his measures against Tribigild, 145;
is condemned by Arcadius, 146; takes
refuge with Chrysostom, 147; dis-
graced and banished to Cyprus, ib.;
recalled and executed, 148; charge
on which he was condemned, ib. and
note S. -
EUTychEs, the abbot, assists the
cause of Cyril of Alexandria, vi. 21;
heresy of, 24; acquitted by the se-
cond council of Ephesus, 25.
EUTYCHIAN controversy, iv. 342.
EUXINE, naval force in, i. 155; northern
shores subject to the Roman em-
perors, 160; navigation of, opinion
of the Turks on, 399; periplus of
by Sallust and Arrian, v. 193, note.
Evagrius, his history when composed,
v. 345, note.
ExARCHS of Ravenna, establishment of,
v. 241; extent of their jurisdiction,
348; finally extinguished by Astol-
phus king of the Lombards, vi. 153.
ICxcise, introduced by Augustus, i.
299; abolished by Caligula, ib. note
Excommunication, origin, nature, and
consequences of, ii. 201 ; removed by
public penance, 202; instances of,
iii. 36; involved whole families, 37;
hence extended to national interdicts,
ib. note. -
ExERCITUs, etymology of, i. 147 and
ExILE, voluntary among the Romans,
might avert a capital sentence, v.
Exoticism, account of, ii.178; the only
Iniraculous power assumed by pro-
testants, 179.

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known to the Greeks and Romans,
FAMINE, hardly known under the em-
pire, i. 191; at Rome during the
siege of Alaric, iv. 90 ; horrors of
FANo, battle of, ii. 15.
FARMERs of the revenue, i. 301.
FARNESE palace built of the materials
of the Coliseum, viii. 284.
FASTI, consular, probable account of
the chasms in, v. 94.
FATHERs of the church, visions and
inspirations of the, ii. 178, note; dis-
claimed by Chrysostom, ib. note M.;
high tone of their morality, 184; ac-
knowledged the supernatural part of
paganism,266, note; method of gair-
ing some idea of their spirit, iii. 428,
FATIMA, daughter of Mahomet, marries
Ali, vi. 268.
FATIMITEs, or descendants of Ali,
usurpations of their name, vi. 281;
privileges in the Ottoman empire, ib.
FAUN, sleeping, discovery of the, v.
139, note.
FAUSTA, daughter of Maximian, mar-
ries Constantine the Great, ii. 116;
her conduct towards her father, 121;
her children, 348; procures the death
of Crispus, 353; story of her execu-
tion for adultery examined, 354 al"
notes, and 355 note M.
FAUSTINA, daughter of Antoninus l'iul
marries M. Antoninus, i. 215; he,
character, 221.
PAUSTINA, widow of Constantius II.,
with her daughter Constantia, joins
the revolted Procopius, iii. 240.
FAUSTUs, price of his first printed
Bibles, v. 285, note.
FAvA, or FELETHEUs, king of the
Rugians, vanquished by Odoacer, iv.
FELIcissimus, Cyprian's condemnation
of, ii. 203, note M.
FELIX, an African bishop, martyrdom
of, ii. 272.
FELIX, an Arian, supersedes Liberius
as bishop of Rome, iii. 89; his ad-
herents massacred, 90.
FELIX V., pope, account of, viii. 100;
retires to the hermitage of Ripaille,
FELIx, St., miraculous tomb of at Nola,
iv. 110.

FEMALEs, superiority of established in
Egypt, iii. 417 note.
FERDUSI, the Persian poet, works of,
iii. 304, notes.
FERISHTA, translations of by Colonels
Dow and Briggs, vii. 146, note M.
FERRARA, council of, viii. 98.
FESTIVALs, pagan, horror of the Chris-
tians at, ii. 166; rustic, paganism
maintained by, iii. 421 and 422,
FEUDAL goverNMENT, rudiments of may
be discovered among the Scythians,
iii. 302.
FEz, Edrisite kingdom of, vi. 420.
F.HR, reputed founder of the Arabian
tribe Koreish, vi. 216, mote S.
FINANCEs, Roman, history of, i. 293,
sqq.; review of under Constantine
the Great, ii. 333.
FINEs, regulations for the imposition
of, ii. 316 and note.
FINGAL, whether he fought against
Severus, i. 266; objection, ib. note.
FINLAY, Mr., his theory as to the ori-
gin of the story of Belisarius' beggary
examined, v.247, note S.
FINNs, their wide dissemination, vii. 72
and note S.
FIRE, use of unknown to many nations,
iv. 410, note.
FIRE TEMPLE8, introduction of, i. 335.
FIRE-sign ALS, Byzantine, vii. 29.
FIRE, Greek, Arabian fleet destroyed
by, vi. 380; account of, 382 and
notes; how used, 383; secret of, dis-
covered by the Saracens, 384; super-
seded by gunpowder, ib.; works on,
ib. note S.
FIRMUs, revolt of, in Egypt, ii. 26;
put to death by Aurelian, 27.
FIRMUs the Moor, cause of his revolt
against Valentinian, iii. 273; gains
possession of Mauritania and Numi-
dia, ib.; attempts to deceive Theo-
dosius, 274; pursuit of, and suicide,
FIRUz, son of the Persian king Jezde-
gard, becomes captain of the Chinese
guards, vi. 299 and note M.
FLAccILLA, consort of Theodosius the
Great, prevents his conference with
the Arian Eunomius, iii. 364.
FLAGELLATION, substituted for money
payments in penance, vii. 187.


FLAMENs, IRoman, functions of the, iii.
FLAMINIAN way, distances on the, v.
232, note.
FLAMININUs, remark on the army of
Antiochus, ii. 323, note.
FLAVIAN family, i. 212.
FLAVIAN, patriarch of Constantinople,
arraigns the heresy of Eutyches, vi.
25; killed at the second council of
Ephesus, 26.
FLAviaNUs and Diodorus, introduce
responses and psalmody, iii. 88.
FLAx, cultivation of, i. 190.
FLECHIER, his Life of Theodosius the
Great, iii. 342, note.
FLEECE, golden, probable origin of that
fable, v. 195.
FLEURY, abbé de, character of his ‘In-
stitutes of Canon Law,’ iii. 34, note.
FLOR, Roger de, chief of the Catalan
mercenaries, history of, vii. 381 and
note G.; assassinated, 383.
FLORENCE besieged by Radagaisus, iv.
47; its origin, ib. note; relieved by
Stilicho, 48; council of, viii. 99;
reunion of the Greek and Latin
churches at the, 103.
FLORENTIUs, a patrician, gives his
estate in lieu of the tax on prosti-
tutes, ii. 342, note G.
FLORENTIUs, praetorian praefect in
Gaul, oppression of, restrained by
Julian, ii. 423; declines attending
the council of Julian, iii. 105; flight
of, 110; consul and praefect of
Illyricum, flies on the approach of
Julian, 117; condemned by the tri-
bunal of Chalcedon and pardoned by
Julian, 127.
FLORIANUs, brother of the emperor
Tacitus, usurps the purple, ii. 40;
opposed by Probus, ib.; put to death
by the army, 41.
FLORIN, origin of the name, viii. 94,
FLORUs, prince, founder of the Courte-
nays of Devonshire, fable of, vii. 354
and 355, note.
FLORUs, his description of the wars of
infant Rome, viii. 209.
Fo, Indian god, worship of, viii. 18 and
FoEDERATI, Gothic troxps in the service
of the Romans, iii. 353.
FoENUs UNCLARIUM, amount of, v. 314,
note W.


Fol.ARD, Chev., on ancient warlike
machines, i. 152, note.
Follis, or purse, value of, iv. 74, note
and note S.
FontexELLE, his remarks on the am-
bition of Constantine examined, ii.
303, note.
l'oot, Roman, i. 321, note; Greek,
proportion cf the, ii. 295.
FoEgERIES, pious, of the early Chris-
tian apologists, ii. 218.
ForUM TREBONII, battle of between
Decius and the Goths, i. 385.
FRAMEAE (German spears), described, i.
FRANCE, population, ii. 339, notes;
taxation in, 339 and 341, note S.;
that name given to Gaul by the
Franks, iv. 376; limits of, under
Charlemagne, vi. 173; invaded by
the Arabs, 384; their conquests in,
386, note S.; their expulsion, 389
and note S.; southern provinces of,
ravaged by the Hungarians, vii. 75;
power of the kings of, in the ekeventh
century, 181; genealogy of the royal
house of, 352 and note; description
of, by Chalcocondyles the Greek
historian, viii. 87.
FRANciscA, or Frankish battle-axe, iv.
357 and note.
FRANGIPANI, Odo, marries the niece of
the emperor Manuel, vii. 139.
FRANGIPANI, Cencio, Roman baron, his
violent and brutal conduct towards
pope Gelasius II. and the cardinals,
viii. 192.
FRANGIPANI, origin of the name of, viii.
FRANKFoRT, synod of, rejects the de-
crees of the second Nicene Council
respecting images, vi. 166.
FRANKs, their origin and confederacy,
i. 390; name, ib.; applied to several
confederacies, ib. note S.; invade
Gaul, 391; Spain, ib.; Mauritania,
392; driven from Gaul by Probus,
ii. 44; daring enterprise of, 48;
their power under the sons of Con-
stantine, 325; occupy the island of
Batavia and Toxandria, 412; sub-
dued by Julian, 419 ; settle perma-
nently in Gaul, iv. 128; occupy the
lower Germany, 129; customs de-
scribed, 227; bloody battle with the
Gepidae, 234; converted to Christi-
anity 324; subdue and civilize Ger-

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many, 350; conquer Burgundy, 356,
Aquitain, 360; countries beyond the
Alps yielded to them by Justinian,
and final establishment of the French
monarchy, 362 and note S.; extent
of their dominion, 363; laws re-
specting homicide, 367; anarchy of,
382; invade Italy, v. 151 ; their
ravages and distress, 152; again in-
vade Italy, 237; defeated by Narses,
240; proverb respecting the, vi. 180;
their name applied by the Greeks
and Arabians to all the Western
nations, vii. 33; state of, in the tenth
and eleventh centuries, 34; military
character and tactics, 35.
FRASCATI, town of, viii. 210.
FRAVITTA, Gothic leader, his character,
iii. 355; kills his rival Priulf, ib.:
conducts the war against Gainas, iv.
149; defeats him on the Hellespont,
FREDERICK I., Barbarossa, emperor of
Germany, invades Italy, vi. 188 ;
destroys Milan, ib.; treaty with the
league of Lombardy, 189; undertakes
the third crusade, vii. 239; marches
through Anatolia, 245; captures
Iconium, 246; drowned, ib. and note;
embassy of the Romans to, viii. 206;
his haughty answer, 207; collisions
with the Romans, 208.
FREDERICK II., emperor of Germany,
worsted by the Lombards and pope,
vi. 189; record of his family, ib.;
crusade of, vii. 269; excommunicated
by pope Gregory IX., 270; enters
Jerusalem, ib.; further acquisitions,
ib.; toleration, ib. ; exhorts the Eu-
ropean princes to arm against the
- Mongols, viii. 15.
FREDERICK III., of Austria, last em-
peror crowned at Rome, viii. 258.
FREEDMEN, condition of, i. 178.
FREE-GIFTs first exacted by Maxentius,
ii. 124.
FREJUs, a naval station, i. 154.
FRIGIDUs river described, iii. 400 and
FRISLANs invade Britain, iv. 389.
FRITIGERN, colleague of Alavivus, as
judge of the Visigoths, assumes the
chief command, iii. 324; cultivates
the friendship of the Ostrogoths, ib.;
escapes from Lupicinus at Marciano-
polis, 325; engages the Romans at
Salices, 329; forms an alliance with


the Ostrogoths and Taifalae, 330;
artful negociations with Valens, 334;
battle of Hadrianople, 335; his death,
348; breaks the union of the Gothic
tribes, ib.
FRoissard, his character as a writer,
viii. 32, note.
FRONTIER garrisons, when first esta-
blished, ii. 46.
FRONTO, count, ambassador from Avitus
to the Suevi of Spain, iv. 262.
FRUITs, flowers, &c., introduction of,
into Europe, i. 189.
FRUMENTIUs, converts the Abyssinians,
iii. 25.
FULCARIs, the Herulian, general of
Narsis, defeated and slain by the
Franks, v. 238.
FULK, count of Anjou, husband of
Melisenda, queen of Jerusalem, vii.
Fulk of Neuilly, preaches the fourth
crusade, vii. 288 ; interview with
Richard I., 289.
FUNERALS, Roman, comic satires on the
deceased at, iii. 226; at Julian's, ib.;
his funeral contrasted with that of
Constantius, 227, note.
FURTUM lance licioque conceptum,”
ceremony of pursuing stolen goods,
v. 272 and notes.

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GABINIUs, king of the Quadi, inveigled
and murdered by Marcellianus, go-
vernor of Waleria, iii. 287.
GAIAN, patriarch of Alexandria, ba-
nished, v. 59.
GAILLARD, M., character of his ‘His-
toire de Charlemagne,’ vi. 170, note.
GAIMAR, Lombard prince of Salerno,
invites the Normans into Italy, vii.
102, note M.
GAINAs, the Goth, deputed by Stilicho
to take vengeance on Rufinus, iv. 12;
puts him to death before the palace of
Hebdomon, 13; deserts the service
of Stilicho, 14; appointed general
against Tribigild by Eutropius, 145;
secretly favours that rebel, 146;
openly unites with him, 148; inter-
view with Arcadius, who grants his
demands, ib.; tumult and massacre
of his troops at Constantinople, 149;
defeated on the Hellespont by Fra-


vitta, 150; marches towards one
Janube, ib.; slain, ib.
GAITA, wife of Robert Guiscard, her
valour at the battle of Durazzo, vii.
GAIUs (or Caius) belonged to the legal
sect of Sabinians, v. 279, mote W.;
but often followed the Proculians, ib.
note S.; juridical authority conferred
on, by Theodosius II., 279; his In-
stitutes, 288 and note; discovered
by Niebuhr, 289, note S.
GALA, derivation of that term, vii. 21,
note and note S.
GALATA, suburb of Constantinople, as-
signed to the Genoese, vii. 406.
GALEAzzo, John, first duke of Milan,
his connection with Bajazet, viii. 84
and note.
GALERIUs, general of Probus, ii. 44;
associated in the empire by Diocle-
tian, 67; character, ib.; adopted son
and son-in-law of Diocletian, 68;
valour, 74; defeated by the Persians,
82; disgrace, 83; victory over the
Persians, 84; generous conduct to-
wards the captives, ib.; reply to the
ambassador of Narses, 85; emperor,
106; character, 107; schemes, 108;
rage on the elevation of Constantine,
1.12; acknowledges him as Caesar,
ib.; unpopular taxes, 113; invades
Italy, 117; retreats, 118; death,
122; public works, ib.; persuaded
Diocletian to a general persecution of
the Christians, 268; published an
edict of toleration, 278.
GALILEANs, that appellation explained,
ii. 236; doubtful whether applied to
the followers of Judas, 237, note M.;
Gibbon's error in supposing that

Tacitus confounded the two distinc- .

tions, ib. note G.; Christians so
called by Julian, iii. 162.
GALL, St., his hermitage in Switzer-
land becomes a principality, v. 238,
GALL, St., monastery burnt by the
Hungarians, vii. 75.
GALLA, sister of Valentinian II., marries
Theodosius the Great, iii. 383.
GALLEYs, Roman, i. 154; Byzantine,
vii. 28.
GALLICANUs and Maecenas, senators,
kill two praetorians, i. 322.
GALLIENUs associated in the empire by
his father Valerian, i. 389; opposes


the Franks in Gaul, 391; degrades
the senate, 394 ; marries Pipa, ib.;
marches against the Goths, 400;
character and administration, 407;
medal of, 408, notes; considered sole
emperor by Italy and the senate
during the rebellion of the thirty ty-
rants, 411; inhuman mandate of,
412; family of, ib. note; famine and
pestilence,415; conspiracy against, ii.
2; death, ib.; names Claudius as his
successor, 3; imprecations on, by the
senate and people, 5, notes; favoured
the Christians, 261; restored the ce-
meteries to them, ib. note.
GALLIPOLI, occupied by the Catalans,
vii. 383; rebuilt and repeopled by
Soliman, son of Orchan, viii. 28.
GALLUs elected emperor, i. 386; dis-
graceful treaty with the Goths, ib.;
popular discontent, 387; murdered,
GALLUs, nephew of Constantine, escapes
assassination, ii. 365; made governor
of the East by Constantius II., 377,
388; education and imprisonment,
388; declared Caesar, ib.; marries
Constantina, ib.; of a different mo-
ther from Julian's, ib. note G ; cruel
and imprudent character, 389; Mag-
nentius attempts to assassinate him,
390; Domitian appointed to reform
his government, ib.; he and Mon-
tius put to death by Gallus, 391;
vacillating conduct of the latter, ib.;
recalled by Constantius, 392; dis-
grace and death, ib.; transferred the
body of St. Babylas to the grove of
Daphne, iii. 169.
GAMEs, secular, i. 328; Actiac restored
by Julian, iii. 131, note ; public, of
the Romans described, iv. 86.
GANNYs, eunuch, i. 279.
GARGANUs, mount, Hannibal's camp
on, occupied by Totila, v. 223.
GARIBALD, king of Bavaria, takes re-
fuge with Autharis, king of Lom-
bardy, v. 353.
GARIZIM, mountain of cursing, cross
planted on, vi. 37.
GARRIsoNs, frontier, number of, under
Constantine, ii. 323.
GAssan, Arabian tribe, account of, iii.
194, notes, vi. 204; serve under
Heraclius against their countrymen,
317; defeated by Caled, 318.
GAUDENTIUs the notary, occupies the


provinces of Africa for Constantius,
iii. 119 ; executed at Antioch by
Julian, 127.

GAUDENTIUS, son of Aëtius, contracted
to the princess Eudoxia, iv. 249.

GAUL, province of, described, i. 156;
divided by Augustus, ib.; number
of tribes in, ib. and note; tribute,
296, and note S.; usurpers in, ii. 17 ;
invaded by the Lygians, 44; not
Christianized before the time of the
Antonines, 211; slow progress of
Christianity in, 212; capitation-tax,
how levied in, 338; amount compared
with modern rate, 339; Gibbon's
account corrected, 341, note S.; in-
vaded by the Germans at the insti-
gation of Constantius, 412; forty-five
cities destroyed, ib.; government as-
signed to Julian, 413; invaded by the
Alemanni, iii. 257; maritime pro-
vinces invaded by the Saxons, 264;
invaded, after the defeat of Rada-
gaisus, by the Suevi, Vandals, Alani,
and Burgundians, iv. 51; desolation
of, 52; occupied permanently by the
Goths, Burgundians, and Franks,
128; they recognise the title and laws
of Honorius and his successors, 130;
seven provinces of, annual assem-
bly at Arles, 134; conquests of the
Visigoths in, 287.

GAULs in Lombardy, i. 157; in Ger-

many, 352, notes; their belief in a
future state, ii. 170 and note; in-
trusted their money to their priests,
ib.; their contempt for the Germans,
iv. 345; trade of, 362, note; contro-
versies respecting their relation to
the Franks, 364.

GAzA, Theodore, translates Aristotle

and Theophrastus, viii. 115.
GEBER, Arabian physician, vi. 402.
GEBERIC, king of the Goths, defeats the
Sarmatians, ii. 361.
GEDRosia, district of, described, i. 340,
GElsa, Hungarian prince, his influence
in Germany, vii. 79.
GELALEDDIN, son of Mohammed sultan
of Carizme, valiant defence against
the Mongols, viii. 9; death, 21.
GELALAEAN AERA of the Turks, when
established, vii. 166.
GELASIUs, pope, abolishes the Luper-
calia, iv. 283.
GELASIUs II., pope, his scandalous

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