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! IospitaLERs, knights, vii. 231.
HosTILIANUs, son of Decius, elected
emperor, i. 386; death, 387.
Houris, Mahomet's, vi. 236.
Houses, Roman, loftiness of, iv. 88;
inconvenience of, ib.; rent, ib.;
number of 89.
HoweLL, character of his ‘History of
the World,” ii. 321.
HUGH, king of Burgundy, marries Ma-
rozia, vi. 185; insults her sco Al-
beric, and is expelled by him, ib.
HUGH, count of Vermandois, a leader
in the first crusade, vii. 196; why
styled “the Great,’ 197 and note S.;
receives the golden standard of St.
Peter from the pope, 203; brought
as a captive to Constantinople, 204;
his pompous titles, ib. and note S.
HUghes, Mr., character of his tragedy of
the “Siege of Damascus," vi. 311, note.
Hugo, king of Italy, pedigree, vii. 24;
HUMAN RACE, happiest period of the, i.
216; diminution of the, under Gal-
lienus, 415; nature, two natural pro-
pensities of, ii. 184; Gibbon's opinion
examined, 185, note M.
HUME, his “ Natural History of Re-
ligion,’ i. 165, note; corrected, 249,
note; his difficulty as to the extent
of the imperial palace at Rome, 267,
note; his remark on intolerance, 338
note, and note S.
HUNGARLANs, works on the history of
the, vii. 70, note, and note M. ; de-
scended from the Turks, ib.; emi-
grations, ib.; Finnish origin and
language, 71 and note S.; original
abode, ib.; first appearance on the
Danube, 72, note S.; manners and
tactics, 73; first establishments and
inroads, 75; defeated by Henry the
Fowler, 77; humbled by Otho the
HUNGARY, Great, iii. 313.
HUNGARY, how occupied, iv. 192 and
note S.; state of, under Charle-
magne, vi. 175; conquered by the
Mongols, viii. 14.
HUNIADEs, John, his campaign against
the Turks, viii. 129; defeat at Warna,
132; history of, 133; elected go-
vernor of Hungary after the death
of Ladislaus, 134; conduct at the
battle of Cossova, ib.; defence of
Belgrade, ib.; death, 135.
HUNs, origin and seat, iii. 306 and
note S.; conquests in Scythia, 307;
war with the Chinese, 309; defeat
Kaoti, ib.; are vanquished by the
arms and policy of Wouti, 310;
their emigrations, 312; establish
themselves in Sogdiana, ib.; this
division called Euthalites, ib.; or
rather Ephthalites, ib. note S.; also
White Huns, 313; their wars with
Persia, ib.; Huns of the Volga, ib.;
subdue the Alani, 315; attack the
dominions of Hermanric, 316; their
ugliness, ib. and note S.; fable of
their origin, 317; defeat the Goths
on the Dniester, 318; vanquished
and driven northwards by the Geou-
gen, iv. 44; driven from Thrace,
160; revival of their power under
Attila, 191; settlement in Hun-
gary, 192; assist the usurper John,
ib.; extort a tribute from Theo-
dosius the Younger, ib.; human
sacrifices, 195; believed by the
Geougen to have power over the
elements, 196, note; ravage the
East in the reign of Arcadius, 197;
attack the Persians under Attila,
198; invade the eastern empire,
199; ravages on the Illyrian frontier,
200; barbarous mode of warfare,
201; estimation of their Roman
captives, 203; invade and ravage
Gaul, 231; invade Italy, 239; dis-
solution of their empire after the
death of Attila, 247 sq.; invade
IBAs of Edessa, condemned of heresy,
IBERIA reduced by Trajan, i. 143;
kings of, nominated by the Romans,
ii. 88; how Christianized, iii. 24,
IBERIAN and Caspian gates of mount
Caucasus, v. 88 and note M.
IBERIANs subdued by Sapor, iii. 278.
IBN HISH&M, his biography of Ma-
homet, vi. 238, note S.
IBN Ischic, his biography of Mahomet,
vi. 238, note S.
IBRAHIM, chief of the Abbassides,
seized and imprisoned by the Om-
miades, vi. 391.
IBRAHIM, son of Aglab, lieutenant of
Harun, founds the dynasty of the
Aglabites, vi. 420.
IBRAHIM, vizir of Amurath II., his
virtues, viii. 68; descendants, ib.
IcAsia, loses the hand of the emperor
Theophilus, vi. 93.
ICENI, British tribe, i. 157.
Ichogi,ANs, Turkish class of, viii. 74.
IchTHYophagi, or fish-eaters, of Ge-
drosia, i. 340, note; vi. 198 and note.
IconIUM, or Cogni, capital of the sul-
tans of Roum, vii. 239 and note S.;
taken by Frederick Barbarossa, 246.
IconoclasTs, account of the, vi. 140;
histories of, ib. note, and note M.
IDATIUs, his account of the barbarian
invasions of Spain, iv. 124.
Idol.ATERs easily converted, iii. 421,
Idol,ATRY, account of that term, iii.
IGILIUM, isle of, a refuge for the
Romans after the sack of Alaric, iv.
IgMAzEN, king of the Isaflenses, sur-
renders the body of Firmus the
Moor to Theodosius, iii. 275; length
of the war between him and Theo-
dosius, ib. note M.
InNATIUs, St., quoted traditions, ii.
164, note; vindicated, ib. note G.;
his escape from martyrdom, 245,
note; his ardent desire for that dis-
tinction, 252; object of his epistle
to the Smyrnaeans, vi. 5, note.
IGNATIUS, patriarch of Constantinople,
superseded by Photius, vii. 280 ; re-
stored by Basil the Macedonian, 281.
IGOR, son of Ruric, attacks Constan-
tinople, vii. 87.
Igoulas, Vigours, or Ouigors, Tatar
race of, iii. 307 and note S.; finally
extinguish the empire of the Huns,
iv. 248; were a Mongolian tribe,
vii. 72, note S.
IKSHIDITEs, Saracen dynasty of, vi.
ILERDA, or Lerida, i. 392, note.
ILIUM, design of removing the empire
to, ii. 90, note.
ILLIBERIs, council of, ii. 202; city of
named Helena after Constantine's
mother, 376, note.
ILLUSTRIOUs, rank of, ii. 305, 325.
ILLYRICUM, described, i. 158 and note;
western, annexed to the eastern em-
pire of Theodosius the Younger, iv.
IMAGEs, worship of, momentous con-
sequences of the dispute concerning,
vi. 134; derived from paganism, 135;
when established, 136; opposition
to, 140; condemned by the council
of Constantinople, 141; restored by
Irene, 163; finally established by
Theodora and the second council of
IMAMs, twelve Persian, vi. 280; sanctity
of Mahadi, the twelfth and last, ib.
IMAUs, mount, v. 173.
IMMA, daughter of Charlemagne, hel
marriage with Eginhard, vi. 170,
IMMAE, battle of and defeat of Macrinus,
i. 279 and note; battle of between
Aurelian and Zenobia, ii. 23, note
IMMORTALs, royal Persian cavalry so
called, iii. 217 and note.
IMPERATOR, nature of that title, and
use by the Roman emperors, i. 198,
note, and note S.; altered meaning
of that word under Diocletian, ii. 93.
INA, king of Wessex, laws of, iv. 397
INCARNATION, history of the doctrine
of the, vi. 3
INCEST, Roman law of, v. 299; in-
fringed and altered by the emperu.
Claudius, ib. note S.
INcoME TAx under Constantine, ii. 341;
called Lustral Contribution, 342.
INDIA, commerce of the Romans with,
i. 192 and notes; ambassadors from
to Constantine, ii. 362 and note;
ignorance of the Romans respecting,
iii. 180, note; science of, whether
borrowed from the Greeks, v. 178
and note M.
INDIAN commodities taxed by Alex.
Severus, i. 298; price, ib. note.
INDICTIONs, date of that ara, ii. 130,
note; name and use, whence derived,
333; origin and method of using,
ib. note S.; name transferred to the
tribute which it prescribed, 334 and
337, note S.
INDULGENCEs, papal, origin and nature
of, vii. 187.
INFANTs, exposed and abandoned, Con-
stantine's law to prevent this crime,
ii. 142; often rescued by the Chris-
INFERNAL regions, ancient notions of,
ii. 170 and note.
INGo destroys the temple of Upsal, i.
INGULPHUs, secretary of William the
Conqueror, accompanies the great
pilgrimage to Jerusalem, vii. 176.
INGUNDIs, consort of Hermenegild, her
persecution by Goisvintha, and its
effects, iv. 338.
INHERITANCE, Roman law of, v. 306 sqq.
INJURIES, Roman law concerning, v.
INNOCENT, bishop of Rome, accom-
panies the embassy to Alaric, iv. 95.
INNocent II., pope, excommunicates
Roger king of Sicily, vii. 133; con-
demns the heresy of Arnold of
Brescia, viii. 195.
INNocFNT III., pope, persecutes the
Albigeois, vii. 58; character, 267;
promotes the fourth and fifth cru-
sades, 268; proclaims the fourth
crusade, 288; excommunicates the
crusaders for attacking Zara, 296;
reproaches their conduct at Constan-
INQUISITION, establishment of the, vii.
INQUISITORs, religious, first established
by Theodosius the Great, iii. 374.
INSTITUTEs of Justinian, publication
of, v. 283; analysis of, 289.
INSULA, or Roman lodging-house, iv.
INTEREST of Money, Roman law of, v.
314 and notes; condemned by the
fathers and clergy, ib. and note.
INTERREGNUM after the death of Aure-
lian ; both the senate and the army
decline to elect an emperor, ii. 34;
length of, ib. note S.
INTILINE, province of, ii. 87 and notes.
INVESTITURES, papal, to the Normans,
Ion A, isle of, its monasticism and learn-
ing, iv. 309, 310, note.
IRELAND, contemplated reduction cf, by
Agricola, i. 140; (Erin or Ierne),
whence colonized, iii. 267, sq.
IRENAEUs, did not enjoy the gift of
tongues, ii. 178 and note M.
IRENE, an Athenian orphan, marries
Leo IV., emperor of Constantinople,
vi. 85; appointed guardian of their
son Constantine, 86; zeal in
restoring images, ib.; disputes the
empire with her son, ib.; blinds and
deposes him, 87; her reign, ib.;
deposed and banished by Nicephorus,
ib.; restores the worship of images,
163; persecutes the iconoclasts, ib.;
correspondence of Charlemagne with,
IRENE, or Pansophia, concubine of
Dioscorus, patriarch of Alexandria,
epigram concerning, vi. 28 and note.
IRNAc, youngest son of Attila, retires
into Lesser Scythia, iv. 248.
IRON, Siberian, its excellence and
plenty, v. 173, note.
Isa, son of Bajazet, his reign, viii. 67.
ISAAC I., Comnenus, defeats the troops
of Michael IV. and is crowned
emperor at Constantinople, vi. 113;
abdicates in favour of Constantine
ISAAC II., Angelus, heads an insurrec-
tion against Andronicus I. Com-
nenus, and ascends the throne of
Constantinople, vi. 130; character
and reign, vii. 285; scandalous em-
bassy to Saladin, ib.; acknowledges
the independence of the Bulgarians,
286; deposed, blinded, and impri-
soned by his brother Alexius, 287;
restored by the Crusaders, 305; in-
terview with the Latin ambassadors,
ib.; deposed by Mourzoufle, 310;
Is AAC, son of John Comnenus, con-
cedes the crown to his brother
Alexius, vi. 117.
ssa Ac, an Armenian bishop, his defence
of King Artasires, iv. 169.
IsauriaNs, rebellion of the against
the emperor Gallienus, i. 414; chas-
tised by Probus, ii. 43; besiege Se-
leucia, 395; incursions of the, v.
81; war with Anastasius, 82; re-
duced to submission, ib.
Isdigune, ambassador from Chosroes to
Justinian, his pomp and eloquence,
Isidore the Milesian, colleague of the
architect Anthemius, v. 73.
IsIDoRE, archbishop of Russia, receives
a cardinal's hat for assenting to the
union of the Greek and Latin
churches, viii. 101; condemned and
imprisoned in Russia, 124; legate
from the Pope to Constantine Palaeo-
logus, 156; his escape at the taking of
Constantinople by the Turks, 174,
notes and note M.
Isis and SERAPIs, their temples at
Rome, i. 169, sq.; worship of, iii.
IsLAM, meaning of that term, vi. 222,
note S.; four practical duties of, 234,
IsMAEL, progenitor of the Arabs, vi.
IsMAEL, the Seljuk, his conversation
with Mahmud the Gaznevide, vii.
IsMAEL BEG, prince of Sinope, sur-
renders to the Turks, viii. 182; his
revenues, ib. note.
IsMAELITEs, Shiite sect, account of, vi.
4.17, note S.
Isocrates, price of his lessons, v. 91.
Issus, city of, v. 400 and note.
IsTER, Lower Danube why so called,
i. 159 and note.
IsTRIA, annexed to Italy, i. 157.
ITALICA, birthplace of Trajan, Hadrian,
and Theodosius, iii. 343 and note.
ITALIAN, modern language how formed,
v. 350 and note M.
ITALIANs, their character in the six-
teenth century, iv. 109; separated
from the Goths, by Theodoric, v. 12.
ITALY described, i. 157; divided into
eleven regions by Augustus, ib.; its
distinction from the provinces, 171;
singular change in the *g lication of
its name, ii. 314, note S.; invaded
by the Goths under Alaric, iv. 31;
kingdom of, Western empire reduced
to the, iv. 276; miserable state of
under Odoacer, 303; reduced by
Theodoric the Ostrogoth, v. 10;
flourishing state of under him, 22;
invaded by Belisarius, 132; oppres-
sion of by Justinian's generals and
by his minister Alexander, 217; in-
vaded by the Franks and Alemanni,
237; civil settlement of by Justinian
after its reduction by Narses, 241;
desolation caused by the Gothic war,
242; conquests of the Lombards in,
337; harassed by them, 346; how
divided between them and the ex-
archate of Ravenna, 348; at the in-
stigation of Pope Gregory II. revolts
from the Emperor Leo the Isaurian
in the cause of image worship, vi.
148; Byzantine dominion preserved
in till the time of Charlemagne, 150 ;
extent of his empire in, 174; rise of
the cities of, 187; ravaged by the
Hungarians, vii. 76; conflict of the
Saracens, Latins, and Greeks in, 96.
ITHACIUs, bishop, his cruelty, iii. 376.
ITINERARY from the wall of Antoninus
to Jerusalem, i. 188, note ; of Alex-
ander, ii. 370, note M.; of Trajan, ib.
JAAFAR, kinsman of Mahomet, heroic
death at Muta, vi. 257.
JABALAH, chief of the Christian Ara-
bians of the tribe of Gassan, account
of, vi. 319 and note.
Jacob, son of Leith, his pious robbery,
vi. 421; founds the dynasty of the
Soffarides, ib.; makes war on the
caliph, ib.; death, ib.
JAcoBITES, or Monophysites, account of,
vi. 53; persecuted by Justin, ib. ;
name of Jacobites derived from
James Baradasus, 54; absurdity of
their tenets, 55; austerity, ib.; of
Egypt, form an alliance with the
Arabs during the siege of Memphis,
332; their mission to Cairoan, 370.
JALULA, Yezdegerd defeated at by the
Saracens, vi. 296.
JAMEs, S.T., romances concerning, ii.
JAMES, ST., bishop of Edessa, his mira-
cles there, ii. 372, note.
JANE, sister of the Count of Savoy,
marries Andronicus the Younger,
emperor of Constanti-ople, and as-
sumes the name of Anne, vii. 395;
conspires against the regent John
JANE, queen of Naples, arraigned before
Rienzi, for strangling her husband,
viii. 236; parallel of with Mary of
Scotland, ib. note.
JANIZARIES, destroy the Hippodrome
of Constantinople, ii. 298, note G.;
account of the institution of the, viii.
29 and note M. ; meaning of the
name, 29; discipline of the, 74;
Greek, 99 and note.
JANSENISTs, compare Athanasius and
Arnauld, iii. 84, note.
JANUs, temple of, when last opened, i.
325; state of in the time of Belisa-
rius, v. 140; originally a gate, ib.
JAROSLAUs, sovereign of Russia, attacks
Constantinople, vii. 88.
JAzYGAE, Sarmatians described by
Ovid, probably of that tribe, ii. 359;
account of, ib. and notes; choose a
Vandal king, ib.
JAzYGES, Cumanian tribe, vii. 79 and
JEHAN NUMA, or watch-tower of the
world, Mahomet II.'s palace at
Adrianople, viii. 150.
JERMUK, or Hieromax, date of the
battle of, vi. 310, note S.; battle of,
between the Romans and Saracens
JEREMIAH the prophet, his conduct
compared with that of the Roman
Senate towards Hannibal, iv. 71.
JERom, ST., his abilities engaged in the
service of Damasus, bishop of Rome,
iii. 255; his complaints of the ra-
vages of the Goths, 340.
JERUsALEM, temple of destroyed, ii.
237, note; Julian's design to rebuild
the temple, iii. 154; city described,
155; state under Hadrian, ib.; cir-
cumference of the ancient city, ib.
note; under Hadrian, ib. note S.;
Gibbon's account corrected, ib.;
Holy Sepulchre, pilgrimages to, 156;
site, ib. note M. ; vices of the in-
habitants, 157; Julian's attempt to
rebuild the Temple supernaturally
frustiated, 159; testimony of the
Christians, 160; of Ammianus, ib.;
physically explained by Michaelis,
ib. note G.; excavations under the
temple, ib. 161 and 162, note M.; the
explosions occasioned by inflammable
air collected in these, ib.; spoils of
the temple carried from Rome to
Carthage by Genseric, iv. 257;
taken by the Persians under Chos-
roes II., v. 392; tumults of the Mo-
nophysite monks at, vi. 30; Maho-
met's first Kebla of prayer, 232 and
note S.; taken by the Saracens under
Abu Obeidah, 320; called Ælia by
the Arabs as well as Romans, ib.
note; mosch founded by Omar, 321;
state of, under the Abbasside caliphs,
vii. 171; pilgrimages to, ib. ; annual
miracle of the flame in the holy
sepulchre, 172 and notes; state under
the Fatimite caliphs, 173; sacrilege
of the caliph Hakem, 175; great pil-
grimage to, under the archbishop of
Mentz, 176; conquered by the
Turks, ib.; regained by the Fati-
mite caliphs, 223; siege and con-
quest of by the Crusaders, 225;
massacre, .227 and note S.; oppres-
sions of the Latin clergy at, 229;
feudal kingdom of, 230; assize of,
232; taken by Saladin, 259; en-
tered by Frederick II., 270; taken
and pillaged by the Carizmians, 271.
JERUSALEM, NEw, idea of the, ii. 174.
JESUITs, mission to Abyssinia, vi. 65;
JEws, encouraged by Artaxerxes, i.
339, note M. ; rebellion of in the
reign of Hadrian, 145, note; religious
character of the, ii. 153 and notes
M.; their zeal increased under the
second temple, 154; their cruelty
and unsociability, 155; did not pros-
elytize, ib.; defence of their conduct,
ib. note M.; first adopted the doc-
trine of a future state under the As-
monasan princes, 172; rebellious
spirit and cruelties of the, 222; toler-
ated by Antoninus Pius, ib.; privi-
leges enjoyed by, 223; patriarch of,
ib.; that office suppressed by Theo-
dosius the Younger, ib. note; their
religion why exempted from perse-
cution, ib. ; how they escaped perse-
cution under Nero, 236; capitation
tax on under Domitian, 237 ; philo-
sophical of Alexandria, iii. 46 (v.
Alexandria); Julian's letter to the
Jews, 154; their rabbis approved the
murder of an apostate, ob.; oppressed