cessors, ib.


Salerno, ib.; his design of a cru GUESTS of the Romans, barbarian in-
sade, 179; founder of the papal mo vaders of Gaul so called, iv. 130.
narchy, viii. 192; exile, ib.; su: GUIBERT, his character as an historian,

vii. 191, note and note S.
GREGORY IX., pope, excommunicates Guilt, how measured by the legisla-
the emperor Frederick II., vii. 270.

tor, v. 321.
GREGORY X., pope, receives the sub GUISCARD, Robert, defeats pope Leo

mission of the Greek church at the IX., vii. 109; birth and character,
council of Lyons, vii. 373; institutes 110; etymology of his surname, 112
the conclave, viii. 212.

and note ; saluted count of Apulia,
GREGORY XI., pope, final return of, ib.; made duke by pope Nicholas II.,

from Avignon to Rome, viii. 250; 113; Italian conquests of, 114; his
death, 251.

daughter betrothed to Constantine,
GREGORY XII., pope, viii. 254; re son of the emperor Michael, 119;
nounces the tiara, 256.

sets up a pretended Michael, ib. ;
GREGORY XIII., pope, publishes a code invades the Eastern empire, 120; be-
of laws for Rome, viii. 259.

sieges Durazzo, 121; burns his
GREGORY, bishop of Adrianople, pa ships, 123; defeats Alexius Com-

triarch of Constantinople, vii. 371 nenus, 124 ; takes Durazzo, 126 ;
and note M.

return, ib.; delivers pope Gregory
GREGORY of Tours, account of, iv. VII. from the arms of the emperor

379 and note; literary character, Henry III., 129; second expedition
380 and note.

to Greece, 130; victory over the
GREGORY Bar-HEBRÆUS, v. Abul Greek and Venetian fleets, ib. ;

death, 131; buried at Venusia, ib.
GREGORY, præfect of Africa, comes to GUNDAMUND, king of the African

the relief of Tripoli, besieged by the Vandals, oppresses the Catholics, iv,
Arabs, vi. 343; heroism of his 329.
daughter, 344; death of Gregory, GUNDELINA, wife of Theodatus, king
and capture of his daughter, 345; of Italy, her intrigues with Thea

their genuine history, 346, note S. dora, v. 129, notes.
GRIMES DYKE, i. 141, note S.

GUNDOBALD succeeds to the command
GRIMM, his hypothesis respecting the of his uncle Ricimer's army, iv. 294 ;
Goths, i. 375, note S.

makes Glycerius emperor of_the
GRIMOALD, duke of Beneventum, art West, ib.; becomes king of the Bur-

ful flattery of Charlemagne, vi. 174. gundians, 354; defeated by Clovis,
GROTIUS, political principles of, iii. 7, 355; accepts military tenure under
note ;
his unfounded tale of Ma-

him, ib.
homet's pigeon, vi. 263 note.

GUNPOWDER, early use of, by the
GRUMBATES, king of the Chionites, Chinese, iv. 240, note; used by the

allied with the Persians, ii. 406 ; Mongols in the conquest of China,
summons Amida to surrender to

viii. 10, 11, and note M. ; invention
Sapor, 407; his son killed there, ib.; and use of, 75 and note M.

Sapor promises to avenge him, ib. GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, how represented
GRUTHUNGI, v. Ostrogoths.

by the Austrians, i. 376, note.
GUARDIANS and wards, Roman law of, Guy oF LUSIGNAN, king of Jerusalem,

v. 301 ; Gibbon's view corrected, ib. character, vii. 297 ; overthrown by
note S.

Saladin at Hittin, ib.; captivity and
GUBAZEs, king of Lazica, invites Chos-

ransom, 258.
roes Nushirvan to expel the Romans, Gyarus, isle of, its poverty and misery,
v. 200 ; repentance, ib.; history of, i. 297.
203; treacherously killed by order
of Justinian, 204 ; judicial inquiry
into his death, ib.

GOELFS and GHIBELINS, vi. 189; fac-
tions of, vii

. 289 ; negociations of, | Hads, species of Mahometan pilgrim-
with the Romans, viii. 191.

1 age, vi. 232, note 8.

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venge, ib.

HADRIAN, wall of, i. 141, note S. ; re-

signs the eastern conquests of Trajan,
144; contrasted with Trajan and
Antoninus Pius, ib.; his frequent
journeys, ib.and notes M. and S.; en-
couraged military exercises, 148 ;
adoption of, 213 ; character, ib.;
adopts Verus, 214; makes Trebizoad
a port, 397; his library at Athens,
v. 91 ; mausoleum of, converted into
a fortress by Belisarius, 139; de-
scription of, ib.; corrected, ib. note
M.; establishes the Perpetual Edict,
267; not the first to assume the

legislative power, 268, note W.
Hadrian, prætorian prafect, Claudian's

epigram on, iv. 64 ; Hadrian's re-
HADRIANOPLE, battle of, between Con-

stantine and Licinius, ii. 146; be-
tween Valens and the Goths, iii, 835;
immense slaughter at, 337; besieged

by the Goths, 338.
Hahn, M., his Marcionite Gospel, ii.

HAKEM, Fatimite caliph of Egypt, his

vice, folly, and despotism, vii. 173;
assumes the character of God upon
earth, ib.; his followers the Druses,
174 and note M. ; sacrilege at Jeru-

salem, 175; assassinated, ib.
JAMADANITES, Saracen dynasty of, in

Mesopotamia, vi. 422.
HAMYARITES, Arabian tribe derived

from the Amalekites, Amazonian

women of, vi. 318 and note.
Hanbal, fanaticism of the sect of, vi.

HANNIBAL, route over the Alps, ii. 127,

notes ; and the Roman senate, iv. 70.
HANNIBALIANUS, brother of Constantine,

ii. 348; massacred by his nephew

Constantius, 365.
HANNIBALIANUS, nephew of Constan-

tine, made Cæsar with the title of
Nobilissimus, ii. 355; the only Ro-
man prince distinguished by the title
of King, ib. and 356, note M.; re-
sided at Cæsarea, 357; his kingdom,
ib.; excluded from the empire by
the troops, 364; massacred by Con-

stantius II., 365.
HANSEATIC LEAGUE, vi. 191 and 192,

note M.
HAPPINESS, public, precarious under a

despotism, i. 217; the caliph Ab-
dalrahman's reflections on, vi. 397

HARBII, or sects proscribed by the Ma-

hometans, vi. 366, notes.
HARDOUIN, PERE, his theory respecting

the Æneid, ii. 196, note.
Haram, Turkish delicacy respecting

the, viii. 50 and notes.
HARAN, temple of the Moon at, vi. 214.
HARMOZAN, satrap of Ahwaz and Susa,

surrenders to Omar, vi. 297; inter-

view with that caliph, ib.
HARPIES, Le Clerc's happy conjecture

respecting, ii. 288, note.
HARUN AL RASHID, his presents to

Charlemagne, vi. 176; wars against
the Romans, 404 ; ascends the throne,
405; his title of Al Rashid or “the
Just,' ib.; slaughter of the Bar-
mecides, ib. and note S. ; reception
of the ambassadors of Nicephorus,
ib.; incestuous passion for his sister,
ib. note S.; marries her to Djafar
the Barmecide, ib.; answer to Nice-
phorus, 406 ; subdues that emperor,
ib.; motives for withdrawing from
Bagdad, ib, note and note S.
HARUSPICES, Tuscan, consulted by

Julian, iii. 211 and note.
HASHEMITES, family of Mahomet, vi.

212, 216.
Hassan, son of Ali, wounded in the

defence of the caliph Othman, vi.
274; waives his claims to the cali-

phate in favour of Moawiyah, 278.
Hassan, governor of Egypt, and lieu-

tenant of Abdalmalek, takes Carthage,
vi. 350; destruction of that city
wrongly ascribed to him instead of

Musa, 351 and note S.
Hassan, the Janizary, valour at the

assault of Constantinople, viii. 171.
HATRA, or ATRA, site of, üi. 222, note

HAWKING, v. Falconry.
HAWKWOOD, JOHN, English mercenary,

his adventures and negociations with
the emperor John I. Palæologus, viii.

83 and note.
HEBAL, statue of, in the Caaba, vi.

HEBDOMON, or field of Mars, its dis-

tance from Constantinople, iii. 236.
HEEREN, his history of the crusades

characterised, vii. 277, note M.
HEGIRA or era of the flight of Ma-

homet, vi. 242 ; instituted by Omar,

ib, note.
HEINECCIUS, his works on civil law, V.

2 A 2

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258, note; mistaken respecting the HENRY IV., of France, reseinblance to
edicts of the prætors, 266, note W.; Clovis, iv. 353; answer of a Spanish
and respecting the perpetual Edict of ambassador to, vii. 379.
Hadrian, 268, note W.

HENRY, brother of Baldwin I., succeeds
HEINICHEN, on the interpolated passage to the empire of Constantinople, vii.
of Josephus, ii, 235, note M.

332; character, 333; repulses the
Hejaz, province of Arabia, vi. 198; Bulgarians, 334 and note M.; con-

meaning of the name, ib. note S. cludes a truce with them, 334 ;
HELENA, mother of Constantine the liberal policy, ib.; opposed the pride

Great, ii. 109; converted to Chris and avarice of the clergy, 335 ;
tianity by her son, üi. 3, note.

death, ib.
HELENA, sister of Constantius II., mar HENRY THE WONDERFUL, duke of

ries Julian, ii. 396; dies in childbed, Brunswick, account of, vii. 395,
iii. 112.

HELENA, consort of Constantine Por HEPTARCHY, Saxon in Britain, iv. 389;

phyrogenitus, saves her husband's wrongly so called, ib. note M.

life, vi. 103 ; administration of, ib. HERA, cave of, near Mecca, frequented
HELENA, mother of the last Comneni, by Mahomet, vi. 222.

heroism in burying her children, viii. HERACLEA PONTICA, razed by Harun-
182, note M.

al-Rashid, vi. 406.
HELENA, city of, Illiberis whence so HERACLEONAS, son of Martina, associ-
called, ii. 376, note.

ated in the empire with Constantine,
HELIGOLAND, how peopled, iv. 399, son of Heraclius, vi. 72; deposed and
note S.

mutilated, 74.
HELIOPOLIS taken by the Saracens, vi. HERACLIAN, count, perfidiously executes

Stilicho, by command of Olympius,
HELL, Mahomet's, vi. 235.

iv. 61 ; assists Honorius against Atta-
HELLESPONT, current of the, ii. 148, lus, 100; oppresses the Italian fugi-

note ; described, 290, whether justly tives from the sack of Rome, 107;
called broad, ib. and note.

revolts, 117; defeat and death, 118.
HELMIOHIS, his intrigue with Rosa HERACLIANUS conspires against Gal-

mond, queen of Alboin, v. 339; as lienus, ii. 2.
sists her revenge, ib.; murdered by HERACLIUS, son of the exarch, expedi-
her, 340.

tion against Phocas, v. 388 ; captures
HELVETII, i. 358, note.

and beheads him, 389; elected .em-
HENDINOS, king of the Burgundians so peror, ib. ; genealogical table, ib.
called, iii. 261.

note S.; condemns Crispus to a mo-
HENGIST and HORSA undertake the de-

nastery, 390 ; suppliant embassies to
fence of Britain, iv. 387; are mythi Chosroes II., 396; contempiated
cal persons, ib. note S.; Hengist flight to Carthage, ib. ; nearly, cap-
erects a kingdom of the Jutes in tured by the Avars, 397 ; submits
Kent, 388.

to a Persian tribute, ib. ; his incon-
HENOTICON, the, of the emperor Zeno, sistent character, 398 ; incestuous
account of, vi. 31.

marriage, ib. ; first expedition against
HENRY THE FOWLER, king of Germany, the Persians, 399; camp and disci-

vi. 179; his victory over the Hun pline at Issus, 400; defeats the
garians, vii. 77.

Persians, 401 ; second Persian expe-
HENRY III., emperor, alliance with dition, 402; threatens Casbin and

Alexius Comnenus, vii. 127; his three Ispahan, 403; defeats the Persians,
sieges of Rome, 128; gets possession 404; takes Salban, ib.; personal
of it by bribery, ib.; sets up Pope prowess on the banks of the Sarus,
Clement III., ib. ; crowned in the ib. ; defensive war on the Phasis,
Vatican, ib.; fies before Robert 406; alliezce with the Turks, ib..
Guiscard, 129.

third Persian expedition, 408; valour
Henry VI., emperor, conquers Sicily, 409; takes and plunders Dastagerd,

vii. 144 ; his cruelty and avarice, ib. ; return, 410; concludes a pesco

with Siroes, 413; enters Constantie

v. 78.


nople in triumph, ib.; pilgrimage to whilst attempting to expel bishop
Jerusalem, 414; Ecthesis of, vi. 42; Paul, iii. 91.
a Maronite, 56; apparent glory and HERMOGENIAN code, v. 271 and note S.
real weakness, ib.; death, 73 ; enter HERO and Leander, story of, ii. 290 and
tains an ambassador of Mahomet, note M.
257 ; declining energy of, and flight HEROD, son of Odenathus, murdered,
from Syria, 324 ; date of his death, ii. 21.
335, note.

HERODES ATTICUS, munificence of, i.
HERACLIU8, the Cynic, encourages Pro 182, sq.; 194, note.

copius in his revolt, iii. 239, note M. HERODIAN, his Life of Alexander Se-
HERACLIUS, the præfect, his expedition verus preferable to that in the Au-

against Genseric, iv, 283 ; joins the gustan History, i. 293, note.
expedition of Basiliscus, 285.

HERODIAN, officer of Justinian, delivers
HERACLIUS, exarch of Africa, refuses Spoleto to the Goths, v. 225.
obedience to Phocas, v. 388.

HERODIANS, sect of, ii, 153, notes.
HERACLIUB, favourite eunuch of Valen HERODOTUS, his account on the Persian

tinian III., incites him against Aëtius, worship, i. 335.
iv. 249; assassinated, 251.

HERULI, subdued by Hermanric, iii.
HERÆUM, summer palace of Theodora, 283; emigrations of the, v. 14 ; eth-

nology of the, ib. note S.; under
HERAT, story of the fire temple and Narses, refuse to serve after his de-
mosque at, vi. 368.

parture, 150 and note.
HERCULES, columns of, i. 163.

HIERAPOLIS, city and temple of, iii.
HERCULIANS, guards of Diocletian, ii. 187 ; Julian's halt at, 188; called

• Ninus vetus,' ib. note ; site of, ib.
HERCULIUS, title of Maximian, ii. 67. note S.; called Bambyce, ib.
HERCYNIAN FOREST, its state in the HIERARCHY, imperial, ii. 304.
time of Cæsar, i. 351.

HIEROCLES, Elagabalus' husband, i. 283,
tages, i. 304.

HIEROGLYPHICS, explained to Germani-
HERESY, origin of, ii. 163; Constan cus by the Egyptian priests, ii, 400,

tine's edict against, iii. 41 ; severe note ; probable origin of, ib.
edicts of Theodosius the Great against, HILARION, St., preserves Epidaurus

from being swallowed up by the sea,
HERMANBIC, king of the Ostrogoths, üi. 293, note.
his conquests, iii

. 282 sq.; etymology HILARION, the Syrian anachoret, iv.
of his name, ib. note S.; Gibbon's 308, 309 and note.
account legendary, ib.; assists the HILARIUS, senator of Antioch, iii. 389;
Goths, 285 ; his dominions invaded made governor of Palestine by Theo
by the Huns, 317 ; death, ib.

dosius, 391.
HERMANRIC, king of the Suevi in Spain, HILARY, pope, obliges the emperor
defeated by Genseric, iv. 177.

Anthemius to renounce his principles
HERMENEGILD, son of Leovegild, king of of toleration, iv, 281.

Spain, converted to the orthodox faith HILARY, bishop of Poitiers, his account
through his wife Ingundis, iv. 338 ; of the Oriental clergy, iii. 58 ; la-
heads a catholic rebellion, ib. ; put ments the diversity of creeds, 59 ;
to death by his father, 339 and note opinion on the Homoioousion, 61
S.; canonized, ib.

long ignorance of the Nicene creed,
HERMINIANUS, Claudius, his severity ib. ; supports Athanasius against

towards the Christians, ii. 244, note. Constantius II., 80.
HERMITs, origin and history of, iv. HILDERIC, king of the African Vandals,

character, iv. 329; v. 97; deposed
HERMODORUS, the Ephesian, assisted in by Gelimer, ib. ; Justinian interferes

framing the laws of the twelve tables, in his favour, 98; executed by Geli-
v. 261 and note S.

mer, 109.
HERMOGENES, general of the cavalry, HILDIBALD elected commander of the

murdered by the Constantinopolitans Goths of Italy, by the influence of

Uraias, v. 215; puts Uraias to death,

ib. ; assassinated, ib.
Hindoos, their religion not that of

Zoroaster, vi. 368, note.
HINDOSTAN, expeditions of Mahmud

the Gaznevide into, vii. 148 ; con-
quered by Timour, viii. 46.
HiONG-NOU, whether identical with

the Huns, iü, 307, note S.
HIPPO REGius, colony of described, iv.

182; besieged by Genseric, ib.; death

of St. Augustin at, ib.
HIPPOLYTUB, his refutation of heresies,

vi. 5, note and note S.
Hira, Arabian tribe, vi. 204.
Hira reduced by Caled, vi. 291; site

of, ib, note S.
HISMAHELITÆ, Slavonian tribe, vii. 79

and note S.
HISTORY, principal subjects of, i. 371 ;

Eastern, defective before the time of

Mahomet, 407.
Holagou Khan, grandson of Zingis,

conquers Persia and the empire of

the caliphs, viii. 12 and note M.
HOMERITES conquered by the Abyssi-

nians, v. 207.
HOMER, Julian's admiration for, iii.

138; Florentine edition of, viii 118,

HOMICIDE, how punished by St. Basil,

iii. 394, note; fines for among the
Franks and Ripuarians, iv. 367 ; rates

of, 368, 381.
HomoI0OUSIANS, Arian sect of, iii. 61.
HOMOOUSION, term explained, iii. 56;

established by the Council of Nice,
ib.; different interpretations of, 57

and note.
Hoxain, war of, vi. 255.
HoNAIN, Arabian physician, chief trans-

lator of the Greek writers, vi. 400,

Hongvou founds the Chinese dynasty

of Ming, viii. 61.
HONORIA, sister of Valentinian III., ad-

ventures of, iv. 229; her advances to

Attila, 230.
HONORIANS, troops in the service of the

usurper Constantine, so called, iv.

56; how composed, ib. note.
HONORIUS, walls of, ii. 17, note S. ; suc-

ceeds to the empire of the West, iv.
1; marries Maria, daughter of Stili-
cho, 21 ; character of Honorius, 22;
flies from Milan on the approach of
Alaric, 34; takes refuge in Ravenna,

35, note S. ; celebrates his triamph
over the Goths at Rcre, 39; abo.
lishes gladiatorial shows, 41 (v. note
S.); fixes his residence at Ravenna,
41 ; becomes suspicious of Stilicho,
59; visits the camp at Pavia, 60;
permits the death of Stilicho, 61;
rejects the service of al but Catho-
lics, 67 ; exasperates the foreign
auxiliaries to join Alaric, 68; im-
prudent letter respecting the latter,
96; consents to share his empire
with Attalus, 99; his offer rejected,
ib.; deserted by Jovius and Valens,
100; supported by Heraclian, count
of Egypt, ib.; degrading submission
to Alaric, 101; insulting proclama-
tion against, ib. ; laws for the relief
of Italy, after its evacuation by the
Goths, 116 ; Spanish triumph, 128;
recognizes the independence of Bri-
tain and Armorica, 131 ; associates
Constantius in the empire, 171 ; fond-
ness for and quarrel with his sister
Placidia, 172 ; death, ib.; persecuted

the Donatists in Africa, 179.
HONOUR, three ranks of, introduced by

Constantine, ii. 305.
HORMISDAS, prince of Persia, witty

sayings of, ii. 400, note; becomes
general of Julian, iii. 192; his sin-
gular adventures, ib., Sapor's mes-
sage to, for peace, 206; his son aids
the revolt of Procopius, 240; made
a proconsul, ib.
HORMOUZ, son of Nushirvan, succeeds

to the Persian throne, v. 367; bis
tyranny and vices, ib. ; danger of his
kingdom, 368 ; envy and insult to
Bahram, 370; deposed and im-
prisoned, 371 ; pleads his cause be-
fore the nobles, ib. ; condemned, ib.;
put to death by Bindoes, 372 and

note M.
HORMUZ contends for the throne of

Persia, ii. 81.
HORNs, military, of the Germans, iii.

325, note.
Horses, Venetian, excellence of, v. 351

and note ; Arabian, account of, vi.
199; bronze, carried by the Vene-
tians from Constantinople to the

place of St. Mark, vii. 319, note.
HOSEIN, son of Ali, rebels against Yezid,

vi. 278 ; his tragical death, 279;
Persian festival of his martyrdom,
280 and note.

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