220. CAPPADOCIA, kingdom of, i. 160; large

estates of Constantine and his successors in, ii. 329; excellent breed

of horses in, 330 and note. CAPRARIA, isle of, munks or solitaries

at, iv, 18. Capua, i. 157. Caput Vada, near Carthage, landing

of Belisarius at, v. 105 and note. CARACALLA, discord with Geta, i. 264 ;

date of his elevation, 265, note ; ambition and impiety, 266 ; accossion jointly with Geta, 267; their jealousy, ib.; scheme to divide the empire, 268 ; murders Geta, ib. ; remorse, 269; cruelty, 270; directs the massacre at Alexandria, 272 ;

CARACALLUS. murdered, 274 ; emulated Alexander, ib.; edict making all freemen of the empire Roman citizens, 293 ; whether genuine, 302, note S. ; his

nurse a Christian, ii. 257. CARACALLUS, for CARACALLA, i. 264,

note S. CABACORUM, or Holin, residence of the

Mongol Khans, viii. 17 and note. Caractacus, i. 140. Carausius, revolt of, in Britain, ii. 70;

extraction, ib. notes; assumes the purple, 71 ; duration of his reign, ib. and note S.; naval power, ib. ; acknowledged emperor by Diocletian,

72; murdered by Allectus, ib. CARAVANS, Sogdian, route of, to and

from China, v. 59. CARBEAS, the Paulician, and com

mander of the guards, revolt of, vii. 53; alliance with the Saracens, ib.; fortifies Tephrice, ib.; defeats the

emperor Michael, ib. CARDINAL, origin and progress of that

title, vi. 181; college of, obtains the right of electing to the papal chair, viii. 211; how composed, ib. and

note ; conclave instituted, 212. CARDUCHIANS implore Trajan's pro

tection, i. 143. CARDUENE ceded to the Romans, ii. 87. Cabinus, son of Carus, intrusted with

the government of the West, ii. 53; emperor, 56; vices, ib.; defeated by

Diocletian, 63 ; assassinated, ib. CARIZME conquered by the Saracens,

vi. 300. CARIZMIANS, invade Syria, and take

and sack Jerusalem, vii. 271. CARLOMAN, king of Hungary, his treaty

with Godfrey of Bouillon, vii. 202. CARLOVINGIAN dynasty, establishment

of in France, vi. 156. CARMATH, an Arabian preacher, founds

the sect of the Carmathians, vi. 417 and note S.; their military exploits,

418. CARMELITES, derived from the prophet

Elijah, iv. 306, note. CARNUNTUM, ruins of, i. 249, note S. CAROCIUM, or standard of the Lom

bards, vi. 188. CARP LIO, son of Aëtius, educated in

the camp of Attila, iv. 223. CARRAGO, or fortification of a Gothic

camn, iii. 328 and note. CABRA Æ, Temple of the Moon at, i. 274 ;

CATALAUNIAN PLAINS. (Haran) ancient residence of Abra

ham, iii. 188, note. CARTHAGB, i. 161, 186 ; bishopric of,

purchased by Lucilla for Majorinus, ii. 262, note; cathedral of, number of its ministers, iii. 31; conference at respecting the Donatists, iv. 179 and note ; surprised by Genseric, 186; described, ib.; receives Belisarius, v. 100 ; despair of the Arians and triumph of the Catholics, ib. ; natural alteration in the neighbour. hood of, 110, note ; fortifications of, restored by Belisarius, 111; synod of, restores catholicism, 115 ; taken by Hassan, lieutenant of Abdalmalek, vi. 350 ; relieved by the præfect John, sb. ; recaptured and burnt,

351 ; its subsequent fate, ib. CARTHAGENA, rich silver mine at, i.

296. CARTHAGINIANS, manners of described,

iv. 186 ; oppressed by Genseric, 187, Carus, general of Probus, ii. 44; elec

tion as emperor and character, 52 ; defeats the Sarmatians, 54 ; interview with the Persian ambassadors, ib.; victories and mysterious death,

55. CASILINUM, battle of between Narses

and Bucelin, v. 240. Caspian and Iberian gates of Mount

Caucasus, v. 87. Caspian Sea, navies on, v. 36€ note. Cassian, duke of Mesopotamia, nego

tiates with the Persians, ii, 404. Cassians, legal sect, v. 279. CASSIODORUS, Gothic History of, i.

375 ; description of the Venetians, iv. 242 ; epistles of characterized, v. 11; account of, 19 and note S.; mi

nister of queen Amalasontha, 126. Cassius, AVIDIUS, revolts, i. 211, note

216, and note M. CASTILE, origin and meaning of the

name, vi. 365, note. Castinus, Master-General, defented by

the Vandals in Spain, iv. 175. CASTRIOT, John, father of Scanderbeg,

account of, viii. 135; family of the

Castriots in Naples, 139. Catalans, their service aud war in the

Greek empire, vii. 385 ; their origin, ib. note and note S.; their conduct in a sea-fight with the Genoese, 411

and note M. CATALAUNIAN PLAINS, Dear Châlong


camp of the Alemanni at, fii. 258 ; CENSORSHIP revived by Decius, i. 383;

(Champagne) extent of, iv. 235. impracticability of the, 384.
CATAPAN, or governor of the Greek pro CERAMIO, battle of between the Nor-
vince of Lombardy, vii. 98.

mans and Saracens, vii. 117.
CatastRUM, derivatinn and meaning of CEBOA, or Creca, wife of Attila, visit
that word, ii. 337, note S.

of Maximin the Roman ambassador
CATECHUMEN, when Constantine be to, iv. 213.

came, iii. 2; rite used in making, ib. CERDIC, the Saxoz, conquers Hamp-

shire, iv. 390.
CATHAY, name of the northern empire CEREMONIES, pagan, introduction of
of China, viii. 10, note.

into the church, iii. 432; encouraged
CATHERINE, granddaughter of the by the clergy, in order to engage the

emperor Baldwin II., of Courtenay, rustics, 433.
marries Charles of Valois, brother of CEREMONY, progress of among the Ro-

Philip the Fair of France, vii. 346. mans, ii. 304.
CATHERINE, St., of Sienna, legend of, CERIALIS, his advice to the Gauls, iv.
viii. 250 and note.

CATHOLIO church, doctrines how dis CERINTHUS, his doctrine of the double

criminated from Platonism, iii. 50; nature of the Messiah, vi. 7.
edict of Theodosius establishing the CERRONI, tribune of Rome, viii. 245.
catholic faith, 363; progress of ido CEUTA, v. Septem.
latry in, 426; persecution of the CEYLON, v. Taprobana.
catholics in Africa, iv. 328; catholic CHABORAS, river, Julian's passage of
frauds, 334 ;(v.Church, Greek church, into Persia, iii. 191.
and Rome, church of.)

CHAIBAR, capital of the Jews of Arabia,
CATHOLICS, Roman, proofs they require vi. 251 ; Jews of transplanted to Sy-
of martyrdom, ii. 246, note.

ria, 252 and note.
CATIBAH, lieutenant of the caliph Wa CHAIS, M., character of his ‘Lettres his-
lid, his conquests, vi. 300.

toriques sur les Jubilés,' viii. 218,
Catti, i. 390.

CAUCALAND, position of that country, CHALCEDON, taken by the Goths, i.
iii. 318 and note M.

398; site of, ii. 289; proverb re-
Caucha, or Coca, estate of Theodosius specting its founders, ib.; taken by
at, iii. 345 and note.

Chosroes II., V. 393; council of, vi.
Cava, daughter of count Julian, story 26; condemns Dioscorus, 28; faith
of, vi. 354 and notes,

and acts of, ib, and note.
CAVALRY, Roman, under the emperors, CILALCOCONDYLES, Laonicus, Greek his.
i. 150 ; horses whence procured, 151 ; torian, his description of Germany,

viii. 86; of France, 87; of England,
Caviar, made from the sturgeons of 88; strange account of the English-
the Don, vii. 407.

women, ib. and notes M. and S.
Cazan, Mongol khan of Persia, cha CHALONS, battle of between Aurelian
racter, viii, 20 and note.

and Tetricus, ii. 19; between Jovi.
CEAULIN, conquests in western Britain, nus and the Alemanni, iii. 258 ; be-
iv. 391.

tween the Romans and Attila, iv.
CEOROPS conspires against Gallienus, 235; order of the troops, 236.
ii. 2.

CHAMAVIANS, Frankish tribe, driven
CEDARS, holy of mount Libanus, vi. by Julian boyond the Rhine, ii. 419.
57 and note M.

CHAMELEON, the, surname of Leo V.
CELESTINE, pope, condemns the heresy Byzantine emperor, vi. 89.

of Nestorius and deposes him, vi. CHANCELLOR, etymology of, ii. 57, note.

CHANT, Gregorian, described, v. 360

and note.
CELTIC Gaul, province, i. 156.

CHAPELS, Pagan, number of at Rome
CELTIC language, i. 174, note ; prcserved under Gratian, iii. 408.

in Wales and Armorica, iv, 397. CHAPTERS, the Threc, famous dispute
CENSORS, last, i. 383, noté.

of vi 38.
VOL. Vm.

arms, ib.


CAARDIN, Sir John, his character as a France, ib. and note S.; consigned
traveller, vi. 369, note.

to perdition by the French clergy.
• tribe of, vi. 243, and note S. ; rebel CHABLES THE FAT, re-unites the ens-

against Othman, 273; complaints pire of Charlemagne, vi. 178; de-
against, ib. note S.

posed, ib.
CHARIOT Races, account of, iii. 123 CHARLES VIII. of France, buys the title

note; Roman chariots described, iv. of Andrew Palæologus to the em-
78, note.

pires of Constantinople and Trebi-
CHARLEMAGNE, collected German songs, zond, viii, 182, and note; assumes

i. 367; rustic code of, iv. 372, note; the purple and appellation of Augus-
alliance with pope Adrian I., vi. 155; tas, 183.
indulged in polygamy, ib. note ; con CHARLES IV. of Germany, his weak.
quers the Lombards, 156 ; first visit ness and poverty, vi. 192; expedie
to Rome and reception by pope tion into Italy, ib. ; learning, ib.
Adrian, 158; donation to the popes, note; ostentation, 193; contrasted
160; eludes his promises, ib.; forged with Augustus, 194.
decretals of, 161; opposes image CHARLES V., parallel with Diocletian,
worship, 165; emperor of the West, ii. 98; his sack of Rome contrasted
166; assemblies of, ib. note ; protects with that of Alaric, iv. 108.
pope Leo III., 168; last visit to CAARLES OF Anjou, subdues Naples
Rome, ib.; crowned in St. Peter's and Sicily, vii. 376; executes Con-
by Leo, 169; canonized, ib.; sim radin of Suabia, ib. ; treaty with the
plicity of his dress, ib. note; cha Courtenays of Constantinople, 377 ;
racter, 170; question of his incest, allies himself against the Greeks with
ib. and note M.; military renown, Philip, the Latin emperor of Con-
171; campaigns, ib. note M. ; laws, stantinople and the Venetians, ib.;
171 ; first legal author of tithes, Sicilian vespers, 379; defeat, mis-
172, and note; literary merits

fortunes, and death, 380; senator of
inability to write, ib. and note M.; Rome, viji. 204.
stature, ib. and note ; extent of his CHARLES XII. of Sweden, i. 274.
empire, 173; subdues the Bretons, CHARONDAS, laws of, v. 262.
ib. ; punishes the revolt of Aquitain, CHASTITY, refinement unfavourable to,
ib. ; restores the emir of Saragossa, i. 362.
174; establishes the Spanish march, CHATEAUBRIAND, esteemed Constantine
ib. ; Italian dominion, ib.; reduces the founder of royalty, ii. 304,
the Saxons and unites Germany, ib.; note M.
unites Bohemia with the Germanic CHAUCI, i. 390.
body, 175; reduces Pannonia, ib.; CHAWARIJ or CHARIJITES, how con-
correspondence with Harun al Ra founded by Gibbon, vi. 276, note S.;
shid, 176; his war against the Saxons tenets, ib.
defensive, ib. note M. and 177; his CHAZARS, join the Hungarians, vii.
policy in associating his son Lewis in 71 ; Turkish tribe of, 79 and note S.
the empire, ib.; transactions with the CHAZRAJITES, v. Charegites.
Greek emperors, 179; story of his CHEMISTRY, science of, whether origi-
treaty of marriage with Irene, 180; nated by the Arabians, vi. 402, and
reception of the ambassadors of Nice note M.
phorus, ib.; protects the pilgrims CHERSON, city of, vii. 93 and vote.
at Jerusalem, vii. 172; presented CHERSONESUS, city of, confounded by
with the keys of the Holy Sepulchre Gibbon with the Chersonesus Tau-
by Harun al Rashid, ib.; decorates rica, ii. 360, note M.
his palace at Aix-la-Chapelle with CHERSONEBUS TAURICA, i. 395.
the marbles of Ravenna and Rome, CHERSONESUS, Thracian, Romans de-
viii. 275.

feated in by Attila, iv. 200; fortified
CHARLES MARTEL, his character, vi. by Justinian, v. 80.

387; defeats the Saracens under CHERBONITED, Constartine's negociar
Abderame, 389; expels them from tions with ihe, ü. 360 ; Gitbon's mis


ib. ;

take respecting their magistrates cor-
rectod, ib. note M.; assist the Romans
against the Goths, 361; how re-
warded by Constantine, ib.; perse-

cuted by Justinian II., vi. 78.
CHEBUSCI, i. 390.
CHESS, with what design invented by

the Indians, v. 187 ; introduced into
Persia under the reign of Nushirvan,

how altered by Timour, viii. 64,
and note.
Curauss, officer of the Byzantine court,

vii, 19.
CHILDEBERT, great-grandson of Clovis,

invades Italy, v. 347.
CHILDERIC banished and restored by the

Franks, iv. 276 and note; amour
with Bafina, queen of the Thurin-
gians, 346; deposed by pope Zachary

in favour of Pepin, vi. 156.
CHILDREN, the exposing of by their

parents, v. 293; made capital, 294;
natural, how defined by the Roman

law, 300.
CHINA, high antiquity and history of,

iii. 304, 305, note S.; wall of, 308 and
note S. ; invaded by the Topa, iv. 43;
manufacture of silk in, v. 57 and 61,
note ; trade in, 58 sq.; voyages of the
Chinese, 60; art of printing in, 62 ;
invaded by the Turks, 175; ancient
establishment of Christianity in, vi.
50 and notes ; emperors of solicit
the friendship of the Arabs, 300;
manufacture of paper in, ib. note;
invaded and partly conquered by
Zingis Khan, viii. 7; northern and
southern empires of, 10; conquered

by the Mongols, 11.
CHINESE EMPIRE, extent of in the third

century, ii. 80.
CHIONITES, probably Huns, ii. 408,

note M.
CHIVALRY, origin and nature of, vii. 199.
CHLIENES, Armenian prince, family of,

vi. 96.
CHLORUS, surname of Constantius, ii.67.
CHNODOMAR, leads the Germans against

Julian, ii. 416; made prisoner, 418.
CHOREPISCOPI, or rural bishops, iii. 27,

CHOSROES king of Armenia, aids the

Romans, i. 345 ; assassinated, 403.
CHOSRCJS, son of Tiridates, king of Ar-

czenia, character, ii. 369; submits to

the conditions dictated by Sapor, ib.

exacts from Justinian an immunity
for the seven philosophers who had
visited his court, v.94; accession of,
182; date, ib. note; justice of,
183; government of, 184; love of
learning, 185; sells a peace to Jus-
tinian, 187; embassies of Vitiges and
the Arsacides to, 188; invades Syria,
189; takes and burns Antioch, 190;
further expeditions, 191; retreats
before Belisarius, 193; Lazic war,
202; relinquished, 203 ; negociations
and treaties with Justinian, 204 ; re-
signs his claim to Colchis, or Lazica,
205; bis territories and conquests,
206; conquers Yemen, 364; takes
the field against the Romans and
Turks, 365; besieges Dara, ib.; de-
feated by the Romans at Melitene
(Malathiah), 366; death, ib.; white
palace of sacked by the Arabians, vi.

294 ; magnificence of, 295.
CAOSROES II. son of Hormouz, raised to

the throne of Persia on the deposition
of his father, v. 371 ; defeated and
deposed by Bahram, 372; flies to the
Romans, 373 ; protected by the em-
peror Maurice, ib.; restored by Nar-
ses, 374; reign, 375; declares war
against Phocas, 390; conquers Syria,
391 ; Palestine, 392; Egypt and Asia
Minor, 393; his tyranny and osten-
tation, 394 ; summoned by Mahomet
to acknowledge his mission, 395; re-
jects the embassies of Heraclius, 396;
exacts a tribute from him, 397;
forms an alliance with the Avars,
405; threatens Constantinople, ib.;
flies from Dastagerd on the approach
of Heraclius, 410; deposed and mur-

dered by his son Siroes, 412.
CHOSROES, vassal of Persia, rules over

Eastern Armenia, iv. 168 ; obtains

the western portion also, 169.
CHOSROIDUCHTĀ, sister of Otas, ii. 80,

Chozans, or KHAZARS, Turkish tribe of,

alliance with Heraclius V. 406; ac-

count of, ib. note S.
CHRIST, date of his crucifixion, ii. 208,

note ; 233, note; miraculous image of
displayed in battle by the Romans,
v. 368; borne by Heraclius, 389,
note ; 400; sepulchre of burnt by the
Persians under Chosroes II., 392;
reputed statue of at Paneas in Pales.
tine, vi. 136; correspondence with

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