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GELI.

treatment by Frangipani and the
Romans, viii. 192; second attack on,
and flight, 193.
GELI, site of the, ii. 81, note.
GELIMER, king of the Wandals in
Africa, iv. 330; deposes Hilderic, v.
97; defeated by Belisarius, 109; puts
Hilderic to death, ib.; encamps at
Bulla, 111; letter to his brother
Zano, ib.; second defeat and flight,
113; distress, 116; three extraordi-
nary requests to Pharas, 117; sur-
render, 118; behaviour at the tri-
umph of Belisarius, 119 ; retires into
Galatia, 120.
GELONI, vassal-tribeof the Alani, iii.315.
GENERALs, Roman, power of, i. 199.
GENEROSITY, Arabian, examples of, vi.
209.
GENEVIEve, St., diverts the march of
Attila from Paris, iv. 232.
GENNADIUs, patriarch of Constantino-
ple, his opinion of the Athanasian
creed, iv. 335, note.
GENNADIUs, monk of Constantinople,
denounces a union with the Latin
church, viii. 157; duplicity of, ib.
note ; installed patriarch by Maho-
met II., 179.
GENNERID, a barbarian and pagan, made
master-general of Dalmatia, &c.,
under Honorius, iv. 95; extorts a
toleration for the pagans, 96.
GENoese, settlements of the, at Hera-
clea and Constantinople, vii. 368;
increase of their colony, and fortifi-
cation of Galata, 407; their trade
and insolence, ib.; usurp the toll of
the Bosphorus, 408; war with the
emperor Cantacuzene, 409; naval
victory over the Greeks and Vene-
tians, 410 and note M. ; extort a
monopoly from the Greeks, 411.
GENs, Roman, defined, v. 307.
GENSERIC, king of the Wandals in Spain,
character, iv. 177; defeats Herman-
ric, king of the Suevi, ib.; invades
Africa at the invitation of count Boni-
face, 178; joined by the Moors, 179;
assisted by the Donatists, 180; de-
feats the repentant Boniface, 181;
treaty with Valentinian III., 185;
domestic and political difficulties, ib.:
surprises Carthage, 186; allies him-
self with Attila, 199; mutilates his
son's wife, daughter of Theodoric,
king of the Ostrogoths, 226; incites

GERMANS,

Attila to itvade Gaul, ib.; builds a
fleet, 253; conquers Sicily, ib.;
anchors at the mouth of the Tiber,
254; sacks Rome, 257; carries the
empress Eudoxia as a prisoner to
Carthage, ib.; destroys the navy of
Majorian at Carthagena, 273; con-
cludes a treaty with him, ib.; pira-
tical expeditions, 276; massacre at
Zante, 277; treaty with the Eastern
empire, ib.; destroys the fleet of
Basiliscus, 285 ; revival of his naval
power, 286; persecuted his catholic
subjects, 329.
GENTLEMAN, etymology of that name,
vii. 199, note.
GEOGRAPHY and Cosmology, ancient
orthodox system of, v. 62.
“GEoponics’ of Constantine Porphyro-
genitus, vii. 2.
GEORGE of Cappadocia, succeeds Atha-
nasius at Alexandria, iii. 83; his
tyranny, ib.; his infamous character,
171; promoted by the Arians to the
see of Alexandria, ib.; his oppres-
sions, ib.; massacred, 172; wor-
shipped as a saint and martyr, 173;
tutelar saint of England, ib.; his
identity in the latter character ques-
tioned by Dr. Milner, ib. note M.
GEORGE of Pisidia, his Acroaseis, v.
401, note.
GEORGE, Sicilian admiral, takes Maha-
dia, vii. 135; delivers Louis VII.
from the Greeks, 136; insults Con-
stantinople, 137.
GEORGIANs, religion of the, vii. 158;
name whence derived, ib. note.
GEOUGEN, Scythian tribe, iv. 43; van-
quished by Attila, 196; attributed
supernatural powers to.the Huns, ib.
GEPIDAE, origin of that name, i. 379 ;
uncertain whether Goths, ib. note S.;
subdued by Attila, iv. 196; seize
Sirmium and Belgrade, v. 165; their
ironical apology to Justinian, ib.;
conquered by the Lombards, 167;
subdued by the Avars and Lombards,
334; their country occupied by the
former, ib.
GERGovIA, siege of, by Julius Caesar,
iv. 376.
GERMANIA, town of, birth-place of
Belisarius, v. 99, and note S.
GERMANICUs, i. 139, note.
GERMANs, ancient, occupy part of Bel-
gium, i. 156; were illiterate, 354;

GERMANUS.

houses and raiment, 355; agriculture,
356; unacquainted with money, ib.;
manners, 357; beer, 358 ; freedom,
359; government, 360; popular as-
semblies, ib.; princes and magis-
trates, jurisdiction of, 361 ; gifts,
362; Shastity, ib.; its causes, 363;
respect for women, ib.; marriage
present, ib. note; fortitude of their
women, 364; religion, ib.; effects
of their superstition, 365; bards,
366; songs, ib. note G.; causes of
their want of progress, 367; arms,
ib.; cavalry, ib. ; want of discipline,
ib.; civil dissensions, 368; fomented
by the Romans, 369; confederation
against M. Antoninus, 370; tribes,
371; invited by Constantius II. to
invade Gaul, ii. 412; destroy forty-
five cities, ib. ; extent of their con-
quests on the left bank of the Rhine,
ib.; defeated by Julian at Strasburg,
417; driven from the Upper Rhine,
418; religious indifference of the, iii.
10; northern, emigration of into Italy,
how caused, iv. 44 and note M. ; the
remnant, after their defeat by Sti-
licho, invade and settle in Gaul, 50;
the Alemanni on the Rhine remain
neutral, 51; character of, in 16th
century, 109; join the fourth crusade,
vii. 295.
GERMANUs, nephew of Justinian, de-
clines to conduct the defence of An-
tioch, v. 190; appointed to command
an Italian expedition, 229; charac-
ter, ib.; death, 230.
RERMANUs, father-in-law of Theodo-
sius, son of the emperor Maurice,
resigns the purple to Phocas, v. 385.
GERMANY, Upper and Lower, Roman
provinces, i. 156; importance of its
history,349;limitsofancient, ib.;Gib-
bon's account corrected, 350, note S.;
climate, 350; Gibbon's account cor-
rected, 351, note M.; its effects, 352;
how peopled, ib.; Olaus Rudbeck's
account, 353; cities, 355; game and
cattle, 356; metals, ib.; population,
358; Malthus' remark on, 359, note
M.; causes of its population, iii. 260;
united by Charlemagne, vi. 174;
emperors of, their title of emperor
dependent on their coronation by the
pope, 179; imperial crown fixed in
the nation of, by Otho I., ib.; autho-
rity of the emperors in the election

GLADIATORS

of popes, 181; jurisdiction in Rome,
184; abandoned by them, 1851
rinces of, their independence, 189;
Hermanic confederation, 191; silver
mines of, vii. 395, note; description
of, by Chalcocondyles the Greek his-
torian, viii. 86; military power of,
127, note.
GERONTIUs, commander in Greece, un-
der Arcadius, iv. 24.
GERONTIUs, general of the usurper Con-
stantine, sets up Maximus as emperor
in Spain, iv. 119 ; his heroic defence
and death, ib. sq.
GERSoN, John, doctor of the Sorbonne,
his measure for healing the papal
schism, viii. 254 and note.
GEssoRIACUM (Boulogne), Roman fleet
at, ii. 70; taken by Constantius, 72.
GETA and Caracalla, sons of the em-
peror Severus, discord of, i. 264;
accession of, 267; jealousy, ib.; Geta
murdered, 268; deified, 269, note;
character, ib. note W.
GETA, whether Goths, i. 375, note S.
GETES, Jits, or Calmucks, viii. 41 and
note M.
GHEBERs: v. Magians.
GHIBELINEs, vi. 189; viii. 191.
GIANNONE, his ‘Civil History of Naples,”
iii. 34, note.
GLAOUR, or Gabour, etymology of that
name, viii. 148, note.
GIBAMUND, nephew of Gelimer, de-
feated, v. 108.
GIBRALTAR, name whence derived, vi.
356.
GILDAs, his description of Britain, iv.
389.
GILDo, the Moor, brother of Firmus,
his revolt in Africa, iv. 15; brutal
character, 16; transfers his allegiance
from Honorius to Arcadius, ib.; de-
clared a public enemy by the Roman
senate, 17; his quarrel with his
brother Mascezel, ib.; defeat by
Mascezel and death, 20.
GILIMER, Gothic leader, killed in the
assault of Rome by Ricimer, iv. 293.
GIRAFFE, the, i. 231, note.
Gisulf, nephew of Alboin, first duke
of Friuli, v. 350.
G1UBIN, or Choubeen, surname of Bah-
ram, v. 369 and note M.
GLADIATors, revolt of, under Probus,
ii. 50; when abolished, iv. 40 and
41, note S,

GLADSTONE.

GLADSTONE, Mr., tax on successions, i.
299, note S.
GLAss, windows, a luxury, ii. 27, note;
not unknown to the Romans, iv. 76,
notes M. and S.
GLYcERIUs made emperor of the West
by Gundobald, iv. 294; resigns the
sceptre for the bishopric of Salona,
ib.; assassinates Nepos, 295; made
archbishop of Milan, ib.
GNosTics, tenets of the, ii. 161; held
the Mosaic dispensation to have been
superseded by Christianity, 162;
their sophistry adopted by the most
learned of the Fathers, ib.; mostly
Gentiles, 163; derived many of their
tenets from Oriental philosophy, ib.;
various sects of, 164; success, ib.;
rejected the received gospels, ib.
Gods, pagan, and their worshippers,
quarrels between, iii. 211.
GoDAs, governor of Sardinia, revolts
from Gelimer, Wandal king of Africa,
v. 99.
GoDEGEsil, brother of Gundobald, king
of the Burgundians, deserts to Clovis,
iv. 355; massacred by Gundobald,
ib.
GoDEscAL, one of the leaders of the first
crusade, vii. 192.
3oDFREY of Bouillon, leader of the
first crusade, history and character
of, vii. 196; treaty with Carloman,
king of Hungary, 202; menaces Con-
stantinople, 205; adopted by Alexius
Comnenus, 206; torn by a bear,
214; wonderful sword stroke, 216
and note; elected defender and baron
of the holy sepulchre, 228; reign,
ib.; composes the Assize of Jerusa-
lem, 232.
Gog and Magog, famous rampart of,
described, v. 88 and note ; Hun-
garians mistaken for, vii. 69 and
note S.
GoGUET, character of his ‘Origine des
Loix et des Arts,’ v. 56, note.
GoisviNTHA, wife of Leovegild, king of
Spain, persecutes her grand-daughter
Ingundis, iv. 338.
Gold of affliction, tribute so called,
abolished by Anastasius, v. 63.
GoLD and silver, proportion between, i.
193 and note.
GoLDEN-Footed DAME, leader of the
female troop in the third crusade,
vii. 241,

GOTHS.

GoLDEN HoRN, harbour of Constanti-
nople, why so called, ii. 289.

GoLDEN MoUNTAINS, v. 173 and note
M

GoLDEN SPEARs, army of Chosroes II.,
so called, v. 405.
GoM, a small grain, food of the Min-
grelians, v. 194.
GoNFANON, or Greek imperial standard,
vii. 310 and note.
GONTHARIs seizes the throne of Car-
thage, v. 212; assassinated by Ar-
taban, ib. 213, note.
GoRDIAN, proconsul of Africa, i. 310;
family and character, 311; magnifi-
cence, ib. ; declared emperor with
his son, 312; character of the latter,
ib.; their election ratified by the se-
nate, 314; their deaths, 315.
GoRDIAN III., declared Caesar, i. 317;
date, 318, note S.; sole emperor,
324; virtues, ib.; Persian war, 325;
murdered, 326; sepulchre, ib. note.
GoRGo, or Carizme, residence of the
king of the White Huns, 313.
GoTHINI probably spoke Galician, not
Gallican, i. 352, mote S.
GoTHs, first appearance of, i. 374;
Scandinavian origin, 375; that theory
examined, ib. note S.; whether Ge-
tae, ib.; distinct from the Swedes,
376; religion, ib.; Asiatic origin,
377, note S.; emigration into Prus-
sia, 378; subdivisions of, ib.; whence
denominated Ostro and Visi, ib.
notes; second migration, 379; invade
the Roman provinces, 382; defeat
Decius, 383; obtain a tribute from
Gallus, 387; defeated by Æmilia-
nus, ib.; their incursions over the
Danube, 395; settle in the Ukraine,
ib.; and Bosphorus, 396; naval ex-
peditions in the Euxine, ib.; take
Trebizond, 397 ; ravage Pontus, ib.;
take Chalcedon and plunder Bithy-
nia, 398; pass the Hellespont, 399;
ravage Greece and threaten Italy,
400; divisions and retreat, 401; con-
founded with the Scythians, ib.;
attempt Thessalonica, ii. 6; defeated
by Claudius, 7; conflict and treaty
with Aurelian, 11 ; believed them-
selves descended from the Getae, 12;
invade Illyricum, 144; repulsed
and chastised by Constantine, ib.;
invade Moesia, 360 ; repulsed by
Constantine, ib. ; Gibbon's erroneous

GOTHS.

account of his defeat; ib. note M.;
further defeat of the, 361; implore
peace, ib. ; assist the revolt of Pro-
copius, 284; subdued by Valens, ib.;
supported by Hermanric, 285 ; war
with Valens, ib. ; defeat and submis-
sion, 286; precipitated on the western
rovinces of Rome by the Huns, 294;

isigoths defeated on the Dniester by
the Huns, 318; implore the protec-
tion of Valens, 319; who assigns
them settlements in Thrace, 320;
they cross the Danube, 321 ; their
numbers, ib.; elude the condition
imposed by Valens of surrendering
their arms, 322; the Ostrogoths are
refused a passage by Valens, ib. ;
rapacity of Lupicinus and Maximus,
323; discontent of the Visigoths, ib.;
the Ostrogoths force the passage of
the Danube, 324; rupture between
the Visigoths and Romans, 325; they
defeat Lupicinus near Marcianopolis,
326; ravage Thrace, ib.; are joined
by a band of their countrymen from
Hadrianople, 327; fruitless siege of
that city, ib.; battle of Salices, 329;
ravage the country between the Da-
nube and Hellespont, 330; alliance
between the Visigoths and Ostro-
goths, ib.; joined by the Huns,
Alani, &c., 331; overthrow Valens
at Hadrianople, 335; besiege that
city, 338; appear before Constanti-
nople, 339; repulsed by a body of
Arabs, ib.; spread themselves to the
Adriatic, ib.; Gothic youth massa-
cred in Asia, 341; their disorder and
discord after the death of Fritigern,
349; Athanāric's army enlists under
Theodosius, 350; final capitulation
of the Visigoths, ib.; the Ostrogoths,
after various migrations, return in
greater force, 351; fatal attempt to
cross the Danube, ib ; accept set-

GRATIAN.

bon's statement limited, ib. note S. ;
besiege Rome, 90 ; second siege, 97 ;
third siege and sack, 101; their mo-
deration and religious feeling, 102 ;
singular example of, 104; their oc-
cupation of Italy, 111; march into
Gaul, 113; marriage gifts of the
Visigoths, 115 and note; Gothic
treasures, ib, and note S.; subdue the
barbarians in Spain, 128; their settle-
ments in Aquitain, ib.; styled from
their moderation guests of the Romans,
130; Ostrogoths subdued by Attila,
196; settle in Pannonia, 248; Visi-
goths acquire Narbonne,287; checked
by AEgidius, ib.; conversion of the
Goths to Christianity, 322; con-
verted from Arianism, 337; Visi-
goths converted, 340; Visigoths of
Spain protected by Theodoric the
Great, 361; lose Aquitain, ib.; Os-
trogoths of Italy resign Arles and
Marseilles to the Franks, 362; Visi-
goths of Spain, code of, 385 and
note; Ostrogoths threaten Constan-
tinople, v. 3.; sell their reconcilia-
tion and fidelity, ib. ; cruelties in
Thrace, 5; invade Italy, 8 ; their
condition and manners in that coun-
try, 12; colony of Goths in the
Crimara, 82 and note ; evacuate Pan-
nonia and Noricum, 165; of Italy,
revolt of after the recall of Belisarius,
v. 214; their kingdom in Italy over-
thrown by Narses, 236; sentiments
of the Goths towards Rome, viii.
273.

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Severa, associated in the purple by
his father, iii. 291; married to Con-
stantia, grand-daughter of Constan-
tine, ib.; accepts Valentinian II., son
of Justina, as associate in the empire,
292; chastises the Alemanni, 332;

GRATIAN.

valour, 333; learns the death of
Valens, 342; appoints Theodosius
emperor of the East, ib.; virtues and
defects of Gratian, 356; passion for
hunting, 357; fondness for the
Alani, 358; deserted by his soldiers
on the approach of Maximus, 360;
flight and death, ib.; bewailed by
the orthodox clergy, 363; rejected
the pontificate, 408; Gibbon's date
corrected, ib. note S.; removed the
statue of Victory from the senate, ib.
GRATIAN, elected emperor by the
British legions, iv. 54; put to death,
ib.
GREECE overrun by the Goths, i. 400;
furnishes a fleet to Licinius, ii. 146;
cities of, relieved and restored by
Julian, iii. 131; ravaged by Alaric,
iv. 25; reduced by the Turks, viii.
180.
GREEK chURCH, first symptoms of dis-
cord with the Latin, iii. 75; its
supine superstition, vii. 46; schism
of, 278; discipline of how different
from the Latin, 279 ; schism of con-
firmed by the reign of the Latins at
Constantinople, 347; its union with
and obedience to the Latin church
effected by Michael Palaeologus, 373;
union dissolved, 375; articles of
debate with the Latins at the council
of Florence, viii. 100; reunion with
the Latin church, 103; acts of union,
ib. note; fresh schism, 122.
GREEK cities in Asia, i. 339 and note.
GREEK colonies in Italy, i. 157.
GREEK LITERATURE studied by the
Romans, i. 175; revival of, vii. 39.
GREEKLANGUAGE and characters, use of
by the Arabians in the public ac-
counts abolished, vi. 378; language,
established as the legal tongue in the
Byzantine empire, vii. 38; state of
at Constantinople in the fourteenth
century, viii. 105; glossaries of bar-
barisms, ib. and note; Leo Pilatus,
first professor of, at Florence, 110;
Manuel Chrysoloras, second pro-
fessor, 111; vicious pronunciation of,
114 and note ; study of, when intro-
duced at Oxford, 117, note; first
Greek book, when printed, 118, note.
GREEKs, their influence in the East, i.
175; their jealousy of Oriental
science, vi. 404; their aversion for
the Latins, vii. 278, 282; dissatisfied
WOL. VIII.

GREGORY.

with their presence at Constanti-
nople, 307; massacre the Latins,
329.
GREENs, faction of the Hippodrome,
persecuted by the Blues, v. 50; mas-
sacre of, 55.
GnegoFIAN Code, v. 271 and note S.
GREGoRY NAZIANZEN, studies at
Athens with Julian, ii. 395, note;
his character of the latter, and pre-
diction, ib.; eloquence of, iii. 38;
laments the discords of the Chris-
tians, 96; his invectives against
Julian, 136, notes; account of, 365;
presented to the wretched see of
Sasima by his friend Basil, 366;
becomes bishop of Nazianzus, ib.;
accepts the mission of Constantinople,
ib.; dangers and adventures at, 367;
success of his preaching, ib.; placed
on the archiepiscopal throne by
Theodosius in person, 368; his re-
signation, retirement, and death,
372.
GREGory of Nyssa, his account of the
Christians of Pontus, ii. 208, notes.
GREGoRy the Great, pope, receives the
ambassadors and presents of Recared,
king of Spain, iv. 340; exhorts
queen Theodelinda to propagate the
Nicene faith among her subjects, ib.;
his enmity to classic genius, v. 357;
believed to have mutilated statues
and burned the Palatine library, ib.:
birth and history, 358; pontificate,
359; extent of his spiritual jurisdic-
tion, ib.; his church music and
pompous ceremonies, 360; converts
the Anglo-Saxons, ib.; the last pope
made a saint, 361; temporal go-
vernment, estates, and alms, ib.;
political conduct, 362; saves Rome
from the Lombards, ib.; base flattery
of Phocas, 386.
GREGoRY II., pope, his insolent letters
to the emperor Leo in defence of
image worship, vi. 146; excites the
revolt of Italy, 148.
GREGoRY III., pope, implores the pro-
tection of Charles Martel against the
Lombards, vi. 154 and note M.
GREGoRY VII., pope, reforms the cor-
ruptions of the papacy, vi. 184; his
ambitious projects, ib.; besieged by
the emperor Henry III. vii. 128;
Lives of, ib. notes; denvered by
Robert Guiscard, 1293 retires to
A

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