treatment by Frangipani and the
Roinans, viii. 192; second attack on,

and flight, 193.
GELI, site of the, ii. 81, note.
GELIMER, king of the Vandals in

Africa, iv. 330; deposes Hilderic, v.
97; defeated by Belisarius, 109; puts
Hilderic to death, ib. ; encamps at
Bulla, 111; letter to his brother
Zano, ib. ; second defeat and flight,
113; distress, 116; three extraordi-
nary requests to Pharas, 117; sur-
render, 118; behaviour at the tri.
umph of Belisarius, 119; retires into

Galatia, 120.
GELONI, vassal-tribe of the Alani, iii. 315.
GENERALS, Roman, power of, i. 199.
GENEROSITY, Arabian, examples of, vi.

GENEVIÈVE, St., diverts the march of

Attila from Paris, iv. 232.
GENNADIOS, patriarch of Constantino-

ple, his opinion of the Athanasian

creed, iv. 335, note.
Gennadios, monk of Constantinople,

denounces a union with the Latin
church, viii. 157; duplicity of, ib.
note ; installed patriarch by Maho-

met II., 179.
GENNERID, a barbarian and pagan, made

master - general of Dalmatia, &c.,
under Honorius, iv. 95 ; extorts a

toleration for the pagans, 96.
GENOESE, settlements of the, at Hera-

clea and Constantinople, vii. 368 ;
increase of their colony, and fortifi-
cation of Galata, 407; their trade
and insolence, ib.; usurp the toll of
the Bosphorus, 409; war with the
emperor Cantacuzene, 409; naval
victory over the Greeks and Vene-
tians, 410 and note M. ; extort a

monopoly from the Greeks, 411.
GENS, Roman, defined, v. 307.
LIENSERIC, king of the Vandals in Spain,

character, iv. 177 ; defeats Herman-
ric, king of the Suevi, ib. ; invades
Africa at the invitation of count Boni-
face, 178; joined by the Moors, 179 ;
assisted by the Donatists, 180; de-
feats the repentant Boniface, 181;
treaty with Valentinian III., 185;
domestic and political difficulties, ib. ;
surprises Carthage, 186; allies him-
self with Attila, 199; mutilates his
son's wife, daughter of Theodoric,
king of the Ostrogoths, 226; incites

Attila to ir vade Gaul, ib.; builds a
fleet, 253; conquers Sicily, ib.;
anchors at the mouth of the Tiber,
254; sacks Rome, 257; carries the
empress Eudoxia as a prisoner to
Carthage, ib.; destroys the navy of
Majorian at Carthagena, 273; con-
cludes a treaty with him, ib. ; pira-
tical expeditions, 276 ; massacre at
Zante, 277 ; treaty with the Eastern
empire, ib.; destroys the fleet of
Basiliscus, 285 ; revival of his naval
power, 286; persecuted his catholic

subjects, 329.
GENTLEMAN, etymology of that name,

vii. 199, note.
GEOGRAPHY and Cosmology, ancient

orthodox system of, v. 62.
• GEOPONICS of Constantine Porphyro-

genitus, vii. 2.
GEORGE of Cappadocia, succeeds Atha-

nasius at Alexandria, iii. 83; his
tyranny, ib.; his infamous character,
171; promoted by the Arians to the
see of Alexandria, ib.; his oppres-
sions, ib.; massacred, 172; wor-
shipped as a saint and martyr, 173 ;
tutelar saint of England, ió.; his
identity in the latter character ques-

tioned by Dr. Milner, ib. note M.
GEORGE of Pisidia, his Acroaseis, v.

401, note.
GEORGE, Sicilian admiral, takes Maha-

dia, vii. 135; delivers Louis VII.
from the Greeks, 136; insults Con-

stantinople, 137.
GEORGIANS, religion of the, vii. 158 ;

name whence derived, ib. note.
GEOUGEN, Scythian tribe, iv. 43; van-

quished by Attila, 196 ; attributed

supernatural powers to the Huns, ib.
GEPIDÆ, origin of that name, i. 379 ;

uncertain whether Goths, ib, note S.;
subdued by Attila, iv. 196 ; seize
Sirmium and Belgrade, v. 165; their
ironical apology to Justinian, ib.;
conquered by the Lombards, 167;
subdued by the Avars and Lombards,
334 ; their country occupied by the

former, ib.
GERGOVIA, siege of, by Julius Cæsar,

iv. 376.
GERMANIA, town of, birth-place of

Belisarius, v. 99, and note S.
GERMANICUS, i, 139, note.
GERMANS, ancient, occupy part

gium, i. 156; were illiterate, 354 ;

houses and raiment, 355 ; agriculture,
356 ; unacquainted with money, ib.;
manners, 357 ; beer, 358; freedom,
359; government, 360 ; popular as-
semblies, ib.; princes and magis-
trates, jurisdiction of, 361 ; gifts,
362 ; chastity, ib.; its causes, 363 ;
respect for women, ib.; marriage
present, ib, note ; fortitude of their
women, 364 ; religion, ib.; effects
of their superstition, 365; bards,
366; songs, ib. note G.; causes of
their want of progress, 367; arms,
ih. ; cavalry, ib. ; want of discipline,
ib.; civil dissensions, 368; fomented
by the Romans, 369; confederation
against M. Antoninus, 370 ; tribes,
371; invited by Constantius II. to
invade Gaul, ii. 412 ; destroy forty-
five cities, ib.; extent of their con-
quests on the left bank of the Rhine,
ib. ; defeated by Julian at Strasburg,
417; driven from the Upper Rhine,
418; religious indifference of the, iii.
10; northern, emigration of into Italy,
how caused, iv. 44 and note M.; the
remnant, after their defeat by Sti-
licho, invade and gettle in Gaul, 50;
the Alemanni on the Rhine remain
neutral, 51; character of, in 16th
century, 109 ; join the fourth crusade,

vii. 295.
GERMANUS, nephew of Justinian, de-

clines to conduct the defence of An-
tioch, v. 190; appointed to command
an Italian expedition, 229; charac-

ter, ib.; death, 230.
GERMANUS, father-in-law of Theodo-

sius, son of the emperor Maurice,

resigns the purple to Phoca v. 385.
GERMANY, Upper and Lower, Roman

provinces, i. 156; importance of its
history, 349; limits of ancient, ib.;Gib-
bon's account corrected, 350, note S.;
climate, 350; Gibbon's account cor-
rected, 351, note M. ; its effects, 352;
how peopled, ib.; Olaus Rudbeck's
account, 353; cities, 355 ; game and
cattle, 356 ; metals, ib. ; population,
358; Malthus' remark on, 359, note
M. ; causes of its population, iii. 260;
united by Charlemagne, vi. 174 ;
emperors of, their title of emperor
dependent on their coronation by the
pope, 179; imperial crown fixed in
the nation of, by Otho I., ib.; autho
rity of the emperors in ühe election

of popes, 181 ; jurisdiction in Rome,
184 ; abandoned by them, 185,
princes of, their independence, 189;
Germanic confederation, 191; silver
mines of, vii. 395, note; description
of, by Chalcocondyles the Greek his-
torian, viii. 86; military power of,

127, note.
GERONTIUS, commander in Greece, un-

der Arcadius, iv. 24.
GERONTIUS, general of the usurper Con-

stantine, sets up Maximus as emperor
in Spain, iv. 119; his heroic defence

and death, ib. sq.
GERSON, John, doctor of the Sorbonne,

his measure for healing the papal

schism, viii. 254 and note.
GESSORIACUM (Boulogne), Roman fleet

at, ii. 70; taken by Constantius, 72.
Gera and Caracalla, sons of the em-

peror Severus, discord of, i. 264 ;
accession of, 267 ; jealousy, ib. ; Geta
murdered, 268; deified, 269, note ;

character, ib, note W.
GETÆ, whether Goths, i. 375, note S.
GETE8, Jits, or Calmucks, viii. 41 and

note M.
GHEBERS : v. Magians.
GHIBELINES, vi. 189; viii. 191.
GIANNONE, hisCivil History of Naples,

iii. 34, note.
Giaour, or Gabour, etymology of that

name, viii. 148, note.
GIBAMUND, nephew of Gelimer, de-

feated, v. 108.
GIBRALTAR, name whence derived, vi.

GILDAS, his description of Britain, iv.

GILDO, the Moor, brother of Firmus,

his revolt in Africa, iv. 15; brutal
character, 16; transfers his allegiance
from Honorius to Arcadius, ib. ; de-
clared a public enemy by the Roman
senate, 17; his quarrel with his
brother Mascezel, ib.; defeat by

Mascezel and death, 20.
GILIMER, Gothic leader, killed in the

assault of Rome by Ricimer, iv. 293.
GIRAFFE, the, i. 231, note.
GISULF, nephew of Alboin, first duke

of Friuli, v. 350.
GIUBIN, or Choubeen, surname of Bah-

ram, v. 369 and note M.
GLADIATORS, revolt of, under Probus,

ii. 50; when abolished, iv, 40 and
41, note 8,

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GLADSTONE, Mr., tax on successions, i.

299, note S.
Glass, windows, a luxury, ii. 27, note ;

not unknown to the Romans, iv. 76,

notes M. and S.
GLYCERITS made emperor of the West

by Gundobald, iv, 294 ; resigns the
sceptre for the bishopric of Salona,
ib.; assassinates Nepos, 295; made

archbishop of Milan, ib.
Gnostics, tenets of the, ii. 161; held

the Mosaic dispensation to have been
superseded by Christianity, 162;
their sophistry adopted by the most
learned of the Fathers, ib.; mostly
Gentiles, 163 ; derived many of their
tenets from Oriental philosophy, ib. ;
various sects of, 164; success, ib.;

rejected the received gospels, ib.
Gods, pagan, and their worshippers,

quarrels between, iii. 211.
Godas, governor of Sardinia, revolts

from Gelimer, Vandal king of Africa,

v. 99.
GODEGEBIL, brother of Gundobald, king

of the Burgundians, deserts to Clovis,
iv. 355; massacred by Gundobald,

GODESCAL, one of the leaders of the first

crusade, vii. 192.
GODFREY of Bouillon, leader of the

first crusade, history and character
of, vii. 196; treaty with Carloman,
king of Hungary, 202 ; menaces Con-
stantinople, 205 ; adopted by Alexius
Comnenus, 206; torn by a bear,
214; wonderful sword stroke, 216
and note ; elected defender and baron
of the holy sepulchre, 228 ; reign,
ib.; composes the Assize of Jerusa-

lem, 232.
Gog and Magog, famous rampart of,

described, v. 88 and note; Hun-
garians mistaken for, vii. 69 and

note S.
GOGUET, character of his ' Origine des

Loix et des Arts,' v. 56, note.
GOISVINTHA, wife of Leovegild, king of

Spain, persecutes her grand-daughter

Ingundis, iv. 338.
Gold of affliction, tribute so called,

abolished by Anastasius, v. 63.
Gold and silver, proportion between, i.

193 and note.
GOLDEN-FOOTED DAME, leader of the

female trop in the third crusade,
vii. 241,

GOLDEN Horn, harbour of Constanti-

nople, why so called, ii. 289.
GOLDEN MOUNTAINS, v. 173 and noto

GOLDEN SPEARS, army of Chosroes II.,

so called, v. 405.
Gom, a small grain, food of the Min-

grelians, v. 194.
GONFanon, or Greck imperial standard,

vii. 310 and note.
GONTHARIS seizes the throne of Car-

thage, v. 212; assassinated by Ar-

taban, ib. 213, note.
GORDIAN, proconsul of Africa, i. 310;

family and character, 311 ; magnifi-
cence, ib.; declared emperor with
his son, 312; character of the latter,
ib. ; their election ratified by the se-

nate, 314 ; their deaths, 315.
GORDIAN III., declared Cæsar, i. 317;

date, 318, note S.; sole emperor,
324; virtues, ib. ; Persian war, 325 ;

murdered, 326 ; sepulchre, ib. note.
Gorgo, or Carizme, residence of the

king of the White Huns, 313.
GOTHINI probably spoke Galician, not

Gallican, i. 352, note S.
Goths, first appearance of, i. 374 ;

Scandinavian origin, 375; that theory
examined, ib. note S.; whether Ge-
, ib.; distinct from the Swedes,
376; religion, ib.; Asiatic origin,
377, note S. ; emigration into Prus-
sia, 378; subdivisions of, ib.; whence
denominated Ostro and Visi, ib.
notes ; second migration, 379; invade
the Roman provinces, 382 ; defeat
Decius, 383 ; obtain a tribute from
Gallus, 387; defeated by Æmilia-
nus, ib.; their incursions over the
Danube, 395; settle in the Ukraine,
ib.; and Bosphorus, 396; naval ex-
peditions in the Euxine, ib.; take
Trebizond, 397; ravage Pontus, ib. ;
take Chalcedon and plunder Bithy-
nia, 398 ; pass the Hellespont, 399 ;
ravage Greece and threaten Italy,
400 ; divisions and retreat, 401; con-
founded with the Scythians, ib.;
attempt Thessalonica, ii. 6 ; defeated
by Claudius, 7; conflict and treaty
with Aurelian, 11 ; believed them.
selves descended from the Getæ, 12;
invade Illyricum, 144 ; repulsed
and chastised by Constantine, ib.;
invade Mæsia, 360 ; repulsed by
Constantine, ib. ; Gibbon's erre meous


account of his defeat ; ib. note M.;
further defeat of the, 361; implore
peace, ib.; assist the revolt of Pro-
copius, 284 ; subdued by Valens, ib.;
supported by Hermanric, 285; war
with Valens, ib. ; defeat and submis-
sion, 286; precipitated on the western
provinces of Rome by the Huns, 294 ;
Visigoths defeated on the Dniester by
the fluns, 318; implore the protec-
tion of Valens, 319; who assigns
them settlements in Thrace, 320;
they cross the Danube, 321 ; their
numbers, ib.; elude the condition
imposed by Valens of surrendering
their arms, 322; the Ostrogoths are
refused a passage by Valens, ib. ;
rapacity of Lupicinus and Maximus,
323; discontent of the Visigoths, ib.;
the Ostrogoths force the passage of
the Danube, 324 ; rupture between
the Visigoths and Romans, 325; they
defeat Lupicinus near Marcianopolis,
326 ; ravage Thrace, ib. ; are joined
hy a band

their countrymen from
Hadrianople, 327; fruitless siege of
that city, ib. ; battle of Salices, 329 ;
ravage the country between the Da-
nube and Hellespont, 330; alliance
between the Visigoths and Ostro-
goths, ib.; joined by the Huns,
Alani, &c., 331 ; overthrow Valens
at Hadrianople, 335; besiege that
city, 338; appear before Constanti-
nople, 339; repulsed by a body of
Arabs, ib. ; spread themselves to the
Adriatic, ib.; Gothic youth massa-
cred in Asia, 341; their disorder and
discord after the death of Fritigern,
349; Athanåric's army enlists under
Theodosius, 350 ; final capitulation
of the Visigoths, ib.; the Ostrogoths,
after various migrations, return in
greater force, 351 ; fatal attempt to
cross the Danube, ib ; accept set-
tlements in Thrace and Phrygia,
352 ; serve under the Romans, with
the name of Foderati, 353; their
hostile and treacherous feeling, 354 ;
two parties under Fravitta and
Priulf, their deadly feud, 355 ; revolt
of after the death of Theodosius, iv.
23; they cross the Danube and
threaten Constantinople, ib. ; ravage
Greece under the conduct of Alaric,
25, sq.; invade Italy, 31 ; join the
standar: cf Radagaisus, 45; Gib-

bon's statement limited, ib. note S.;
besiege Rome, 90 ; second siege, 97;
third siege and sack, 101 ; their mo-
deration and religious feeling, 102 ;
singular example of, 104 ; their oc-
cupation of Italy, 111; march into
Gaul, 113; marriage gifts of the
Visigoths, 115 and note; Gothic
treasures, ib. and note S.; subdue the
barbarians in Spain, 128 ; their settle-
ments in Aquitain, ib.; styled from
their moderation guests of the Romans,
130; Ostrogoths subdued by Attila,
196; settle in Pannonia, 248 ; Visi-
goths acquire Narbonne, 287; checked
by Ægidius, ib.; conversion of the
Goths to Christianity, 322 ; con-
verted from Arianism, 337; Visi-
goths converted, 340 ; Visigoths of
Spain protected by Theodoric the
Great, 361 ; lose Aquitain, ib.; Os-
trogoths of Italy_resign Arles and
Marseilles to the Franks, 362; Visi-
goths of Spain, code of, 385 and
note ; Ostrogoths threaten Constan-
tinople, v. 3; sell their reconcilia-
tion and fidelity, ib. ; cruelties in
Thrace, 5; invade Italy, 8; their
condition and manners in that coun-
try, 12; colony of Goths in the
Crimæa, 82 and note ; evacuate Pan-
nonia and Noricum, 165; of Italy,
revolt of after the recall of Belisarius,
v. 214; their kingdom in Italy over-
thrown by Narses, 236; sentiments
of the Goths towards Rome, viii.

GOSPELS, orthodox, rejected by the

Gnostic sects, ii. 164; how and when
composed, 206 and 207, note M. ;
whether altered by the Christians,

216, notes.
GOVERNMENT, civil, its origin, i. 360;

absolute, contrary to nature, iii. 129,

GRANARIES, public, under Severus, L.

259, note.
Grasses, artificial, i. 190.
GRATIAN, count, father of Valentinian,

his merit and services, iii. 233.
Gratian, son of Valentinian I. and

Severa, associated in the purple by
his father, iii. 291 ; married to Con-
stantia, grand-daughter of Constan-
tine, ib. ; accepts Valentinian II., son
of Justina, as associate in the empire,
292; chastises the Alemanni, 332;

valour, 333 ; learns the death of
Valens, 342'; appoints Theodosius
emperor of the East, ib.; virtues and
defects of Gratian, 356; passion for
hunting, 357; fondness for the
Alani, 358 ; deserted by his soldiers
on the approach of Maximus, 360;
flight and death, ib.; bewailed by
the orthodox clergy, 363; rejected
the pontificate, 408 ; Gibbon's date
corrected, ib, note S.; removed the

statue of Victory from the senate, ib.
GRATIAN, elected emperor by the

British legions, iv. 54; put to death,

GREECE overrun by the Goths, i. 400;

furnishes a fleet to Licinius, ii. 146 ;
cities of, relieved and restored by
Julian, iii. 131 ; ravaged by Alaric,
iv. 25; reduced by the Turks, viii.

GREEK CHURCH, first symptoms of dis-

cord with the Latin, iii. 75; its
supine superstition, vii. 46; schism
of, 278; discipline of how different
from the Latin, 279; schism of con-
firmed by the reign of the Latins at
Constantinople, 347; its union with
and obedience to the Latin church
effected by Michael Palæologus, 373;
union dissolved, 375; articles of
debate with the Latins at the council
of Florence, viii. 100; reunion with
the Latin church, 103 ; acts of union,

ib. note ; fresh schism, 122.
GREEK CITIES in Asia, i. 339 and note.
GREEK COLONIES in Italy, i. 157.
GREEK LITERATURE studied by the

Romans, i. 175; revival of, vii. 39.
GREEK LANGUAGE and characters, use of

by the Arabians in the public ac-
counts abolished, vi. 378; language,
established as the legal tongue in the
Byzantine empire, vii. 38; state of
at Constantinople in the fourteenth
century, viii. 105; glossaries of bar.
barisms, ib. and note ; Leo Pilatus,
first professor of, at Florence, 110;
Manuel Chrysoloras, second pro-
fessor, 111; vicious pronunciation of,
114 and note ; study of, when intro-
duced at Oxford, 117, note; first

Greek book, when printed, 118, note.
GREEKS, their infuence in the East, i.

175; their jealousy of Oriental
science, vi. 404 ; their aversion for
the Latins, vii. 278, 282; dissatisfied

with their presence at Constanti-
nople, 307 ; massacre the Latins,

GREENS, faction of the Hippodrome,

persecuted by the Blues, v. 50; mas-

sacre of, 55.
GREGORIAN CODE, v. 271 and note S.

studies at
Athens with Julian, ii. 395, note ;
his character of the latter, and pre-
diction, ib.; eloquence of, iii. 38;
laments the discords of the Chris-
tians, 96; his invectives against
Julian, 136, notes ; account of, 365;
presented to the wretched see of
Sasima by his friend Basil, 366 ;
becomes bishop of Nazianzus, ib. ;
accepts the mission of Constantinople,
ib.; dangers and adventures at, 367;
success of his preaching, ib.; placed
on the archiepiscopal throne by
Theodosius in person, 368; his re-
signation, retirement, and death,

GREGORY of Nyssa, his account of the

Christians of Pontus, ii. 208, notes.
GREGORY the Great, pope, receives the

ambassadors and presents of Recared,
king of Spain, iv. 340; exhorts
queen Theodelinda to propagate the
Nicene faith among her subjects, ib.;
his enmity to classic genius, v. 357;
believed to have mutilated statues
and burned the Palatine library, ib. ;
birth and history, 358; pontificate,
359; extent of his spiritual jurisdic-
tion, ib.; his church music and
pompous ceremonies, 360; converts
the Anglo-Saxons, ib. ; the last pope
made à saint, 361 ; temporal go-
vernment, estates, and alms, ib.;
political conduct, 362; saves Rome
from the Lombards, ib.; base flattery

of Phocas, 386.
GREGORY II., pope, his insolent letters

to the emperor Leo in defence of
image worship, vi. 146; excites the

revolt of Italy, 148.
GREGORY III., pope, implores the pro-

tection of Charles Martel against the

Lombards, vi. 154 and note M.
GREGORY VII., pope, reforms the cor-

ruptions of the papacy, vi. 184 ; his
ambitious projects, ib.; besieged by
the emperor Henry VII. vii. 128 ;
Lives of, ib. notes ; delivered by
Robert Guiscard, 129; retires to

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