how regarded by the Romans, ii.
Cousin, president, his version of Pro-
copius, v. 97.
Cow's MoUTH, débouche of the Ganges
from, viii. 48 and note M.
CRAcow, city of destroyed by the Mon-
gols, viii. 14.
CRAL, or despot of Servia, vii. 899 and
CREEDs, the most ancient had the
greatest latitude, iii. 52, note; Atha-
nasian creed, true history of, iv. 334
and note.
CREscENTIUs, consul of Rome, revolts
against Otho III., vi. 186; betrayed
and hanged, ib.; medal of, ib. note M.
CREston, city mentioned by Herodotus,
site of, v. 260 and note S.
CRETE, subdued by the Arabs, vi. 407;
called Candia from their fortress Can-
dax, or Chandak, 408 and note S.;
reduced by Nicephorus Phocas, 424
and note S.; fleet for its reduction,
vii. 29; sold to the Venetians by
Boniface marquis of Montferrat, vii.
CRIMEs, chief source of, i. 222; how
discriminated by Roman law, v. 321.
CRINITUs, Ulpius, adopts Aurelian, ii.
CRISPUs, son of Constantine, made
Caesar, ii. 142; victories over the
Franks and Alemanni, 144; defeats
the fleet of Licinius, 148; virtues,
350; Constantine's jealousy of, 351;
disgrace and death, 352 and note;
whether married to Helena, ib. notes;
ruined by the arts of Fausta, 353.
CRISPUs, the patrician, marries the
daughter of Phocas, v. 388; incites
the insurrection of Heraclius and
Nicetas in Africa, ib.; condemned to
a monastery by Heraclius, 390.
ChoATIA, account of the kingdom of,
vii. 66.
CRocodiLEs exhibited by Augustus, ii.
59, note.
Chocus, or ERocus, chief of the Ale-
manni, ii. 111; etymology of his
name, ib. note S.
CRoss, symbol of adopted by Constan-
tine and his soldiers, iii. 12; use of
the sign of, 13; in the sky, Constan-
tine's vision of, 15; physical expla:
nations of, ib. and notes; testimony

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of suspicious, 17 and notes; discovery
(or invention) of, 156; not dimi-
nished by gifts of pieces, 157; Lord
Mahon's history of, ib. note M.;
exaltation of the, origin of that fes-
tival, v. 414; sign of adopted by the
crusaders, vii. 183 and note.
Chow Ns, mural and obsidional, distin-
guished, iii. 200, note; musical, first
extorted by Nero, viii. 227, note.
CaowN of thorns, pledged to the Vene-
tians by the barons of Romania, vii.
341; transferred to Paris, 342; mira-
cles performed by, ib.
CRUCIFIxion, how regarded by the
Romans, iii. 11; that punishment
abolished by Constantine, ib.
CRUSADEs, first, determined on at the
council of Clermont, vii. 183; inquiry
into the justice of, 184; original his-
torians and documents of, ib. note
and note M.; Gibbon's remarks on
examined, 185, note M.; spiritual
motives and indulgences, 186; serving
in equivalent to a plenary indulgence,
188; temporal and carnal motives,
189; departure of the first crusaders,
191 ; led by a goose and goat, 192;
Gibbon's account corrected, 189, note
M.; destruction of the first crusaders
in Hungary and Asia, 193; table of
events of the first, 195; account of
the leaders of, 196; march of the
princes, 202; review and number of
the crusaders, 209; their cannibalism,
210 and 211, note; besiege Nice,
211; gain the battle of Dorylaeum,
213; march through Anatolia, 214;
take Antioch, 217; defeat the Turks
under Kerboga at, 218; famine and
distress, 219; march to Jerusalem,
224; capture and sack the city, 227 ;
defeat the caliph of Egypt at
Ascalon, 229; second and third cru-
sades, 239; numbers, leaders, and
march of the second, 240 and note
M.; of the third, 241; ill treatment
by the Greek emperors, 242; march
of the second crusade through Ana-
tolia, 244 and note; result of the
second crusade, 245; obstinate enthu-
siasm of the crusaders, 246; third
crusade, 260; fourth and fifth, 268;
multiplication of, ib.; sixth, 271;
seventh, 274; account of the fourth
crusade, 288; its leaders form an
alliance with the Venetians, 292;


besiege Zara, 295; dissensions among
respecting an attack on Constanti-
nople, 297; voyage from Zara to
Constantinople, 298; passage of
the Bosphorus, 301; siege and con-
quest of Constantinople, 303; stay at
that city, 306; second siege and cap-
ture of, 310; division of the spoil,
314 and note S.; sacrilege and
mockery, 316; destroy the Greek
statues, 317; divide the Eastern
empire, 320 and 322; elect Baldwin
emperor, 321; reflections on the
general consequences of the crusades,
346; checked the progress of Europe,
CRUITNICH, etymology and meaning of
that epithet, iii. 266.
CTEsiphon, i. 341; taken by Severus,
340; royal residence, ib.; described,
iii. 201; siege of abandoned by
Julian, 205 (v. Madayn).
CublA1, Khan of the Mongols, conquers
China, viii. 10, 11; character and
reign, 18.
Cudworth, hypercosmian soul of ex-
ploded, iii. 47, note.
CUFA, tomb of Ali at, vi. 277 and
notes; pilgrimage of the Persians to,
ib.; foundation of, 295; etymology
of its name, 296 and note S.
CUMANs, Turkish tribe, vii. 79 note, and
note S.
CUNIMUND, king of the Gepidae, refuses
Alboin his daughter Rosamond, v.
333; defeated and slain by the Lom-
bards and Avars, 334; his skull made
into a cup, ib. and note.
CURATOR, office of under the Roman
law, v. 302 and note S.
CURDs, descendants of the Carduchians,
ii. 87; tribes of the described, vii.
253; probably identical with the
Carduchians, 254 and note.
CURLAND, holy groves of, vii. 84 and
CURoPALATA, office of, vii. 19.
CURUBIs, town of, ii. 248, note.
Cutul,MISH, grandson of Seljuk, slain
by Alp Arslan, vii. 168.
CYANEAN rocks, ii. 288.
CYBELE, Julian's oration in honour of,
iii. 139.
CYNEGIUs, praetorian praefect of the
East, commissioned by Theodosius to
close the pagan temples, iii. 414.
CYPRIAN, bishop of Carthage, character


of, ii. 195; opposes the ambition of
the Roman : 196; imperious
declamations of, 203; account of,
246, sqq.; his letters, ib. note; dan-
ger and flight, 247; banished to
Curubis, 248; condemned, 249; his
motive for concealing himself, ib.
note G.; martyrdom, 250; whether
the first martyr in Africa, ib.
note G.
CYPRUs, massacre committed at by the
Jews, ii. 222 and note; conquered by
Harun al Rashid, vi. 406; recovered
by Nicephorus Phocas, 428; bestowed
by Richard I. on Guy de Lusignan,
vii. 286.
CYRENE, i. 161; massacre at by the
Jews, ii. 222 and note; a Lacedaemo-
nian colony, iii. 36, notes; ruins of,
ib.; Greek colonies of, extirpated by
Chosroes II., v. 393.
CYRIADEs, elected emperor at the com-
mand of Sapor, i. 404.
CYRIACUs of Ancona, forgery of, ii.
237, note.
CYRIL of Alexandria, answers Julian's
work against Christianity, iii. 145
and note; account of, vi. 11; his
tyranny, 12; opposition to Orestes,
the praefect, 13; murders Hypatia,
14; condemns the heresy of Nesto-
rius, 17; attends the council of
Ephesus, 18; procures the condem-
nation of Nestorius, 19; condemned
and degraded by the oriental bishops,
20; intrigues at Constantinople and
victory over Nestorius, 21; death,
CYRIL of Jerusalem, his surprising
ignorance of the story of the Labarum,
iii. 66, note; his description of a
celestial cross, 67; convenient easi-
ness of his principles, 157 and
note. -
CYRUs, praetorian praefect of the East,
disgraced, iv. 165.
CYRUs the patriarch, praefect of Egypt
under Heraclius, his plan for convert-
ing the caliph Omar, vi. 333, note.
CYRUs, river, course of, v. 194.
Cyzicus, threatened by the Goths, i.
399; taken, ib.; seized by the
usurper Procopius, iii. 240.
CzAR, Russian, singular way of marry-
ing, vi. 93.

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DACIA, conquered by Trajan, i. 142;
boundaries, ib.; described, 152; in-
vaded by the Goths, 381; relin-
quished to the Goths by Aurelian,
ii. 12; Dacia Aureliani, ib. note S.;
and Macedonia added to the Eastern
empire by Gratian, iii. 343,
DACLANs, character, i. 142.
DADASTANA, death of Jowianat, iii. 231.
DAEMONs identified by the primitive
Christians with the pagan gods, ii.
DAGALAIPHUs, his bold and candid ad-
vice to Walentinian, iii. 236; refuses
the command against the Alemanni,
DAGISTEUs, general of Justinian, be-
sieges Petra, v. 201; commands the
Huns in Italy under Narses, 231.
DAGoBERT, king of the Franks, pub-
lishes the Salic laws, iv. 365.
DAHEs and GABRAH, war of, vi. 207,
DAIMBERT, or DAGoBERT, archbishop
of Pisa, installed patriarch of Jeru-
salem, vii. 229 and note M.; his
arrogance and pretensions, ib.
DALMATIA described, i. 158; conquest
of, 248.
DALMATIAN legionaries sacrificed by the
folly of Olympius, iv. 95.
DALMATIUs the censor, brother of Con-
stantine, ii. 348.
DALMATIUs, nephew of Constantine,
education, ii. 356; appointed to the
Gothic frontier, 357; excluded from
the empire by the troops, 364; cha-
racter, ib. note; massacred by Con-
stantius, 365.
DALMATIUs the abbot, assists the cause
of Cyril of Alexandria, vi. 21.
DAMAscus, throne of the caliphs trans-
ferred to, vi. 284; besieged by the
Saracens, 304; antiquity of, ib. note;
figs of, ib.; surrendered to Abu
Obeidah, 310; and also stormed by
Caled, ib.; flight of the exiles of, and
pursuit by Caled, 312; historical
value of that story, 313 note S.; re-
captured by the sultan Noureddin,
vii. 250 and note M.; perfidiously
seized and burnt by Timour, viii. 53.
DAMAscs, when made bishop of Rome,



ii. 277, note; edict of Valentinian 1.
addressed to, iii. 253; his ambition
and luxury, 255; contest with Ur-
sinus, ib.
DAMEs, a Saracen, gallant exploit in
taking the castle of Aleppo, vi. 323.
DAMIETTA, taken by the crusaders
under Louis IX., vii. 272.
DAMoPHILUs, archbishop of Constanti-
nople, resigns his see rather than
subscribe the Nicene creed, iii. 368.
DANCERs, female, numbers of at Rome,
iv. 87 and note.
DANDolo, Henry, doge of Venice, cha-
racter, vii. 292; longevity, ib. note;
blindness, ib. and note M.; treaty
with the French crusaders, 293; per-
suades them to attack the revolted
cities of Dalmatia, 295; adopts the
cause of Alexius son of Isaac Ange-
lus, 296; suspected of a bribe from
Malek Adel, 297 note S.; magnani-
mity at the siege of Constantinople,
304; declines to compete for the im-
perial crewn, 321; proclaimed despot
of Romania, 323; death, 332.
DANE8, invade Britain, iv. 389.
DANIEL, prophecy of, applied to Rome
by St. Jerom, iv. 403, note.
DANIEL, first bishop of Winchester,
epistle to St. Boniface respecting the
conversion of infidels, iv. 325.
DANIELIs, her gifts to the emperor
Basil, vii. 11; her journey to Con-
stantinople, 17; testament, ib.
DANUBE, course, i. 158; provinces on,
ib.; freezing of, 351 and note M. ;
and Rhine, junction of by Charle-
magne, vi. 175 and note.
DAPHNE, sacred grove and temple near
Antioch described, iii. 167; prophetic
powers of its Castalian stream, ib.
and note ; its sensuality proverbial,
168 and note ; Julian's visit to, 168;
its conversion into a Chrstian ceme-
tery, 169; bodies removed by order
of Julian, ib.; o: at, burnt, ib.
DARA, founded by the emperor Anas-
tasius, as a bulwark against the
Persians, v. 86; improved by Justi-
nian, ib.; its defences described, 87;
ruins of, ib. note M.; taken by Nu-
shirvan, 365.
DARDANLANs, site of the, ii. 68, note.
DARDANUs, praetorian praefect in Gaul,
alone opposes Jovinus, iv. 122;
sharacter, ib. note.


DARGHAM, Egyptian faction of, under
the Fatimite caliphs, vii.251; slain, ib.
DARIUs, columns of, on the Bosphorus,
ii. 289, note.
DARIUs, officer of Walentinian III., em-
bassy of, to the revolted count Boni-
face in Africa, iv. 180.
DARKNEss during the crucifixion, not
mentioned by heathen philosophers
and historians, ii. 219.
DASTAGERD, or ARTEMITA, residence of
Chosroes II., v. 394 and note M. ;
taken and plundered by Heraclius,
409; site of, ib. note S.
DARTs, poisoned, of the Sarmatians and
others, ii. 358 and note.
DATIANUs, governor of Spain, perse-
cutes the Christians, ii. 275.
DATIUs, bishop of Milan, aids the re-
volt of the Ligurians to Justinian,
v. 147; escapes to Constantinople
at the capture of Milan by the Bur-
gundians, 151.
DEAD, how disposed of by the Persians,
v. 200, note.
DEBTORs, state, how treated among the
Romans, ii. 342; insolvent, cruel
treatment of, v. 317.
DECEBALUs, king of Dacia, i. 142.
DECEMVIRs, laws of the, v. 261 and
notes, 267, 316.
DECENNovIUM, canal, v. 134, note.
DECENTIUs, brother of Magnentius, ex-
pelled from Trèves, ii. 384; suicide,
DECIMUs, battle of, between Belisarius
and Gelimer, v. 109.
DECIUs elected by the Moesian legions,
i. 374; origin, ib. note ; marches
against the Goths, ib.; Gothic war,
382; defeated, 383; successes, ib.;
revives the censorship, ib.; defeat
and death, 385; persecution of the
Christians by, ii. 246, 247, 260;
prevents the election of a bishop of
Rome, ib.
DECRETALs, false, probably forged by
Isidore, vi. 161.
DECUMATEs, what settlers so called, ii.
46, note.
DECURIONs, or CURIALEs, ii. 335; their
position and functions, ib. note S.
DEFENSoREs, or advocates of the peo-
ple, instituted by Valentinian I., iii.
248; office of, revived by Majorian,
iv. 269; account of, ib. note S.
DEIFICATION of the emperors, i. 207;


* confined to good princes, ib. note
DELATORs encouraged by Commodus,
i. 225; punished by Pertinax, 237.
DELHI taken by Timour, viii. 47.
DELPHI, ornaments of the temple re-
moved to Constantinople by Con-
stantine, ii. 298, note.
DELPHICUM, name for a royal banquet-
ing-room, v. 110, note.
DEMETRIAs, the celebrated virgin,
escapes from the sack of Rome, iv.
DEMETRIUS, despot of Epirus, vii. 343.
DEMETRIUs, brother of John II., Pa-
laeologus, refuses his assent to the
union of the Greek and Latin
churches, viii. 102.
DEMOCRACY, unfavourable to freedom
in large states, i. 171.
DEMOSTHENEs, his heroic defence of
Caesarea, i. 405.
DEMOTICA, city of, vii. 324 and note.
DENGISICH, son of Attila, slain, iv.
248; Turkish etymology of his name
ib. note S.
DEOGRATIAs, bishop of Carthage, his
charity towards the captive Romans,
iv. 258.
DE PAUw, literary character, ii. 47,
note M.
DERAR, friend of the Saracen genera
Caled, his adventurous valour, vi.
DERBEND, called the Caspian or Alba-
nian gates, v. 87.
DERVISHES, or Mahometan monks, in-
crease of, viii. 126.
DESIDERIUs, last king of the Lombards.
reduced by Charlemagne, vi. 156.
DEspot, a title under the Greek em-
pire, vii. 18.
DESPOTISM, of the Byzantine emperors,
its nature and limits, vii. 26.
DEvoNSHIRE, Courtenays, earls of, vii.
DExIPPUs attacks the Gothic fleet, i
DExIPPUs, fragments of his work reco-
vered, iii. 152, note M.
D'HERBELot, character of his ‘Biblio-
thèque Orientale, vi. 290 and note.
DIADEM, assumed by Diocletian, ii. 94
described, ib.
DIADUMENIANUs, son of Macrinus,
Caesar, i. 275; death, 279.
DIAxoSDs, whence procured, i. 192,


note; art of cutting, unknown to
the ancients, 298, note.
DIARBEKIR, the ancient Amida, ii. 407;
or Tigranocerta, ib. note M.
D'IBELIN, John, restores the Assize of
Jerusalem, vii. 233; account of, ib.
DICANICE, or imperial Greek sceptre,
vii. 367, note.
DIET, German, election of the kings of
Italy and Rome vested in, vi. 179.
DigEST: v. Pandects.
DILEMITEs, assist the Persians in the
Lazic war, v. 202.
DINAR, gold Arabian coin, account of,
vi. 377, note.
Dioceses, formation of, ii.193, note G.;
civil, of the empire, 313.
DiocI.ETIAN, his remark on Aurelian,
ii. 32; general of Probus, 44; elected
emperor, 62; stahs Arrius Aper, 63;
defeats Carinus at Margus, ib.; origin,
character, and elevation, 64; re-
sembled Augustus in policy, 65;
clemency, ib. ; took M. Antoninus as
his model, 66; associates Maximian,
ib.; takes the title of Jovius, 67;
associates Galerius and Constantius
as Caesars, ib.; fourfold division of
the empire under, 68; laws whence
dated, ib. note M.; defence of the
frontiers, 73; cautiqus policy, 74;
distributes the vanquished barbarians
in the provinces, 75; campaign in
Egypt, 76; takes Alexandria, ib.; de-
stroys Busiris and Coptos, ib.; treaty
with the Nobatae, 77; suppresses
alchymy, ib.; directs the Persian
war, 82; triumph, 89; fixes his resi-
dence at Nicomedia, 91; assumes the
diadem, 94; political #. 95;
his edict, 97, notes M. and S.; abdi-
ãonjš ; illness, ib.; retirement at
Salona, 100; answer to Maximian,
ib.; death, 101; baths at Rome, 113;
his treatment of the Christians, 264;
conversion of his wife and daughter,
ib.; persuaded by Galerius to perse-
cute, 268; rigorous edict against the
Christians, 269; his palace burnt,
271 ; execution of his first edict,
272; further edicts against, 274.
DioGENEs, leader of the Chersonites, ii.
UIoGENEs defends Rome against Totila,
v. 227.
Dios CASSIUs, object of his work, i.


262, note; his danger, 291; consul
with Al. Severus, ib.; Gibbon's error
as to his estates, ib. note W.; retires
to Nice, ib.; probable design of the
oration he ascribes to Maecenas, ii.
259, note.
DIONYSIUs, testimony to the paucity of
the Alexandrian martyrs, ii. 246.
Dionysius, poetical geographer, age of,
vi. 315, note and note S.
DIOPHANTUs of Alexandria, inventor of
algebra, vi. 401.
Dioscopus, patriarch of Alexandria,
supports the cause of Futyches, vi.
25; his violence against Flavian, 26;
deposed by the council of Chalcedon
and banished, 28.
DIRAN, king of Armenia, account of, ii.
369, note M.
DISABUL, khan of the Turks, Justinian's
embassy to, v. 179; purification of
the ambassadors, ib. and note M.
Discipline, Roman military, i. 146 sq.;
restored by Augustus, 211; relaxed
by Severus, 259; by Caracalla, 272;
decline of under Constantine, ii. 321;
under Theodosius, iii. 404; the in-
fantry lay aside their defensive
armour, 405.
DISCIPLINE, ecclesiastical, valiety of in
the Greek and Latin churches, vii.
DisPARGUM, residence of Clodion, site
of, iv. 227 and note.
DITCH, battle of the, vi. 250.
Diva GENs (or DivoruM REGIo), eastern
coast of India so called by the Ro-
mans, iii. 180, note M.
DIVINATION, suppressed by Constan-
tine, iii. 97.
DIVINE right of princes, iii. 8; exem-
plified in Jewish history, ib.; attri-
buted to Constantine by the Chris-
tians, 9.
Divinity, titles of usurped by Diocle-
tian and Maximian, ii. 94.
Divorce, law of among the Romans,
v. 296; facilities of, 297; limited,
ib. sq.
DJAFAR, the Barmecide, Harun al
Rashid's fondness for, vi. 405, note
S.; cause of his execution, ib.
DNIESTER, boundary of the Roman em-
pire, i. 381.
DocFTEs, Gnostic sect, creed of ex-
plained, iii. 48; tinged with Plato-
nism, ib.; believed Christ's body was

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