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how regarded by the Romans, ii.

Cousin, president, his version of Pro

copius, v. 97.
Cow's Mouth, débouche of the Ganges

from, viii, 48 and note M.
Cracow, city of destroyed by the Mon-

gols, viï. 14.
CRAL, or despot of Servia, vü. 399 and

CREEDS, the most ancient had the

greatest latitude, iii. 52, note; Atha-
nasian creed, true history of, iv. 334

and note.
CRESCENTIUS, consul of Rome, revolts

against Otho III., vi. 186; betrayed

and hanged, ib.; medal of, ib. note M.
CRESTON, city mentioned by Herodotus,

site of, v. 260 and note S.
CRETR, subdued by the Arabs, vi. 407 ;

called Candia from their fortress Can-
dax, or Chandak, 408 and note S.;
reduced by Nicephorus Phocas, 424
and note S.; fleet for its reduction,
vii. 29; sold to the Venetians by
Boniface marquis of Montferrat, vii.

CRIMES, chief source of, i. 222; how

discriminated by Roman law, v. 321.
CRINITUS, Ulpius, adopts Aurelian, ii.

CRISPUS, son of Constantine, made

Cæsar, ii. 142; victories over the
Franks and Alemanni, 144; defeats
the fleet of Licinius, 148; virtues,

Constantine's jealousy of, 351 ;
disgrace and death, 352 and note;
whether married to Helena, ib. notes ;

ruined by the arts of Fausta, 353.
CRISPUS, the patrician, marries the

daughter of Phocas, v. 388; incites
the insurrection of Heraclius and
Nicetas in Africa, ib. ; condemned to

a monastery by Heraclius, 390.
CROATIA, account of the kingdom of,

vii. 66.
CROCODILES exhibited by Augustus, ii.

59, note.
CBocus, or EROCU8, chief of the Ale-

manni, ii. 111; etymology of his

name, ib. note S.
CROBB, symbol of adopted by Constan-

tine and his soldiers, ü. 12; use of
the sign of, 13; in the sky, Constan-
tine's vision of, 15; physical expla-
nations of, ib. and notes ; testimony

of suspicious, 17 and notes ; discovery
(or invention) of, 156; not dimi.
nished by gifts of pieces, 157; Lord
Mahon's history of, ib. note M.;
exaltation of the, origin of that fes-
tival, v. 414 ; sign of adopted by the

crusaders, vii. 183 and note.
CROWNs, mural and obsidional, distin-

guished, iii. 200, note ; musical, first

extorted by Nero, viii. 227, note.
Csown of thorns, pledged to the Vene-

tians by the barons of Romania, vi.
341; transferred to Paris, 342; mira-

cles performed by, ib.
CRUCIFIXION, Þow regarded by the

Romans, iü. 11; that punishment

abolished by Constantine, ib.
CRUSADES, first, determined on at the

council of Clermont, vii, 183; inquiry
into the justice of, 184; original his-
torians and documents of, ib. note
and note M.; Gibbon's remarks on
examined, 185, note M.; spiritaal
motives and indulgences, 186; serving
in equivalent to a plenary indulgence,
188; temporal and carnal motives,
189; departure of the first crusaders,
191 ; led by a goose and goat, 192 ;
Gibbon's account corrected, 189, note
M.; destruction of the first crusaders
in Hungary and Asia, 193; table of
events of the first, 195 ; account of
the leaders of, 196; march of the
princes, 202 ; review and number of
the crusaders, 209; their cannibalism,
210 and 211, note; besiege Nice,
211; gain the battle of Dorylæum,

march through Anatolia, 214;
take Antioch, 217; defeat the Turks
under Kerboga at, 218; famine and
distress, 219; march to Jerusalem,
224 ; capture and sack the city, 227;
defeat the caliph of Egypt at
Ascalon, 229; second and third cru-
sades, 239; numbers, leaders, and
march of the second, 240 and note

of the third, 241; ill treatment
by the Greek emperors, 242; march
of the second crusade through Ans-
tolia, 244 and note ; result of the
second crusade, 245; obstinate enthu-
siasm of the crusaders, 246; third
crusade, 260; fourth and fifth, 268;
multiplication of, ib.; sixth, 271;
seventh, 274; acoount of the fourth
crusade, 288; its leaders form ad
alliance with the Venetians, 292;




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besiege Zara, 295; dissensions among
respecting an attack on Constanti-
nople, 297; voyage from Zara to
Constantinople, 298;, passage of
the Bosphorus, 301 ; siege and con-
quest of Constantinople, 303 ; stay at
that city, 306; second siege and cap-
ture of, 310; division of the spoil,
314 and note 8.; sacrilege and
mockery, 316; destroy the Greek
statues, 317; divide the Eastern
empire, 320 and 322; elect Baldwin
emperor, 321; reflections on the
general consequences of the crusades,
346; checked the progress of Europe,

CRUITNICH, etymology and meaning of

that epithet, iii. 266.
CTESIPHON, i. 341; taken by Severus,

340; royal residence, ib. ; described,
iii. 201 ; siege of abandoned by

Julian, 205 (v. Madayn).
Cublai, Khan of the Mongols, conquers

China, viii. 10, 11; character and

reign, 18.
CUDWORTH, hypercosmian soul of ex-

ploded, iii. 47, note.
Cora, tomb of Ali at, vi. 277 and

notes ; pilgrimage of the Persians to,
ib.; foundation of, 295; etymology

of its name, 296 and note S.
CUMANs, Turkish tribe, vii. 79 note, and

note S.
CUNIMUND, king of the Gepidæ, refuses

Alboin his daughter Rosamond, v.
333; defeated and slain by the Lom-
bards and Avars, 334 ; his skull made

into a cup, ib. and note.
CURATOR, office of under the Roman

law, v. 302 and note S.
CURDS, descendants of the Carduchians,

ii. 87; tribes of the described, vii.
253; probably identical with the

Carduchians, 254 and note.
CURLAND, holy groves of, vii. 84 and

CUROPALATA, office of, vii. 19.
CORUBIS, town of, ii. 248, note.
CUTULMISH, grandson of Seljuk, slain

by Alp Arslan, vii. 168.
CYANEAN rocks, ii. 288.
CYBELE, Julian's oration in honour of,

iii. 139.
CYNEGIUS, prætorian præfect of the

Eart, commissioned by Theodosius to

close the pagan temples, iii. 414.
CYPRIAN, bishop of Carthage, character

of, ii. 195; opposes the ambition of
the Roman pontiff, 196 ; imperious
declamations of, 203 ; account of,
246, 899.; his letters, ib. note; dan-
ger and flight, 247; banished to
Curubis, 248 ; condemned, 249 ; his
motive for concealing himself, ib.
note G. ; martyrdom, 250; whether
the first martyr in Africa, ib.

note G.
CYPRUS, massacre committed at by the

Jews, ii. 222 and note ; conquered by
Harun al Rashid, vi. 406; recovered
by Nicephorus Phocas, 428; bestowed
by Richard I. on Guy de Lusignan,

vii. 286.
CYRENE, i. 161; massacre at by the,

Jews, ii, 222 and note; a Lacedæmo-
nian colony, iii. 36, notes ; ruins of,
ib.; Greek colonies of, extirpated by

Chosroes II., v. 393.
CYRIADES, elected emperor at the com-

mand of Sapor, i. 404.
CYRIACUS of Ancona, forgery of, ii.

237, note.
CYRIL of Alexandria, answers Julian's

work against Christianity, iii. 145
and note; account of, vi. 11; his
tyranny, 12; opposition to Orestes,
the præfect, 13; murders Hypatia,
14; condemns the heresy of Nesto-
rius, 17; attends the council of
Ephesus, 18; procures the condem-
nation of Nestorius, 19; condemned
and degraded by the oriental bishops,
20; intrigues at Constantinople and
victory over Nestorius, 21 ; death,

CYRIL of Jerusalem, his surprising

ignorance of the story of the Labarum,
iii. 66, note ; his description of a
celestial cross, 67; convenient easi-
ness of his principles, 157 and

CIBUS, prætorian præfect of the East,

disgraced, iv. 165.
Cyrus the patriarch, præfect of Egypt

under Heraclius, his plan for convert-

ing the caliph Omar, vi. 333, note.
CyBus, river, course of, v. 194.
CYZICUS, threatened by the Goths, i.

399; taken, ib.; seized by the

usurper Procopius, iii. 240.
CZAR, Russian, singular way of marry.

ing, vi. 93.

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ii. 277, note ; edict of Valentinian ko

addressed to, iii. 253; his ambition

and luxury, 255; contest with Ur-

sinus, ib.
DACIA, conquered by Trajan, i. 142; DAMES, a Saracen, gallant exploit in

boundaries, ib.; described, 152; in taking the castle of Aleppo, vi. 323.
vaded by the Goths, 381 ; relin DAMIETTA, taken by the crusaders
quished to the Goths by Aurelian, under Louis IX., vii. 272.
fi. 12 ; Dacia Aureliani, ib. note S.; DAMOPAILUS, archbishop of Constanti-
and Macedonia added to the Eastern nople, resigns his see rather than
empire by Gratian, iii. 343.

subscribe the Nicene creed, iii. 368.
Dacians, character, i. 142.

DANCERS, female, numbers of at Rome,
DaDASTANA, death of Jovian at, iti. 231. iv. 87 and note.
Demons identified by the primitive DANDOLO, Henry, doge of Venice, cha-

Christians with the pagan gods, ii. racter, vii. 292; longevity, ib. note ;

blindness, ib. and note M.; treaty
DAGALAIPHUS, his bold and candid ad wit the French crusaders, 293 ; per,

vice to Valentinian, iii. 236; refuses suades them to attack the revolted
the command against the Alemanni, cities of Dalmatia, 295; adopts the

cause of Alexius son of Isaac Ange-
DAGISTEU8, general of Justinian, be lus, 296; suspected of a bribe from

sieges Petra, v. 201; commands the Malek Adel, 297 note S.; magnani-

Huns in Italy under Narses, 231. mity at the siege of Constantinople,
DAGOBERT, king of the Franks, pub 304; declines to compete for the im-
lishes the Salic laws, iv. 365.

perial crown, 321 ; proclaimed despot
Danes and Gabrah, war of, vi. 207, of Romania, 323 ; death, 332.

DANES, invade Britain, iv. 389.
DAIMBERT, or DAGOBERT, archbishop DANIEL, prophecy of, applied to Rome

of Pisa, installed patriarch of Jeru by St. Jerom, iv. 403, note.
salem, vii. 229 and note M.; his DANIEL, first bishop of Winchester,
arrogance and pretensions, ib.

epistle to St. Boniface respecting the
Dalmatia described, i. 158; conquest conversion of infidels, iv. 325.
of, 248.

DANIELIS, her gifts to the emperor
DALMATIAN legionaries sacrificed by the Basil, vii. 11; her journey to Con-
folly of Olympius, iv. 95.

stantinople, 17; testament, ib.
Dalmatius the censor, brother of Con DANUBE, course, i. 158 ; provinces on,
stantine, ii. 348.

ib.; freezing of, 351 and note M.;
DALMATIUS, nephew of Constantine, and Rhine, junction of by Charle-

education, ii. 356 ; appointed to the magne, vi. 175 and note.
Gothic frontier, 357; excluded from DAPHNE, sacred grove and temple near
the empire by the troops, 364; cha Antioch described, iii. 167 ; prophetic
racter, ib. note; massacred by Con powers of its Castalian stream, ib.
stantius, 365.

and note ; its sensuality proverbial,
DALMATIUS the abbot, assists the cause 168 and note ; Julian's visit to, 168 ;
of Cyril of Alexandria, vi. 21.

its conversion into a Chrstian ceme-
Damascus, throne of the caliphs trans tery, 169; bodies removed by order

ferred to, vi. 284; besieged by the of Julian, ib.; temple at, burnt, ib.
Saracens, 304; antiquity of, ib. note; Dara, founded by the emperor Anas-
figs of, ib.; surrendered to Abu tasius, as a bulwark against the
Obeidah, 310; and also stormed by Persians, v. 86; improved by Justi-
Caled, ib.; flight of the exiles of, and nian, ib.; its defences described, 87;
pursuit by Caled, 312; historical ruins of, ib. note M. ; taken by Nu-
value of that story, 313 note S. ; re shirvan, 365.
captured by the sultan Noureddin, DARDANIANS, site of the, ii. 68, note.
vü. 250 and note M. ; perfidiously DARDANUS, prætorian præfect in Gaul

seized and burnt by Timour, viii. 53. alone opposes Jovinus, iv. 122;
Danasus, when made bishop of Rome, sbaracter, ib. note.


DARGHAM, Egyptian faction of, under not confined to good princes, ib. note

the Fatimite caliphs,vii.251; slain, ib. W.
DARIU8, columns of, on the Bosphorus, DELATORS encouraged by Commodus,
ii. 289, note.

i. 225; punished by Pertinax, 237.
Darius, officer of Valentinian III., em DELHI taken by Timour, viii. 47.

bassy of, to the revolted count Boni DELPHI, ornaments of the temple re-
face in Africa, iv, 180.

moved to Constantinople by Con-
DARKNESS during the crucifixion, not stantine, ii, 298, note.

mentioned by heathen philosophers DELPHICOM, name for a royal banquet-
and historians, ii. 219.

ing-room, v. 110, note.
DASTAGERD, or ARTEMITA, residence of DEMETRIAS, the celebrated virgin,

Chosroes II., v. 394 and note M. ; escapes from the sack of Rome, iv.
taken and plundered by Heraclius, 107.
409; site of, ib, note S.

DEMETRIUS, despot of Epirus, vii. 343.
Dart3, poisoned, of the Sarmatians and DEMETRIUS, brother of John II., Pa.
others, ii. 358 and note.

læologus, refuses his assent to the
Datianus, governor of Spain, perse union of the Greek and Latin
cutes the Christians, ii, 275.

churches, viii. 102.
Datius, bishop of Milan, aids the re DEMOCRACY, unfavourable to freedom

volt of the Ligurians to Justinian, in large states, i. 171.
v. 147 ; escapes to Constantinople DEMOSTHENES, his heroic defence of
at the capture of Milan by the Bur Cæsarea, i. 405.
gundians, 151.

DEMOTICA, city of, vii. 324 and note.
DEAD, how disposed of by the Persians, DENGISICH, son of Attila, slain, iv.
v. 200, note.

248 ; Turkish etymology of his name
DEBTORS, state, how treated among the ib. note S.

Romans, ii. 342; insolvent, cruel DEOGRATIAS, bishop of Carthage, his
treatment of, v. 317.

charity towards the captive Romans,
DECEBALUB, king of Dacia, i. 142.

iv. 258.
DECEMVIRS, laws of the, v. 261 and DE Pauw, literary character, ii. 47,
notes, 267, 316.

note M.
DECENNOVIUM, canal, v. 134, note, DERAR, friend of the Saracen genera
DECENTIUS, brother of Magnentius, ex Caled, his adventurous valour, vi.

pelled from Trèves, ii. 384; suicide, 306.

DERBEND, called the Caspian or Alba-
Decimus, battle of, between Belisarius nian gates, v. 87.
and Gelimer, v. 109.

DERVISHES, or Mahometan monks, in.
Decius elected by the Mæsian legions, crease of, viii. 126.

i. 374 ; origin, ib. note ; marches DESIDERIUS, last king of the Lombards.
against the Goths, ib.; Gothic war, reduced by Charlemagne, vi. 156.
382 ; defeated, 383; successes, ib.; Despot, a title under the Greek em-
revives the censorship, ib.; defeat pire, vii. 18.
and death, 385; persecution of the DESPOTISM, of the Byzantine emperors,
Christians by, ii. 246, 247, 260; its nature and limits, vii. 26.
prevents the election of a bishop of DEVONSHIRE, Courtenays, earls of, vii.
Rome, ib.

DECRETALS, false, probably forged by DEXIPPUS attacks the Gothic fleet, i
Isidore, vi. 161.

DECUMATES, what settlers so called, ii. DEXIPPUS, fragments of his work reco-
46, note.

vered, iii. 152, note M.
DECUBIONS, or CURIALES, ii. 335; their D'HERBELOT, character of his ' Biblio-

position and functions, ib. note S. thèque Orientale,' vi. 290 and note.
DEFENSORES, or advocates of the peo DIADEM, assumed by Diocletian, ii. 94

ple, instituted by Valentinian I., iii. described, ib.
248; office of, revived by Majorian, DIADUMENIANUS, son of Macrinus,
iv. 269; account of, ib. note S.

Cæsar, i. 275; death, 279.
DEIFICATION of the emperors, i. 207 ; DIAXOŃDS, whence procured, i. 192,



note; art of cutting, unknown to 262, note; his danger, 291 ; consul
the ancients, 298, note.

with Al. Severus, ib.; Gibbon's error
DIARBEKIR, the ancient Amida, ii. 407; as to his estates, ib. note W.; retires
or Tigranocerta, ib, note M.

to Nice, ib.; probable design of the
D'IBELIN, John, restores the Assize of oration he ascribes to Mæcenas, ii.

Jerusalem, vii. 233; account of, ib. 259, note.

Dionysius, testimony to the paucity of
DICANICE, or imperial Greek sceptre, the Alexandrian martyrs, ii. 246.
vii. 367, note.

DIONYSIUS, poetical geographer, age of,
Diet, German, election of the kings of vi. 315, note and note s.

Italy and Rome vested in, vi, 179. DIOPHANTUS of Alexandria, inventor of
DIGEST: v. Pandects.

algebra, vi. 401.
DILEMITES, assist the Persians in the DIOSCORUS, patriarch of_Alexandria,
Lazic war, v. 202.

supports the cause of Eutyches, vi.
DINAR, gold Arabian coin, account of, 25; his violence against Flavian, 26 ;
vi. 377, note.

deposed by the council of Chalcedon
DIOCESES, formation of, ii. 193, note G.; and banished, 28.
civil, of the empire, 313.

Diran, king of Armenia, account of, ii.
DIOCLETIAN, his remark on Aurelian, 369, note M.

ii. 32 ; general of Probus, 44 ; elected DISABUL, khan of the Turks, Justinian's
emperor, 62; stahs Arrius Aper, 63 ; embassy to, v. 179; purification of
defeats Carinus at Margus, ib.; origin, the ambassadors, ib. and note M.
character, and elevation, 64; re DISCIPLINE, Roman military, i. 146 sq.;
sembled Augustus in policy, 65; restored by Augustus, 211; relaxed
clemency, ib. ; took M. Antoninus as by Severus, 259; by Caracalla, 272;
his model, 66; associates Maximian, decline of under Constantine, ii. 321 ;
ib. ; takes the title of Jovius, 67; under Theodosius, iii. 404 ; the in-
associates Galerius and Constantius fantry lay aside their defensive
as Cæsars, ib.; fourfold division of

armour, 405.
the empire under, 68; laws whence DISCIPLINE, ecclesiastical, variety of in
dated, ib. note M.; defence of the the Greek and Latin churches, vii.
frontiers, 73; cautious policy, 74 ; 279.
distributes the vanquished barbarians DISPARGUM, residence of Clodion, site
in the provinces, 75; campaign in of, iv, 227 and note.
Egypt, 76 ; takes Alexandria, ib.; de- Ditch, battle of the, vi, 250.
stroys Busiris and Coptos, ib. ; treaty DIVA GENS (or DIVORUM REGIO), eastern
with the Nobatæ, 77 ; suppresses coast of India so called by the Ro-
alchymy, ib.; directs the Persian

mans, iii. 180, note M.
war, 82 ; triumph, 89; fixes his resi DIVINATION, suppressed by Constan-
dence at Nicomedia, 91; assumes the tine, iii. 97.
diadem, 94 ; political system, 95; DIVINE right of princes, iii. 8; exem-
his edict, 97, notes M. and S. ; abdi plified in Jewish history, ib.; attri-
cation, 98; illness, ib.; retirement at buted to Constantine by the Chris-
Salona, 100; answer to Maximian, tians, 9.
ib.; death, 101 ; baths at Rome, 113; DIVINITY, titles of usurped by Diocle-
his treatment of the Christians, 264; tian and Maximian, ii. 94.
conversion of his wife and daughter, DIVORCE, law of among the Romans,
ib. ; persuaded by Galerius to perse V. 296 ; facilities of, 297; limited,
cute, 268; rigorous edict against the
Christians, 269; his palace burnt, DJAFAR, the Barmecide, Harun al
271 ; execution of his first edict, Rashid's fondness for, vi. 405, note

272 ; further edicts against, 274. S.; cause of his execution, ib.
DIOGENES, leader of the Chersonites, ii. DNIESTER, boundary of the Roman em-

pire, i. 381.
DIOGENES defends Rome against Totila, | DOCETES, Gnostic sect, creed of ex-
v. 227.

plained, iii. 48; tinged with Plato-
Dion CASSIUS, ob'oct of his work, i, nism, ib.; believed Christ's body was

ib. sq.

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