a phantasza, 49; derivation of their
name, ib. note; phantastic doctrine,
VI. O.
DocLEs, probable original name of Dio-
cletian, ii. 64, note.
DocLLA, birthplace of Diocletian, ii.
64, note.
DodoNA, site of, v. 228 and note S.
DoGE of WENicE, institution of, vii.
290. -
Do MEstics, military of Constantine
described, ii. 330.
DoMESTIG, GREAT, his office under the
Byzantine emperors, vii. 20.
DoMINIC, St., of the Iron Cuirass, ac-
count of, vii. 187 and note.
DoMINUs, title of the emperor, as-
sumption of, ii. 93; its origin and
progress among the Romans, iii. 130
and note.
DomiTIAN, emperor, i. 140; assassi-
nated, 211; characterized, 218; per-
secutes the Christians under the name
of Jews, ii. 239; executes his own
kinsmen, ib.; his acts rescinded,
DoMITIAN, Oriental praefect, commis-
sioned to reform the administration
of Gallus, ii. 390 and notes; his in-
solence, 391; arrested and put to
death, ib.
DoMITILLA, niece of Domitian, and wife
of Flavius Clemens, banished, ii.
239; considered by the church as one
of the first martyrs, ib.
DoNATISTs, schism of the, iii. 44;
their extravagant and uncharitable
pretensions, ib.; their divisions, 45;
of Africa, persecution of by Hono-
rius, iv. 179; join the invader Gen-
seric, 180.
DoNATIVEs to the Praetorians, origin,
i. 242; amount, 243, note.
DoNATUs, contest with Caecilian for the
see of Carthage, iii. 43.
DoRIA, Genoese admiral, defeats the
Greek and Venetian fleets, vii. 411.
DoRYLEUM, battle of, between the
Crusaders and Turks, vii. 213.
Doxology, differently chanted by
Arians and Catholics, iii. 88; three
heterodox forms, ib. note.
DRAGOMAN, officer of the Byzantine
court, vii. 19.
DRAGoN, visitor-general of the monks
under Constantine W. so named, vi.


DROGo, brother of duke William of
Apulia, assassinated, vii. 108.
DROMEDARY, fleetness, ii. 25, note.
DROMONEs, or Byzantine galleys, de-
scribed, vii. 28.
DRUIDs of Gaul, i. 140; their power
suppressed, 169.
DRUNGAIRE, GREAT, officer of the By-
zantine fleet, vii. 20.
DRUSEs, or followers of Hakem, reli-
gion of, vii. 174 and note M.
DUBOs, ABBAE, remark respecting Otho,
ii. 319, note; his account of the de-
generacy of the Romans, viii. 186,
note. -
DUCAs, v. Constantine XI.
DUCAT, origin of the name, viii. 94,
DUCENARIUs, what, ii. 262, note.
DUELs condemned by the Lombard
king Liutprand, v. 355.
DUKEs, title and functions of, ii. 320;
of Italy, instituted by Narses, v.
241 and note.
DUMATIANs, Arabian tribe, human sa-
crifices of, vi. 213.
DUNAAN, prince of the Homerites, per-
secutes the Christians, v. 207; chas-
tised by the Negus of Abyssinia, ib.
DURA on THE TIGRIs, account of, iii.
218 and note S.; treaty of between
Jovian and Sapor, 219; a me-
morable aera in the decline of the
empire, 225.
DURAzzo, siege of by Robert Guiscard,
vii. 121; battle of between the Nor-
mans and Greeks, 124; city taken,
DYEING, art of among the ancients, v.
56 and note.

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EBERMoR, son-in-law of Theodatus, de-
serts to the Romans, v. 132.
EBIONITEs, account of the, ii. 160; ety-
mology of the name, ib. notes; their
imperfect creed, iii. 48; their notion
of the Messiah, vi. 2 and note M.
EcbataNA, summer residence of the
Persian kings, i. 342.
\occLESIASTEs of Solomon, objections to
its genuineness, v. 119, note ; Ro-
senmüller's opinion as to its date, ib.
note M.
foci. Esiastics, Greek, subject to the
civil magistrate, vii. 27.
EcDICIUs, praefect of Egypt, hesitates
to expel Athanasius, iii. 176; Ju-
lian's letter to, ib.
Ecdicius, son of Avitus, brave defence
of Clermont against the Visigoths,
iv. 287.
EcEbolus, paramour of Theodora, v.43.
Eckhel, M., his ‘Doctrina Numo-
rum,’ i. 391, note G.
EcLECTUs conspires against Commodus,
i. 233.
ECLoga, or Legal Manual of Leo the
Isaurian, account of, vii. 44, note S.
ECTHESIs, of the emperor Heraclius,
imposing the law of religious silence,
vi. 42.
Edda, doctrine of drunkenness, i. 366
and note ; account of, 376.
EDEco, lieutenant of Roderic the Goth,
defeated by the Arabs, vi. 356.
EDEcon, father of Odoacer, ambassador
from Attila to Theodosius the
Younger, iv. 209; reveals to Attila
the plot for his assassination, 217;
further history of, 297; death, ib.
EDEssa described, i. 342; its pure dia-
lect, ib. note; battle of, 403; Chris-
tianized, ii. 214; church of, oppressed
by Julian, iii. 173; Christian school
of, vi. 47 ; famous picture of
Christ at, 137 ; captured by the
Arabs with that city, 139; yielded
to the Constantinopolitans for a
large ransom, ib.; principality of
founded by Baldwin, count of Flan-
ders, vii. 215 and note S.; retaken
by the sultan Zenghi, 250; counts
of, 350.
Edict, Diocletian's, account of, ii.
97, notes M. and S.; of Milan, Con-
stantine's famous, iii. 5; of the prae-
tors, v. 265, sqq.; perpetual of Ha-
drian, 267,


Edobic, general of the usurper Con-
stantine, defeated by Constantius,
iv. 121.
EDOM, Roman empire, why so called
by the Jews, ii. 223 note.
EDRISITEs, Saracen dynasty of, vi.
420, 421, note.
Edward I. of England, expedition to
the Holy Land, and attempted assas-
sination, vii. 275 and notes M.
EGBERT, Anglo-Saxon king, his corro-
spondence with Charlemagne, vi. 176,
EGINHARD, his marriage with Imma,
daughter of Charlemagne, vi. 170,
EGREGIUs, title of, ii. 305, note.
EGYPT, province described, i. 161; po-
pulation, 187, note; revenue, 296 ;
works of Probus in, ii. 51; Chris-
tianity rare in before the conver-
sion of Constantine, 210; Augustal
praefect of, 314 ; kings of also
priests, iii. 27 note ; multitude of
monks in, iv. 308; early civilization
and extraordinary fertility, v. 55;
chronology of, ib. and note M.; con-
quered by Chosroes II., 393; invaded
by the Saracens under Amrou, vi.
329; Amrou's description of, 340;
ancient population, 341 and note S.;
revenue, ib.; modern population,
342; conquered by Shiracouh, emir of
the Turkish sultan Noureddin, vii.
EGYPTIAN worship prohibited at Rome,
i. 169.
EGYPTIANs, how regarded by the
Romans, i. 175; their character, ii.
76; their secrecy proof against tor-
ture, iii. 85.
ELAGABALUs, names and genealogy, i.
278 and notes S.; high priest of the
Sun, ib.; assumes the name of An-
toninus, ib.; unwonted bravery, 279;
declared emperor, ib.; letter to the
senate, 280; picture, ib.; etymology
of his name, ib. note, and 281 moto
S.; superstition, 281; introduces the
worship of the Sun at Rome, ib.;
profligacy and effeminacy, 282; at-
tempts to degrade Al. Severus, 284 ;
murdered by the Praetorians, ib.;
chronology, 284, note, and 285, note
G.; caused his mother to sign the
acts of the senate, 286; first man
who used silk garments, v, 58,


ELEANORA, wife of Edward I., devotion
of, vii. 275, note M.
ELECTORs of Germany, vi. 191.
ELEPHANTINE, annual sacrifice at, ii.
77; abolished by Theodosius, ib.
note M.
ELRPHANT, era of the, vi. 217.
ELEPHANTs, use of by the Romans, i.
250 and note M. ; numbers of in the
wars of eastern princes, 344, note;
why exhibited in the circus during
the Punic war, ii. 59.
ELEUSINIAN mysteries, Julian initiated
in, iii. 142; tolerated by Valentinian
I., 249; extinguished by the invasion
of the Goths, ib. note S.
ELEUSIs, destroyed by Alaric, iv. 27.
ELIJAHs of Mosul, Nestorian sect of
the, vi. 51.
Elixir of health, search of the Ara-
bians after, vi. 403.
ELoquENCE, effects of, iii. 37.
ELLAC, son of Attila, slain in the battle
of the Netad, iv. 248.
EMBROIDERY, use of on the dresses of
the later Romans, iv. 78 and note.
EMESA, worship of the sun at, i. 280;
battle of between Aurelian and Zeno-
bia, ii. 23; city described, vi. 215.
EMIGRATION of the ancient Germans,
its causes and nature, i. 358.
EMIR of Saragossa implores the pro-
tection of Charlemagne, vi. 173.
EMIRs, Arabian, dignity and succession
of, vi. 204.
EMIR AL OMRA, or Alumara, creation
of that office, vi. 423, note, and note
EMPERORs, Roman, way of living, i.
206; how elected, 211; successors
how appointed, 212; extremes in
the characters of, 217; three, 265;
their conduct towards the Christians
examined, ii. 230; exercised supreme
jurisdiction over the church, iii.26;
distinction of their spiritual and tem-
poral powers, ib.; superiority exacted
by the bishops, ib.; first seven Chris-
tian assumed the office of Pontifex
Maximus, 99 and 408; public haran-
gues of, 132 and note; meaning of
the words “legibus solutus' as applied
to, v. 269 and note S.; legislative
power of, 269 and 270, note S.; re-
scripts of, 270; subscribed in purple
ink, 271 ; of Constantinople, their
pomp and luxury, vii. 14; adoration


of, 20; of the West, French and Ger-
man, ceremony of their coronation at
Rome, viii. 187; jurisdiction in that
city, 188.
EMPIRE, Roman, auction of the, i. 244;
treaty of Dura, a memorable aera in
the decline of the, iii. 225; how
distributed between Theodosius,
Maximus, and Valentinian II., 362;
the decay of military discipline
under Theodosius and disuse of
armour an immediate cause of its
downfall, 405; how divided between
Arcadius and Honorius, iv. 1, sq.;
extinction of the Western Empire,
299; date of that event, 300, note;
decay of Roman spirit, 301; picture
of at the fall of the Western Empire,
401; observations on that event,
402, sqq.; regular force of under
Justinian, v. 164.
EMPIRE, Western, revival of under
Charlemagne, vi. 168; extent of,
173; made hereditary by Charle-
magne, 177; divided among the sons
of Lewis the Pious, 178; anarchy .
of between the deposition of Lewis
the Fat and accession of Otho, ib.
EMPIRE, Greek, its military force com-
pared with that of the Saracens and
Franks, vii. 27; its navy, 28; sol-
diers of, their arms and tactics, 30;
subjects of claimed the name of
Romans, 38; literature of, 39; decay
of taste and original genius, 42; want
of national emulation, 43; account
of the sources of the Byzantine law,
44, note S.; partition of between the
French and Venetians, 320, 322;
fall of, viii. 172.
ENGLAND, description of by Chalcocon-
dyles the Greek historian, viii. 88;
as one of the five great nations votes
by its deputies in the council of Con-
stance for the election of a pope, 256
and note.
ENNoDIUs, panegyric of Theodoric, v.
11, note ; made bishop of Pavia, ib.
ENoch, book of, vi. 225, notes.
ENTERTAINMENTs, Roman described,
iv. 81.
ENTRAILs, inspection of unknown to
Homer's heroes, iii. 413, note; ob-
served by the Greeks as early as the
Persian wars, 414, note S.
EPAGATHUs, mutiny of and punish-
ment, i 290.

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EPHEstos, temple of described, i. 401;
burnt by the Goths, ib.; first council
of, vi. 18; violent scenes at, 20;
second council of, 25; ruined by the
Turks, viii. 24.
EPICUREANs and sceptics, denounced
by Julian, iii. 150.
EPICURUs, Gibbon's mistake concerning
his devotion corrected, i. 168, note
S.; prevalence of his philosophy,
197; bequeathed his gardens to his
disciples, v. 91.
EpipHANIUS, his description of Arius,
iii. 53.
EPIPHANIUs, bishop of Pavia, embassy
from Ricimer to Anthemius, iv. 291.
EPIRUS, despots of, vii. 327.
EpiscoPAL government, introduction
and advantages of, ii. 192; univer-
sally established after the first cen-
tury, ib. note; its dignity and in-
flexibility, 203.
EPULONEs, their functions, iii. 407.
EQUESTRIAN order, position under the
empire, i. 150; account of, ib.
note S. -
EQUITIUs, master-general of the Illy-
rian frontier, defeated by the Sarma-
tians, iii. 288; procures the election
of Walentinian II., 291.
ERAs MUs, his character of Hilary, iii.
58, note; the father of rational
theology, vii. 61, note; learned Greek
at Oxford, and taught it at Cam-
bridge, viii. 117, note.
EBDAVIRAPH, his trance, i. 333.
EBIxo, paternal cruelty of, v. 293.
ERos and ANTERos, fable of, iii. 142,
EBPENIUS, his merits as an Arabic
scholar, vi. 294, note S.
Essen[ANs, community of goods among
the, ii. 197; sect of described, 209.
Eslaw, ambassador of Attila, severely
reproves Theodosius the Younger for
assenting to the murder of his sove-
reign, iv. 217.
ESTATES, Roman, how managed, iv. 75.
ESTE, house of, genealogy, vii. 119,
Estius, his limitation of Omnipotence,
iii. 60, note.
ETRUscANs, i. 157. -
Eucharist, differences of the Reformers
respecting the, vii. 59.
EUCHERIUs, son of Stilicho, executed,
iy, 62.


EUCHRocIA, widow of the orator Del-
phidius, put to death for Priscillian-
ism, iii. 374.
EUDEs, duke of Aquitain, defeats at
Toulouse the Saracens under Zama,
vi. 385; defeated by Abderame, 387 ;
recovers his dominions, 389.
EUDocia, consort of Theodosius the
Younger, her character, iv. 164; lite-
rary works, 165; pilgrimage to Jeru-
salem, ib.; disgraced, ib.; exile and
death, 166.
EUDoCIA, widow of Constantine XII.,
marries Romanus Diogenes, vi. 114;
her learning, vii. 41.
EUDOCIA, niece of Manuel Comnenus,
becomes the concubine of Andromi-
cus, vi. 123.
EUDocIA, daughter of Valentinian III.,
married to Hunneric, son of Genseric,
iv. 277.
EUDOCIA, or EPIPHANIA, daughter of
Heraclius, betrothed to Ziebel, prince
of the Chozars, v. 407.
EUDoCIA of Damascus, her scorn for
her apostate lover Jonas and tragical
death, vi. 312.
EUDoxIA, daughter of the Frankish
general Bauto, married to Arcadius,
iv. 8; persuades him to condemn,
Eutropius, 146; persecutes Chrysos-
tom, 154; solicits his restoration,
155; procures his banishment, 156;
licentiousness, 158; death, ib.
EUDoxIA, daughter of Theodosius the
Younger and Athenais, marries Wa-
lentinian III., iv. 174; compulsory
marriage with Petronius Maximus,
255; invites Genseric into Italy, ib.;
he carries her captive to Carthage,
258; restored, 277.
EUDoxUs, Arian bishop of Constanti-
nople, baptizes Valens, iii. 250.
EUGENIUS, the rhetorician, created em-
peror by Arbogastes, iii. 398; defeat
and death, 402.
EUGENIUs IV., pope, his contest with
the council of Basil, viii. 93; sub-
mission, ib.; dexterous negociations
with the Greek emperor,95; deposed
at Basil, 103; forms a league against
the Turks, 128; expelled by an in-
surrection of the Romans, 257.
EUGENIUS, chamberlain and paramour
of the princess Honoria, iv. 229.
EUGUBINE TABLEs, discovery of, v. 260,
note; dialect of the inscriptions, ib.


and note S.; best works on the in-
terpretation of, ib.
EULogLA, sister of Michael Palaeologus,
conspires against him, vii. 375.
EULOGIUS, patriarch of Alexandria, his
learning, vi. 60. -
EUMENIUS, the orator, account of, ii.
104, note.
EUNAPIUs, character of his history of
the Sophists, iii. 139, note, 142, note;
passage of on the introduction of the
worship of martyrs, 426.
EUNOMLANs, disqualified by Theodosius
from making or receiving bequests,
iii. 3 (3.
EUNOMIUs, disciple of Aëtius, iii. 60.
EUNUCHs, use and value of, i. 299;
expelled from Gordian's palace, 325;
increased use of, ii. 95; power of the,
under the sons of Constantine, 386;
origin and progress of that race, ib.;
high antiquity, ib. note; character
of, 387 and notes; natural enemies
of the Son, according to Athanasius,
iii. 66, note ; conspiracy of, against
Rufinus, iv. 7; govern Arcadius, 138.
EUPHEMIA, daughter of Marcian, mar-
ries Anthemius, iv. 280.
EUPHEMIA, ST., church of, at Chalce-
don, vi. 27.
EUPHEMIUs incites the Saracens to in-
vade Sicily, vi. 408; slain, ib.
EUPHRATEs, three passages of, iii. 188,
note ; extent of its navigation, 207;
ancient course of, 194, note.
EUPHRosYNE, daughter of Constantine
VI., marries the emperor Michael II.,
vi. 91.
EUPHRosy NE, wife of Alexius Ange-
lus, vii. 287.
EURic, assassinates his brother Theo-
doric II., and becomes king of the
Visigoths, iv. 287; conquests in
Spain and Gaul, ib.; religious per-
secution, 328; receives from Odoa-
cer all the Roman conquests beyond
the Alps, 345; his power, ib. ; first
Gothic prince who compiled written
laws, 365.
EURIPIDEs, his ‘Iphigenia in Tauris, i.
EUROPE, population, i. 180, note; al-
teration of its climate, 350; ravaged
by the Huns, iv. 200; reflections
on the present state of, 405.
EUSEBIA, wife of Constantius II., her
beauty and merit, ii. 394; patron-


izes Julian, ib.; procures him the
government of Gaul, 396; charged
with procuring the abortion of He-
lena, 398.
EUSEBIUs of Caesarea, his character as
a man and as an historian, ii. 281
and note, and 285, note M.; artful
narrative respecting the martyrs,
284, note ; passes over the deaths
of Crispus and Licinius, 353; account
of Constantine's conversion, iii. 2; of
the cross in the sky, and Constan-
tine's subsequent vision, 16; this
not mentioned in his Ecclesiastica’
History, ib. note; admits the Homo-
ousion, 64; his ambiguous orthodoxy,
ib. note; his conduct of the council
of Tyre, 72.
Eusebius of Nicomedia, Arian letter
of respecting the Homoousion, iii.
56; exiled, 64; recalled, 65; bap-
tizes Constantine, ib.; tutor to Ju-
lian, 136.
EUSEBIUs, the eunuch, his power over
Constantius II., ii. 387; appointed
to interrogate Gallus, 393; attempts
to eiect another emperor instead of
Julian, iii. 120; executed, 127.
EUSEBIUs, eunuch and chamberlain of
Honorius, assassinated in his pre-
sence, iv. 96.
EUSTATHIUs of Cappadocia, embassy
to Sapor, ii. 405, note; eloquence, ib.
EUSTATHIUS, bishop of Antioch, ba-
nished by Constantine, iii. 65.
EUsTATHIUs, archbishop of Thessalo-
nica, and commentator of Homer,
refuses to desert his flock at the siege
of that city, vii. 141, note.
EUTHALITEs or Nepthalites, tribe of
Huns (properly Ephthalites), iii.
312 and note S.
EUTHARIC, marriage to Amalasontha,
and death, v. 126.
EUTRoPIA, sister of Constantine, ii. 350.
EUTRoPIUs, father of Constantius, ii,
EUTRoPIUs, the eunuch, undermines
the power of Rufinus, iv. 7 ; ac-
quires an ascendant over Arcadius,
14; his power, 138; becomes a ma-
gistrate and general, ib.; history of,
139 and note ; statues to, ib.; made
patrician and consul, ib.; his avarice
and venality, 140; cruelty ard in-
gratitude, 141; consults his own
safety by a law against treason, 142;

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