Salerno, ib.; his design of a cru-
sade, 179; founder of the papal mo-
narchy, viii. 192; exile, ib.; suc-
cessors, ib.
GREGORY IX., pope, excommunicates
the emperor Frederick II., vii. 270.
GREGoRY X., pope, receives the sub-
mission of the Greek church at the
council of Lyons, vii. 373; institutes
the conclave, viii. 212.
GREGORY XI., pope, final return of,
from Avignon to Rome, viii. 250;
death, 251.
GREGoRY XII., pope, viii. 254; re-
nounces the tiara, 256.
GREGoRY XIII., pope, publishes a code
of laws for Rome, viii. 259.
GREGoRy, bishop of Adrianople, pa-
triarch of Constantinople, vii. 371
and note M.
GREGoRY of Tours, account of, iv.
379 and note; literary character,
380 and note.
GREGoRY, praefect of Africa, comes to
the relief of Tripoli, besieged by the
Arabs, vi. 343; heroism of his
daughter, 344; death of Gregory,
and capture of his daughter, 345;
their genuine history, 346, note S.
GRIMEs DYKE, i. 141, note S.
GRIMM, his hypothesis respecting the
Goths, i. 375, note S.
GRIMoALD, duke of Beneventum, art-
ful flattery of Charlemagne, vi. 174.
GROTIUs, political principles of, iii. 7,
note; his unfounded tale of Ma-
homet's pigeon, vi. 263 note.
GRUMBATEs, king of the Chionites,
allied with the Persians, ii. 406;
summons Amida to surrender to
Sapor, 407; his son killed there, ib.;
Sapor promises to avenge him, ib.
GRUTHUNGI, v. Ostrogoths.
GUARDIANs and wards, Roman law of,
v. 301; Gibbon's view corrected, ib.
note S.
GUBAzEs, king of Lazica, invites Chos-
roes Nushirvan to expel the Romans,
v. 200 ; repentance, ib.; history of,
203; treacherously killed by order
of Justinian, #04; judicial inquiry
into his death, ib.
GUELFs and GHIBELINs, vi. 189; fac-
tions of, vii. 289; negociations of,
with the Romans, viii. 191.


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GUESTs of the Romans, barbarian in-
vaders of Gaul so called, iv. 130.
GUIBERT, his character as an historian,
vii. 191, note and note S.
GUILT, how measured by the legisla-
tor, v. 321.
GUIscARD, Robert, defeats pope Leo
IX., vii. 109; birth and character,
110; etymology of his surname, 112
and note; saluted count of Apulia,
ib.; made duke by pope Nicholas II.,
113; Italian conquests of, 114; his
daughter betrothed to Constantine,
son of the emperor Michael, 119 ;
sets up a pretended Michael, ib.;
invades the Eastern empire, 120; be-
sieges Durazzo, 121; burns his
ships, 123; defeats Alexius Com-
nenus, 124; takes Durazzo, 126;
return, ib.; delivers pope Gregory
VII. from the arms of the emperor
Henry III., 129; second expedition
to Greece, 130; victory over the
Greek and Venetian fleets, ib.;
death, 131; buried at Venusia, ib.
GUNDAMUND, king of the African
Vandals, oppresses the Catholics, iv.
GUNDELINA, wife of Theodatus, king
of Italy, her intrigues with Theo-
dora, v. 129, notes.
GUNDobALD succeeds to the command
of his uncle Ricimer's army, iv. 294 ;
makes Glycerius emperor of the
West, ib.; becomes king of the Bur-
gundians, 354; defeated by Clovis,
355; accepts military tenure under
him, ib.
GUNPowDER, early use of, by the
Chinese, iv. 240, note; used by the
Mongols in the conquest of China,
viii. 10, 11, and mote M.; invention
and use of, 75 and note M.
GUSTAvus ADolphus, how represented
by the Austrians, i. 376, note.
Guy of LUsign AN, king of Jerusalem,
character, vii. 297; overthrown by
Saladin at Hittin, ib.; captivity and
ransom, 258.
GYARUs, isle of, its poverty and misery,
i. 297.

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HADRIAN, wall of, i. 141, note S.; re-
signs the eastern conquests of Trajan,
144; contrasted with Trajan and
Antoninus Pius, ib.; his frequent
iourneys, ib. and notes M. and S.; en-
couraged military exercises, 148;
adoption of, 213; character, ib.;
adopts Werus, 214; makes Trebizond
a port, 397; his library at Athens,
v. 91; mausoleum of, converted into
a fortress by Belisarius, 139; de-
scription of, ib.; corrected, ib. note
M.; establishes the Perpetual Edict,
267; not the first to assume the
legislative power, 268, note W.
HADRIAN, praetorian praefect, Claudian's
epigram on, iv. 64; Hadrian's re-
venge, ib.
HADRIANopi, E, battle of, between Con-
stantine and Licinius, ii. 146; be-
tween Valens and the Goths, iii. 835;
immense slaughter at, 337; besieged
by the Goths, 338.
HAHN, M., his Marcionite Gospel, ii.
HAKEM, Fatimite caliph of Egypt, his
vice, folly, and despotism, vii. 173;
assumes the character of God upon
earth, ib.; his followers the Druses,
174 and note M.; sacrilege at Jeru-
salem, 175; assassinated, ib.
HAMADANITEs, Saracen dynasty of, in
Mesopotamia, vi. 422.
HAMYARITEs, Arabian tribe derived
from the Amalekites, Amazonian
women of, vi. 318 and note.
HANBAL, fanaticism of the sect of, vi.
HANNIBAL, route over the Alps, ii. 127,
notes; and the Roman senate, iv. 70.
HANNIBALIANUs, brother of Constantine,
ii. 348; massacred by his nephew
Constantius, 365.
HANNIBALIANUs, nephew of Constan-
tine, made Caesar with the title of
Nobilissimus, ii. 355; the only Ro-
man prince distinguished by the title
of King, ib. and 356, note M.; re-
sided at Caesarea, 357; his kingdom,
ib.; excluded from the empire by
the troops, 364; massacred by Con-
stantius II., 365.
HANSEAT1c LEAGUE, vi. 191 and 192,
note M.
HAPPINEss, public, precarious under a
despotism, i. 217; the caliph Ab-
3alrahman's reflections on, vi. 397


HARBII, or sects proscribed by the Ma-
hometans, vi. 366, notes.
HARDOUIN, PERE, his theory respecting
the AEneid, ii. 196, note.
HARAM, Turkish delicacy respecting
the, viii. 50 and notes.
HARAN, temple of the Moon at, vi. 214.
HARMOZAN, satrap of Ahwaz and Susa,
surrenders to Omar, vi. 297 ; inter-
view with that caliph, ib.
HARPIEs, Le Clerc's happy conjecture
respecting, ii. 288, note.
HARUN AL RASHID, his presents to
Charlemagne, vi. 176; wars against
the Romans, 404; ascends the throne,
405; his title of Al Rashid or ‘the
Just,” ib. ; slaughter of the Bar-
mecides, ib. and note S.; reception
of the ambassadors of Nicephorus,
ib.; incestuous passion for his sister,
ib. note S.; marries her to Djafar
the Barmecide, ib.; answer to Nice-
phorus, 406; subdues that emperor,
ib.; motives for withdrawing from
Bagdad, ib. note and note S.
HARUSPICEs, Tuscan, consulted by
Julian, iii. 211 and note.
HASHEMITEs, family of Mahomet, vi.
212, 216.
HAssan, son of Ali, wounded in the
defence of the caliph Othman, vi.
274; waives his claims to the cali-
phate in favour of Moawiyah, 278.
HAssan, governor of Egypt, and lieu-
tenant of Abdalmalek, takes Carthage,
vi. 350; destruction of that city
wrongly ascribed to him instead of
Musa, 351 and note S.
HAssas, the Janizary, valour at the
assault of Constantinople, viii. 171.
HATRA, or ATRA, site of, iii. 222, note

HAwkING, v. Falconry.
HAwkwood, John, English mercenary,
his adventures and negociations with
the emperor John I. Palaeologus, viii.
83 and note.
HEBAL, statue of, in the Caaba, vi.
HEBDoMo'N, or field of Mars, its dis-
tance from Constantinople, iii. 236.
HEEREN, his history of the crusades
characterised, vii. 277, note M.
HEGIRA or era of the flight of Ma-
homet, vi. 242; instituted by Omar,
ib. note.
HEINEccius, his works on civil law, v.



258, note; mistaken respecting the
edicts of the praetors, 266, note W.;
and respecting the perpetual Edict of
Hadrian, 268, note W.
HEINICHEN, on the interpolated passage
of Josephus, ii. 235, note M.
HEJAz, province of Arabia, vi. 198;
meaning of the name, ib. note S.
HELENA, mother of Constantine the
Great, ii. 109; converted to Chris-
tianity by her son, iii. 3, note.
HELENA, sister of Constantius II., mar-
ries Julian, ii. 396; dies in childbed,
iii. 112.
HELENA, consort of Constantine Por-
phyrogenitus, saves her husband's
life, vi. 103; administration of, ib.
HELENA, mother of the last Comneni,
heroism in burying her children, viii.
182, note M.
HELENA, city of, Illiberis whence so
called, ii. 376, note.
HELIGoLAND, how peopled, iv. 399,
note S.
HELIOPoLIs taken by the Saracens, vi.
HELL, Mahomet's, vi. 235.
HELLEspont, current of the, ii. 148,
note; described, 290, whether justly
called broad, ib. and note.
HELMIGHis, his intrigue with Rosa-
mond, queen of Alboin, v. 339; as-
sists her revenge, ib.; murdered by
her, 340.
HELVETII, i. 358, note.
HENDINos, king of the Burgundians so
called, iii. 261.
HENGIST and HoRSA undertake the de-
fence of Britain, iv. 387; are mythi-
cal persons, ib. note S.; Hengist
erects a kingdom of the Jutes in
Kent, 388.
HENOTIcon, the, of the emperor Zeno,
account of, vi. 31.
HENRY THE Fowl.ER, king of Germany,
vi. 179; his victory over the Hun-
garians, vii. 77.
HENRY III., emperor, alliance with
Alexius Comnenus, vii. 127; his three
sieges of Rome, 128; gets possession
of it by bribery, ib.; sets up Pope
Clement III., ib.; crowned in the
Vatican, ib.; flies before Robert
Guiscard, 129.
HENRY WI., emperor, conquers Sicily,
# 144 ; his cruelty and avarice,


HENRY IV., of France, resenblance to
Clovis, iv. 353; answer of a Spanish
ambassador to, vii. 379.
HENRY, brother of Baldwin I., succeeds
to the empire of Constantinople, vii.
332; character, 333; repulses the
Bulgarians, 334 and note M.; con-
cludes a truce with them, 334 ;
liberal policy, ib.; opposed the pride
and avarice of the clergy, 335;
death, ib.
Brunswick, account of, vii. 395,
HEPTARCHY, Saxon in Britain, iv. 389;
wrongly so called, ib. note M.
HERA, cave of, near Mecca, frequented
by Mahomet, vi. 222.
HERACLEA PonticA, razed by Harun-
al-Rashid, vi. 406.
HERACLEONAs, son of Martina, associ-
ated in the empire with Constantine,
son of Heraclius, vi. 72; deposed and
mutilated, 74.
HERACLIAN, count, perfidiously executes
Stilicho, by command of Olympius,
iv. 61; assists Honorius against Atta-
lus, 100; oppresses the Italian fugi-
tives from the sack of Rome, 107;
revolts, 117; defeat and death, 118.
HERACLIANUs conspires against Gal-
lienus, ii. 2.
HERACLIUs, son of the exarch, expedi-
tion against Phocas, v. 388; captures
and beheads him, 389 ; elected em-
peror, ib.; genealogical table, ib.
note S.; condemns Crispus to a mo-
nastery, 390; suppliant embassies to
Chosroes II., 396; contemplated
flight to Carthage, ib.; nearly cap-
tured by the Avars, 397 ; submits
to a Persian tribute, ib. ; his incon-
sistent character, 398; incestuous
marriage, ib.; first expedition against
the Persians, 399; camp and disci-
pline at Issus, 400; defeats the
Persians, 401; second Persian expe-
dition, 402; threatens Casbin and
Ispahan, 403; defeats the Persians,
404; takes Salban, ib.; personal
prowess on the banks of the Sarus,
ib. ; defensive war on the Phasis,
406; alliarce with the Turks, ib. .
third Persian expedition, 408; valour
409; takes and plunders Dastagerd,
ib.; return, 410; concludes a peace
with Siroes, 413; enters Constanti-

nople in triumph, ib.; pilgrimage to
Jerusalem, 414; Ecthesis of, vi. 42;
a Maronite, 56; apparent glory and
real weakness, ib.; death, 73; enter-
tains an ambassador of Mahomet,
257; declining energy of, and flight
from Syria, 324; date of his death,
335, note.
HERACLIUs, the Cynic, encourages Pro-
copius in his revolt, iii. 239, note M.
HERACLIUs, the praefect, his expedition
against Genseric, iv. 283; joins the
expedition of Basiliscus, 285.
HERACLIUs, exarch of Africa, refuses
obedience to Phocas, v. 388.
HERACLIUs, favourite eunuch of Valen-
tinian III., incites him against Aëtius,
iv. 249 ; assassinated, 251.
HERAEUM, summer palace of Theodora,
v. 78.
HERAT, story of the fire temple and
mosque at, vi. 368.
HERCULEs, columns of, i. 163.
HERCULIANs, guards of Diocletian, ii.
HERCULIUS, title of Maximian, ii. 67.
HERCYNIAN FOREST, its state in the
time of Caesar, i. 351.
tages, i. 304.
HERESY, origin of, ii. 163; Constan-
tine's edict inst, iii. 41; severe
edicts of Theodosius the Great against,
HERMANRIC, king of the Ostrogoths,
his conquests, iii. 282 sq.; etymology
of his name, ib. note S.; Gibbon's
account legendary, ib.; assists the
Goths, 285; his dominions invaded
by the Huns, 317; death, ib.
HERMANRic, king of the Suevi in Spain,
defeated by Genseric, iv. 177.
HERMENEGILD, son of Leovegild, king of
Spain, converted to the orthodox faith
through his wife Ingundis, iv. 338;
heads a catholic rebellion, ib. ; put
to death by his father, 339 and note
S.; canonized, ib.
HERMINIANUs, Claudius, his severity
towards the Christians, ii. 244, note.
HERMITs, origin and history of, iv.

HEBMoDoRUS, the Ephesian, assisted in
framing the laws of the twelve tables,
v. 261 and note S.

HERMogENEs, general of the cavalry,
murdered by the Constantinopolitans

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whilst attempting to expel bishop
Paul, iii. 91.
HERMOGENLAN code, v. 271 and note S.
HERo and Leander, story of, ii. 290 and
note M.
HEROD, son of Odenathus, murdered,
ii. 21.
HERODEs ATTICUs, munificence of, i.
182, sq.; 194, note.
HERODLAN, his Life of Alexander Se-
verus preferable to that in the Au-
gustan History, i. 293, note.
HERODIAN, officer of Justinian, delivers
Spoleto to the Goths, v. 225.
HERODIANs, sect of, ii. 153, notes.
HERODOTUS, his account c’ the Persian
worship, i. 335.
HERULI, subdued by Hermanric, iii.
283; emigrations of the, v. 14; eth-
nology of the, ib. note S.; under
Narses, refuse to serve after his de-
parture, 150 and note.
HIERAPOLIS, city and temple of, iii.
187; Julian's halt at, 188; called
“Ninus vetus,’ ib. note ; site of, ib.
note S.; called Bambyce, ib.
HIERARCHY, imperial, ii. 304.
HIEROCLEs, Elagabalus' husband, i. 283,
HIEROGLYPHICs, explained to Germani-
cus by the Egyptian priests, ii. 400,
note; probable origin of, ib.
HILARION, St., preserves Epidaurus
from being swallowed up by the sea,
iii. 293, note.
HILARION, the Syrian anachoret, iv.
308, 309 and note.
HILARIUS, senator of Antioch, iii. 389;
made governor of Palestine by Theo
dosius, 391.
HILARY, pope, obliges the emperor
Anthemius to renounce his principles
of toleration, iv. 281.
HILARY, bishop of Poitiers, his account
of the Oriental clergy, iii. 58; la-
ments the diversity of creeds, 59;
opinion on the Homoiocusion, 61
long ignorance of the Nicene creed,
ib.; supports Athanasius against
Constantius II., 80.
HILDERIC, king of the African Wandals,
character, iv. 329; v. 97; deposed
by Gelimer, ib.; Justinian interferes
in his favour, 98; executed by Geli-
mer, 109.
HILDIBALD elected commander of the
Goths of Italy, by the influence of


Uraias, v. 215; puts Uraias to death,
ib. ; assassinated, ib.
HINDoos, their religion not that of
Zoroaster, vi. 368, note.
HINDoSTAN, expeditions of Mahmud
the Gaznevide into, vii. 148; con-
quered by Timour, viii. 46.
HIoNg-Nou, whether identical with
the Huns, iii. 307, note S.
HIPPo REGIUs, colony of described, iv.
182; besieged by Genseric, ib.; death
of St. Augustin at, ib.
HIPPoLYTUs, his refutation of heresies,
vi. 5, note and note S.
HIRA, Arabian tribe, vi. 204.
HIRA reduced by Caled, vi. 291; site
of, ib. note S.
His MAHELITAR, Slavonian tribe, vii. 79
and note S.
History, principal subjects of, i. 371;
Eastern, defective before the time of
Mahomet, 407.
HolagoU Khan, grandson of Zingis,
conquers Persia and the empire of
the caliphs, viii. 12 and note M.
HoMERITEs conquered by the Abyssi-
nians, v. 207.
HoMER, Julian's admiration for, iii.
138; Florentine edition of, viii 118,
HoMICIDE, how punished by St. Basil,
iii. 394, note; fines for among the
Franks and Ripuarians, iv. 367; rates
of, 368, 381.
HoMoIooUSIANs, Arian sect of, iii. 61.
HoMooUsion, term explained, iii. 56;
established by the Council of Nice,
ib.; different interpretations of, 57
and note.
HoNAIN, war of, vi. 255.
HoNAIN, Arabian physician, chief trans-
lator of the Greek writers, vi. 400,
HoNGvou founds the Chinese dynasty
of Ming, viii. 61.
HoNorLA, sister of Valentinian III., ad-
ventures of, iv. 229; her advances to
Attila, 230.
HoNorLANs, troops in the service of the
usurper Constantine, so called, iv.
56; how composed, ib. note.
HoNobius, walls of, ii. 17, note S.; suc-
ceeds to the empire of the West, iv.
1; marries Maria, daughter of Stili-
cho, 21; character of Honorius, 22;
flies from Milan on the yo. of
Alaric, 34; takes refuge in Ravenna,


35, note S.; celebrates his triamph
over the Goths at RCre, 39; abo-
lishes gladiatorial shows, 41 (v. note
S.); fixes his residence at Ravenna,
41; becomes suspicious of Stilicho,
59; visits the camp at Pavia, 60 ;
permits the death of Stilicho, 61 ;
rejects the service of all but Catho-
lics, 67 ; exasperates the foreign
auxiliaries to join Alaric, 68 ; im-
prudent letter respecting the latter,
96; consents to share his empire
with Attalus, 99; his offer rejected,
ib.; deserted by Jovius and Valens,
100; supported by Heraclian, count
of Egypt, ib.; degrading submission
to Alaric, 101 ; insulting proclama-
tion against, ib.; laws for the relief
of Italy, after its evacuation by the
Goths, 116; Spanish triumph, 128;
recognizes the independence of Bri-
tain and Armorica, 131; associates
Constantius in the empire, 171; fond-
ness for and quarrel with his sister
Placidia, 172; death, ib.; persecuted
the Donatists in Africa, 179.
HoNoUR, three ranks of, introduced by
Constantine, ii. 305.
HoRMISDAs, prince of Persia, witty
sayings of, ii. 400, note; becomes
general of Julian, iii. 192; his sin-
gular adventures, ib., Sapor's mes-
sage to, for peace, 206; his son aids
the revolt of Procopius, 240; made
a proconsul, ib.
HoRMoUz, son of Nushirvan, succeeds
to the Persian throne, v. 367; his
tyranny and vices, ib.; danger of his
kingdom, 368; envy and insult to
Bahram, 370 ; deposed and im-
prisoned, 371; pleads his cause be-
fore the nobles, ib.: condemned, ib.;
put to death by Bindoes, 372 and
note M.
HoRMUz contends for the throne of
Persia, ii. 81.
HoRNs, military, of the Germans, iii.
325, note.
HoRSEs, Venetian, excellence of, v. 351
and note ; Arabian, account of, vi.
199; bronze, carried by the Vene-
tians from Constantinople to the
place of St. Mark, vii. 319, note.
HoseiN, son of Ali, rebels against Yezid,
vi. 278 ; his tragical death, 279 ;
Persian festival of his martyrdom,
280 and note,

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