CAMEL, Arabian, described, vi. 199; day of the, victory of Ali over the rebels Tclka and Zobeir so called, 275. CAMELoPARDALIS, or giraffe, i.231, note; Gibbon corrected, 232, note M. CAMISARDs of Languedoc, compared with the African Circumcellions, iii. 95. CAMP, Roman, i. 152. CAMPAGNA of Rome, reduced to a wilderness, v. 356. CAMPANIA, i. 157; desolation of, from the imperial policy, ii. 336. CAMPANIA, or Champagne, iv. 235, note. CAMPhIRE, its use and cultivation in the East, vi. 295 and note. CAMUs, a liquor in use among the Huns, distilled from barley, iv. 211. CANADA, compared with ancient Germany, i. 351. CANDIA, modern name of Crete, whence derived, vi. 408 (v. Crete). CANDIDIANUs put to death by Licinius, ii. 136. CANINIAN law on manumissions, ii. 37, note. CANNIBALISM of the Crusaders, vii. 211. CANNoN, enormous one procured by Mahomet II. for the siege of Constantinople, viii. 152; bursts, 160. CANors, Russian, described, vii. 86. CANTABRIANs, i. 156. CANTACUzENE, JoHN, character of his History, vii. 390; assists the younger Andronicus in his rebellion against his grandfather, 391 and 392, note M.; his character, 396; opulence, ib.; regent in the minority of John Palaeologus, 397 ; attacks upon his regency, ib.; declared a public enemy, 398; assumes the purple at Demotica, ib.; flight and reception by the Cral or despot of the Servians, 399; civil war, ib. ; alliance with the Turks, 400; admitted into Constantinople by Facciolati, great duke, 401 : coronation, 402; reign, ib.; associates his son Matthew, 403; abdication and retirement to a convent, 404; war with the Genoese and destruction of his fleet, 409; alliance with the Wenetians, 410; naval defeat, 411; humiliating treaty with the Genoese, ib.; his friendship and alliance with Amir, i. prince of Ionia, viii, 25; marries his |


daughter to Orchan, Turkish prince of Bithynia, 26; negociations with pope Clement VI., at Avignon, viii. 79. CANTACUZENE, MATTHEw, associated in the empire by his father, John, vii. 403. CANTELORIUs, his treatise ‘De Praefecto Urbis," ii. 313, note. CANTEMIR, character of his history of the Ottoman empire, viii. 22, note. CAPELIANUs, defeats the Gordians, i. 315. CAPICUL1, or troops of the Porte, viii. 155 and note. CAPITA, assessment by, erroneously referred by Gibbon to persons, ii. 338, note S.; meant pieces of land, ib. and 341, mote S. CAPITATION-TAx under Constantine, ii. 337; Gibbon's error respecting, corrected, ib. note S.; two meanings of, explained, ib.; how levied in Gaul, 338. CAPITo, ATEIUs, his voluminous legal works, v. 275; nature of his legal tenets, 278; founder of a legal sect, 279. CApitol, of Rome, destruction of, ii. 237, note; new, dedicated by Domitian, ib.; roof of described, iv. 256, note; first gilded by Catulus, ib.; becomes the residence of the civil magistrate, 289, note; described, viii. 200 and note S.; absurd description of, by a writer of the middle ages, viii. 285. CAPITOLINE games, when instituted, viii. 226, note. CAPIzucchi, Italian family, viii. 220. CAPPADoCIA, kingdom of, i. 160; large estates of Constantine and his successors in, ii. 329; excellent breed of horses in, 330 and note. CAPRARIA, isle of, monks or solitaries at, iv. 18. CAPUA, i. 157. CAPUT WADA, near Carthage, landing of Belisarius at, v. 105 and note. CARACALLA, discord with Geta, i. 264; date of his elevation, 265, note; ambition and impiety, 266; accession jointly with Geta, 267; their jealousy, ib.; scheme to divide the empire, 268; murders Geta, ib.; remorse, 269; cruelty, 270; directs the massacre at Alexandria, 272 :


murdered, 274; emulated Alexander, ib.; edict making all freemen of the empire Roman citizens, 293.; whether genuine, 302, note S.; his nurse a Christian, ii. 257. CARAcALLUs, for CARAcALLA, i. 264, note S. CARAcoruM, or Holin, residence of the Mongol Khans, viii. 17 and note. CARACTAcus, i. 140. CARAUsius, revolt of, in Britain, ii. 70; extraction, ib. notes; assumes the purple, 71; duration of his reign, ib. and note S.; naval power, ib.; acknowledged emperor by Diocletian, 72; murdered by Allectus, ib. CARAVANs, Sogdian, route of, to and from China, v. 59. CARBEAs, the Paulician, and commander of the guards, revolt of, vii. 53; alliance with the Saracens, ib.; fortifies Tephrice, ib.; defeats the emperor Michael, ib. CARDINAL, origin and progress of that title, vi. 181; college of, obtains the right of electing to the papal chair, viii. 211; how composed, ib. and mote ; conclave instituted, 212. CARDUCHIANs implore Trajan's protection, i. 143. CARDUENE ceded to the Romans, ii. 87. CARINUs, son of Carus, intrusted with the government of the West, ii. 53; emperor, 56; vices, ib.; defeated by Diocletian, 63; assassinated, ib. CARIZME conquered by the Saracens, vi. 300. CARIZMIANs, invade Syria, and take and sack Jerusalem, vii. 271. CARLoMAN, king of Hungary, his treaty with Godfrey of Bouillon, vii. 202. CARLovINGIAN dynasty, establishment of in France, vi. 156. CARMATH, an Arabian preacher, founds the sect of the Carmathians, vi. 417 and note S.; their military exploits, 418. CARMELITEs, derived from the prophet Elijah, iv. 306, note. CARNUNTUM, ruins of, i. 249, note S. CAROCIUM, or standard of the Lombards, vi. 188. CARP:LIo, son of Aëtius, educated in the camp of Attila, iv. 223. CARRAGo, or fortification of a Gothic camp, iii. 328 and note. CARRHAE,Temple of the Moon at, i. 274;


(Haran) ancient residence of Abraham, iii. 188, note. CARTHAGE, i. 161, 186; bishopric of, purchased by Lucilla for Majorinus, ii. 262, note; cathedral of, number of its ministers, iii. 31; conference at respecting the Donatists, iv. 179 and mote; surprised by Genseric, 186; described, ib.; receives Belisarius, v. 100 ; despair of the Arians and triumph of the Catholics, ib.; natural alteration in the neighbourhood of 110, note ; fortifications of, restored by Belisarius, 111; synod of, restores catholicism, 115; taken by Hassan, lieutenant of Abdalmalek, vi. 350; relieved by the praefect John, ob. ; recaptured and burnt, 351 ; its subsequent fate, ib. CARTHAGENA, rich silver mine at, i. 296. CARTHAGINIANs, manners of described, iv. 186; oppressed by Genseric, 187. CARUs, general of Probus, ii. 44; election as emperor and character, 52; defeats the Sarmatians, 54; interview with the Persian ambassadors, ib.; victories and mysterious death, 55. CASILINUM, battle of between Narses and Bucelin, v.240. CASPIAN and Iberian gates of Mount Caucasus, v. 87. CASPIAN Sea, navies on, v. 366 note. CASSIAN, duke of Mesopotamia, nego tiates with the Persians, ii. 404. CASSIANs, legal sect, v. 279. CASSIoDoRUs, Gothic History of, i. 375; description of the Venetians, iv. 242; epistles of characterized, v. 11; account of, 19 and note S.; minister of queen Amalasontha, 126. CASSIUs, AvidsUs, revolts, i. 211, note 216, and note M. CASTILE, origin and meaning of the name, vi. 365, note. CASTINUs, Master-General, defeated by the Vandals in Spain, iv. 175. CASTRIOT, John, father of Scanderbeg, account of, viii. 135; family of the Castriots in Naples, 139. CATALANs, their service aud war in the Greek empire, vii. 385; their origin, ib. note and note S. ; their conduct in a sea-fight with the Genoese, 411 and note M. CATALAUNIAN PLAINs, near Châlons,

camp of the Alemanni at, sii. 258;
(Champagne) extent of, iv. 235.
CATAPAN, or governor of the Greek pro-
vince of Lombardy, vii. 98.
CATASTRUM, derivation and meaning of
that word, ii. 337, note S. |
CATECHUMEN, when Constantine be-
came, iii. 2; rite used in making, ib.
CATHAY, name of the northern empire
of China, viii. 10, note.
CATHERINE, granddaughter of the
emperor Baldwin II., of Courtenay,
marries Charles of Valois, brother of
Philip the Fair of France, vii. 346.
CATHERINE, St., of Sienna, legend of,
viii. 250 and note.
Catholic church, doctrines how dis-
criminated from Platonism, iii. 50 ;
edict of Theodosius establishing the
catholic faith, 363; progress of ido-
latry in, 426; persecution of the
catholics in Africa, iv. 328; catholic
frauds, 334; (v.Church,Greek church,
and Rome, church of.)
CATHolics, Roman, proofs they require
of martyrdom, ii. 246, note.
CATIBAH, lieutenant of the caliph Wa-
lid, his conquests, vi. 300.
CATTI, i. 390.
CAUCALAND, position of that country,
iii. 318 and note M.
CAUCHA, or Coca, estate of Theodosius
at, iii. 345 and note.
CAvA, daughter of count Julian, story
of, vi. 354 and notes.
CAvALRY, Roman, under the emperors,
i. 150; horses whence procured, 151;
arms, ib.
CAviar, made from the sturgeons of
the Don, vii. 407.
CAzAN, Mongol khan of Persia, cha-
racter, viii. 20 and note.
CEAULIN, conquests in western Britain,
iv. 391.
CEORops conspires against Gallienus,
ii. 2.
CEDARs, holy of mount Libanus, vi.
57 and note M.
CELESTINE, pope, condemns the heresy
of Nestorius and deposes him, vi.
CEltic GAUL, province, i. 156.
CELT1c language, i. 174, note; preserved
in Wales and Armorica, iv. 397.

CRNsons, last, i. 383, note.
vol. VIII.


CKNSORSHIP revived by Decius, i. 383;
impracticability of the, 384.
CERAMIo, battle of between the Nor-
mans and Saracens, vii. 117.
CERCA, or Creca, wife of Attila, visit
of Maximin the Roman ambassador
to, iv. 213.
CERDIC, the Saxois, conquers Ham
shire. iv. 390. ls, q p-
CEREMONIEs, pagan, introduction of
into the church, iii. 432; encouraged
by the clergy, in order to engage the
rustics, 433.
CEBEMONY, progress of among the Ro-
mans, ii. 304.
Co. his advice to the Gauls, iv.

CERINTHUs, his doctrine of the double
nature of the Messiah, vi. 7.
CERRoNI, tribune of Rome, viii. 245.
CEUTA, v. Septem.
CEYLON, v. Taprobana.
CHABORAs, river, Julian's passage of
into Persia, iii. 191.
CHAIBAR, capital of the Jews of Arabia,
vi. 251; . of transplanted to Sy-
ria, 252 and note.
CHAIs, M., character of his ‘Lettres his-
toriques sur les Jubilés, viii. 218,
CHALCEDON, taken by the Goths, i.
398; site of, ii. 289; proverb re-
specting its founders, ib.; taken by
Chosroes II., v. 393; council of, vi.
26; condemns Dioscorus, 28; faith
and acts of, ib. and note.
CHALCocondyles, Laonicus, Greek his-
torian, his description of Germany,
viii. 86; of France, 87; of England,
88; strange account of the English-
women, ib. and notes M. and S.
CHALONs, battle of between Aurelian
and Tetricus, ii. 19; between Jovi-
nus and the Alemanni, iii. 258; be-
tween the Romans and Attila, iv.
235; order of the troops, 236.
CHAMAvLANs, Frankish tribe, driven
by Julian beyond the Rhine, ii. 419.
CHAMELEoN, the, surname of Leo V.
Byzantine emperor, vi. 89.
CHANGELLOR, etymology of, ii. 57, note.
CHANT, Gregorian, described, v. 360
and note.
CHAPELs, Pagan, number of at Rome
under Gratian, iii. 408.
CHAPTERs, the Three, famous dispute
of vi 38.


CHARDIN, Sir John, his character as a |
traveller, vi. 369, note.
• tribe of, vi. 243, and note S.; rebel
against Othman, 273; complaints
against, ib. note S.
CHARIOT RACEs, account of, iii. 123
note; Roman chariots described, iv.
78, note.
CHARLEMAGNE, collected German songs,
i. 367; rustic code of, iv. 372, note;
alliance with pope Adrian I., vi.155;
indulged in polygamy, ib. note; con-
quers the Lombards, 156; first visit
to Rome and reception by pope
Adrian, 158; donation to the popes,
160; eludes his promises, ib.; forged
decretals of, 161; opposes image-
worship, 165; emperor of the West,
166; assemblies of, ib. note ; protects
pope Leo III., 168; last visit to
Rome, ib.; crowned in St. Peter's
by Leo, 169; canonized, ib.; sim-
plicity of his dress, ib. note; cha-
racter, 170; question of his incest,
ib. and note M. ; military renown,
171; campaigns, ib. note M.; laws,
171; first legal author of tithes,
172, and note; literary merits, ib.;
inability to write, ib. and note M.;
stature, ib. and note; extent of his
empire, 173; subdues the Bretons,
ib.; punishes the revolt of Aquitain,
ib.; restores the emir of Saragossa,
174; establishes the Spanish march,
ib.; Italian dominion, ib.; reduces
the Saxons and unites Germany, ib.;
unites Bohemia with the Germanic
body, 175; reduces Pannonia, ib.;
correspondence with Harun al Ra-
shid, 176; his war against the Saxons
defensive, ib. note M. and 177; his
policy in associating his son Lewis in
the empire, ib.; transactions with the
Greek emperors, 179; story of his
treaty of marriage with Irene, 180;
reception of the ambassadors of Nice-
phorus, ib.; protects the pilgrims
at Jerusalem, vii. 172; presented
with the keys of the Holy Sepulchre
by Harun al Rashid, ib.; decorates
his at Aix-la-Chapelle with
the marbles of Ravenna and Rome,
viii. 275.
CHARLEs MARTEL, his character, vi.
387; defeats the Saracens under
Abderame, 389; expels them from


France, ib. and note S.; consigned
to perdition by the French clergy,
CHARLEs THE FAT, re-unites the end-
pire of Charlemagne, vi. 178; de-
posed, ib.
CHARLEs VIII. of France, buys the title
of Andrew Palaeologus to the em-
pires of Constantinople and Trebi-
zond, viii. 182, and note; assumes
the purple and appellation of Augus-
tus, 183.
CHARLEs IV. of Germany, his weak-
ness and poverty, vi. 192; expedi-
tion into Italy, ib.; learning, ib.
note; ostentation, 193; contrasted
with Augustus, 194.
CHARLEs W., parallel with Diocletian,
ii. 98; his sack of Rome contrasted
with that of Alaric, iv. 108.
CHARLEs of ANJoU, subdues Naples
and Sicily, vii. 376; executes Con-
radin of Suabia, ib.; treaty with the
Courtenays of Constantinople, 377;
allies himself against the Greeks with
Philip, the Latin emperor of Con-
stantinople and the V. ib.;
Sicilian vespers, 379; defeat, mis-
fortunes, and death, 380; senator of
Rome, viii. 204.
Charles XII. of Sweden, i. 274.
CHARONDAs, laws of, v. 262.
Chastity, refinement unfavourable to,
i. 362.
Chate AUBRIAND, esteemed Constantine
the founder of royalty, ii. 304,
note M.
CHAUCI, i. 390.
Chaw ARIJ or CHARIJITEs, how con-
founded by Gibbon, vi. 276, note S.;
tenets, ib.
CHAZARs, join the Hungarians, vii.
71; Turkish tribe of, 79 and note S.
CHAzRAJITEs, v. Charegites.
CHEMISTRY, science of, whether origi-
nated by the Arabians, vi. 402, and
note M.
CHERson, city of, vii. 93 and note.
CHERsonEsus, city of, confounded by
Gibbon with the Chersonesus Tau-
rica, ii. 360, note M.
CHERsonEsus, Thracian, Romans de-
feated in by Attila, iv. 200; fortified
by Justinian, v. 80.
CHEBsonITEs, Constartine's negocia-
tions with the, ii. 360; Gibbon's mis-


take respecting their magistrates cor-
rected, ib. note M.; assist the Romans
against the Goths, 361; how re-
warded by Constantine, ib. ; perse-
cuted by Justinian II., vi. 78.
CHERUsci, i. 390.
CHEss, with what design invented by
the Indians, v. 187; introduced into
Persia under the reign of Nushirvan,
ib.; how altered by Timour, viii. 64,
and note.
CHLAUSs, officer of the Byzantine court,
vii. 19.
CHILDEBERT, great-grandson of Clovis,
invades Italy, v. 347.
CHILDERIC banished and restored by the
Franks, iv. 276 and note; amour
with Bafina, queen of the Thurin-
gians, 346; deposed by pope Zachary
in favour of Pepin, vi. 156.
CHILDREN, the exposing of by their
parents, v. 293; made capital, 294;
natural, how defined by the Roman
law, 300.
CHINA, high antiquity and history of,
iii.304,305, note S.; wall of, 308 and
note S.; invaded by the Topa, iv. 43;
manufacture of silk in, v. 57 and 61,
note; trade in, 58 sq.; voyages of the
Chinese, 60; art of printing in, 62;
invaded by the Turks, 175; ancient
establishment of Christianity in, vi.
50 and notes; emperors of solicit
the friendship of the Arabs, 300;
manufacture of paper in, ib. note;
invaded and partly conquered by
Zingis Khan, viii. 7; northern and
southern empires of, 10; conquered
by the Mongols, 11.
CHINESE EMPIRE, extent of in the third
century, ii. 80.
CHIONITEs, probably Huns, ii. 408,
note M.
CHIvaLRY, origin and nature of, vii. 199.
CHLuenes, Armenian prince, family of,
vi. 96.
CHLoRUS, surname of Constantius, ii.67.
CHNoDOMAR, leads the Germans against
Julian, ii. 416; made prisoner, 418.
Chore:PIscoPI, or rural bishops, iii. 27,
Choshoes king of Armenia, aids the
Romans, i. 345; assassinated, 403.
Chosroes, son of Tiridates, king of Ar-
menia, character, ii. 369; submits to
the conditions dictated by Sapor, ib.
Caoshoes NUSHIRVAN, king of Persia,


exacts from Justinian an immunity
for the seven philosophers who had
visited his court, v.94; accession of,
182; date, ib. note; justice of,
183; government of, 184; love of
learning, 185; sells a peace to Jus-
tinian, 187; embassies of Vitiges and
the Arsacides to, 188; invades Syria,
189; takes and burns Antioch, 190;
further expeditions, 191; retreats
before Belisarius, 193; Lazic war,
202; relinquished, 203; negociations
and treaties with Justinian, 204; re-
signs his claim to Colchis, or Lazica,
205; his territories and conquests,
206; conquers Yemen, 364; takes
the field against the Romans and
Turks, 365; besieges Dara, ib.; de-
feated by the Romans at Melitene
(Malathiah), 366; death, ib.; white
palace of sacked by the Arabians, vi.
294; magnificence of, 295.
Choshoes II. son of Hormouz, raised to
the throne of Persia on the deposition
of his father, v. 371; defeated and
deposed by Bahram, 372; flies to the
Romans, 373; protected by the em-
peror Maurice, ib.; restored by Nar-
ses, 374; reign, 375; declares war
against Phocas, 390; conquers Syria,
391; Palestine, 392; Egypt and Asia
Minor, 393; his tyranny and osten-
tation, 394; summoned by Mahomet
to acknowledge his mission, 395; re-
jects the embassies of Heraclius, 396;
exacts a tribute from him, 397;
forms an alliance with the Avars,
405; threatens Constantinople, ib.;
flies from Dastagerd on the approach
of Heraclius, 410; deposed and mur-
dered by his son Siroes, 412.
Chosroes, vassal of Persia, rules over
Eastern Armenia, iv. 168; obtains
the western portion also, 169.
Choshoi.DUCHTA, sister of Otas, ii. 80,
ChozAns, or KHAZARs, Turkish tribe of,
alliance with Heraclius W. 406; ac-
count of, ib. note S.
CHRIST, date of his crucifixion, ii. 208,
note; 233, note; miraculous image of
displayed in battle by the Romans,
v. 368; borne by Heraclius, 389,
note; 400; sepulchre of burnt by the
Persians under Chosroes II., 392;
reputed statue of at Paneas in Pales-
tine, vi. 136; correspondence with

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