by the Christian emperors, ib.; Ju-
lian's sentiments respecting their
faith, 158; laws and conduct of adopt-
ed by the Christian clergy, 406; per-
secution of in Spain, iv. 341; their
intrigues promoted the Arabian con-
quest, 342; persecution of the by
Heraclius, v. 414 and note M.; their
belief of the immortality and trans-
migration of souls whence derived,
vi. 5; persecuted by Justinian, 37;
settled in Arabia, 215; military
laws of the, 245; Arabian, subdued
by Mahomet, 250; of Spain, assisted
the arms of the Saracens, 358;
massacre of by the first crusaders,
vii. 192 and note S.; Roman tribute
on, viii. 282 and note.
JEzdegeBD, king of Persia, supposed
guardianship of Theodosius the
Younger, iv. 159; war with Theodo-
sius, 166.
JoAN, pope, probable origin of that
fable, vi. 183 and notes; proved false
by two protestants, ib.
JoANNINA, daughter of Belisarius and
Antonina, her marriage with Anasta-
sius, nephew of Theodora, prevented
by her mother, v. 226.
JoANNITEs or followers of Chrysostom,
iv. 157, note.
Job, book of, its sublimity, vi. 228 ;
its dialect and age, 229, note, and
mote M.
John the Almsgiver, archbishop of
Alexandria, entertains the fugitive
Christians of Jerusalem on its cap-
ture by Chosroes II., v. 392; his
charity, vi. 61.
John, bishop of Antioch, his decision
against and reconciliation with Cyril
of Alexandria, vi. 19-21.
John of Apri, patriarch of Constanti-
nople, conspires against the regent
John Cantacuzene, vii. 397; his ab-
surd vanity, ib. note; deposed by the
Palamites, 406.
John the Armenian, general of Beli-
sarius, v. 107.
John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem,
elected emperor of Constantinople,
vii. 338, 339, note M.; prowess and
death, ib.
John of Cappadocia, minister of Jus-
tinian, arraigned by the people, v.
53; character of, 69 and notes M.;

conspiracy of Theodora against, 70;


wretched fate of, ib.; opposed the
African war, 98; fraud in the bread
supplied to the army, 104.
John CoMNENUs or Calo-Johannes,
emperor of Constantinople, vi. 119 :
character, ib.; victories, 120; sin-
gular death, ib.
John, count, reputed father of Theodo-
sius the younger, iv. 158.
John the eunuch, brother and minister
of Michael IV., compels the empress
Zoe to adopt his nephew Calaphates,
vi. 109.
John, son of Isaac the Sebastocrator,
and grandson of Alexius Comnenus,
goes over to the Turks, vi. 123.
John, hermit of Lycopolis, consulted by
Theodosius the Great respecting the
usurpation of Eugenius, iii. 399.
John, count of Nevers, his valour and
imprudence at the battle of Nicopo-
lis, viii. 32; ransom of, 34.
John, monophysite bishop of Asia, em-
ployed by Justinian to extirpate
pagans and heretics, vi. 37, note.
John PHILoponus, solicits. Amrou to
spare the library of Alexandria, vi.
John XII., pope, grandson of Marozia,
his profligate life, vi. 183; degraded
by Otho I., 185.
John XXII., pope, immense wealth of,
viii. 92, note ; of Avignon, deposed
by the Romans, 213.
John XXIII., pope, his profligacy, viii.
255; deposed and imprisoned by the
council of Constance, 256.
John the praefect succours Carthage
against the Saracens, vi. 350; driven
out, 351.
John the primicerius usurps the West-
ern throne on the death of Hono-
rius, iv. 172; conspiracy of Ardabu-
rius against, and ignominious death,
John of Procida, history of, vii. 378;
excites the revolt of Sicily from
Charles of Anjou, ib.
John of Ravenna, professor of Latin at
Florence, viii. 112 and note.
John, St., reveals the incarnation of
the Logos, iii. 48; beginning of his
gospel admired by the Platonists, ib.
note; his intention to confute the
Ebionites and Docetes, ib., and vi.
5, note; controverted text of respect-
ing the Trinity, iv. 335 and notes.

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knights of, 231; profession of arms
when assumed by them, ib. note.
John the Sanguinary, general of Beli-
sarius, his successes against the
Goths, v. 147; defence of Rimini,
John, officer of Basiliscus, desperate
courage of, iv. 286.
Johnson, Dr., commentary on Shaks-
peare's Henry IV., vii. 184, note;
passage of his ‘Irene' censured, viii.
166, note.
JoINVILLE, the historian, companion of
Louis IX., vii. 272; editions of his
work, ib. notes.
JoNAs of Damascus, story of his love
for Eudocia and apostasy, vi. 311.
JoBNANDEs, Gothic history of, i. 375.
JorTIN, Dr., character of his remarks
on the Arian controversy, iii. 57,
Joseph the Carizmian defends Ber-
zem against the sultan Alp Arslan,
vii. 163; assassinates him, ib.
Joseph, the patriarch, said to be wor-
shipped in Egypt as Apis and Sera-
pis, iii. 416, note.
Joseph, patriarch of Constantinople,
withdraws to a monastery on the
union of the Greek and Latin
churches, vii. 373.
Josephs of Amida, Nestorian sect, vi.
Joseph Us, interpolated passage of re-
specting Christ, ii. 234, note; whe-
ther entirely a forgery, 235, note M.;
his opinion that Plato derived his
knowledge from the Jews contro-
verted, iii. 45, note.
Josephus, the false, his legend of Tse-
pho, ii. 223, note; his literary cha-
racter, ib. note M.
JoURNEYs of the Romans, how con-
ducted, iv. 79, and note.
JoviaN, saluted emperor by the troops
on the death of Julian, iii. 216; his
previous rank, ib. note; character,
216 and 217, note; retreat to Sa-
mara, 217; to Dura, 218; negotia-

tion with Sapor, 219; irresolution
and humiliating peace, ib.; his in-
terested views, 220; retreat con-
trasted with that of the Ten Thousand,
ib.; losses in recrossing the Tigris,
221; arrives at Nisibis, 222; astonish-
ment and indignation of the Romans
at his treaty, 223; which he fulfils,
ib.; expels the citizens of Nisibis,
224; proceeds to Antioch, 225; ap-
points Procopius to bury Julian, ib.;
displays the Labarum on his march,
228; edict in favour of Christianity,
ib.; declares for the Nicene faith,
229; proclaims universal toleration,
230; march from Antioch, 231;
makes his infant son consul, ib.;
sudden death at Dadastana, ib.
JoviaNs, guards of Diocletian so called,
ii. 92.
JovinUs, general of Julian, iii. 115;
besieges Aquileia, 119 ; made a judge
at Chalcedon, 126; defeats the Ale-
manni at Scarponna, 258; on the
Moselle, ib.; at Châlons, ib.; made
consul, 259; assumes the diadem at
Mentz, iv. 122; defeats Constantius
and gains possession of Gaul, ib.;
rejects the friendship of Adolphus,
ib.; makes his brother Sebastian
emperor, ib.; put to death by Adol-
phus, 123.
Jovius, title of Diocletian, ii. 67.
Jovius and Gaudentius commissioned
by Theodosius to close the pagan
temples in the West, iii. 414.
Jovius, praetorian praefect, succeeds
Olympius as minister of Honorius,
iv. 95; instigates a mutiny of the
guards, 96; negociates with Alaric,
ib.; deserts to Attalus, 100; betrays
him, 101.
JUBILEEs, Popish, a copy of the secular
games, i. 327, note; instituted by
Pope Boniface VIII., viii. 217; altered
to the Mosaic Jubilee by Clement
VI., 218; successive reductions of
the term of the, ib.
JUDAIsiNu Christians, ii. 157; Justir.
Martyrs decision respecting, 160.
JUDAs, the Gaulonite, ii. 236; obstinate
defence of his successors, ib. note.
JUDE, St., his grandsons summoned
before a Roman tribunal, ii. 238;
his relationship to Christ, ib. note.
JUDGES, venality of under Constantine,
ii. 317.


JUDGEs, kings of the Visigoths assume
that title, iii. 282.
JUDGMENTs of God among the Franks,
iv. 369.
JULIA Dom NA, her marriage with Se-
verus and character, i. 263; Gibbon's
account too favourable, 264, note S.;
suicide, 277.
JULIA MAESA banished, i. 277; gains
the army for Elagabalus, 278; per-
suades him to adopt Alexander Se-
verus, 283.
JULIAN assumes the purple at Car-
thage, ii. 76; defeat and suicide, ib.
JuliaN, nephew of Constantine the
Great, his character of Octavianus,
i. 209, note ; of Alexander Severus,
293, note; escapes being assassin-
ated by Constantius, ii. 365; charges
that prince with murder, 366, note;
education and imprisonment, 388;
saved by Mark, bishop of Arethusa,
ib. note; his epistle to the Athenians
the best account of his early life, ib.;
was the son of Basilina, ib. note G.;
assisted by his brother Gallus, 389;
after the death of the latter he is
conveyed to Milan, 393 ; danger,
394; saved by Eusebia, ib.; banished
to Athens, ib.; conduct there, 395;
opposite character to Gallus, 396;
compared to Titus, ib.; Eusebia pro-
cures his recall, ib.; marries Helena,
ib.; appointed to the trans-Alpine
provinces, ib.; fear and regret at
leaving Athens, ib.; awkward de-
meanour, ib.; declared Caesar, 397;
distress in his new situation, ib.;
conduct in Gaul, 413; first campaign
there, 414; march from Autun to
Rheims, ib.; defeats the Germans at
Brocomagus, 415; winters at Sens,
ib.; besieged there by the Germans,
ib.; obtains the dismissal of Mar-
cellus, ib.; acquires supreme military
command in Gaul, ib.; second cam-
paign, 416; defeats the Germans at
Strasburg, 417; punishes his fugitive
cuirassiers, ib. note ; generous con-
duct to Chnodowar, 418; subdues the
Franks, 419 ; sends some captives to
Constantius, ib.; generous treatment
of the Chamavians, 420; three ex-
peditions beyond the Rhine, ib.;
composed commentaries of the Gallic
war, ib, ; dictates conditions to six


kings of the Alemanni, 421; restores
the cities of Gaul, ib.; despatches
corn ships to Britain, 422; his civil
administration, ib.; retort on Del-
phidius, 423; protects the Gauls from
the oppression of Florentius, ib.; their
flourishing state under his rule, 424;
residence at Paris, ib.; his account
of the persecutions of Constantius II.,
iii. 93; jealousy of Constantius, 102;
perplexity of Julian on the Gallic
legions being ordered to the East,
105; discontent of the latter, 106;
they proclaim Julian emperor, 107;
his reluctant consent, ib.; inquiry
respecting his innocence, 108; his
dream, ib.; embassy to Constantius,
109; demands the confirmation of the
title of Augustus, ib.; fourth and
fifth expeditions beyond the Rhine,
110; his ambassadors angrily dis-
missed by Constantius, 111; con-
ditions offered by the latter, 112 ;
Julian resolves on civil war, ib. ;
absurd accusation of poisoning his
wife, 112, note; his violent epistle to
Constantius, 113; renounces Christi-
anity, ib.; his soldiers consent to
follow him against Constantius, 114;
makes Sallust praetorian praefect in
Gaul, ib.; march to Illyricum, 115;
descends the Danube, 116 ; takes
Sirmium, ib.; acknowledged in Italy
and Illyricum, 117; his manifesto,
ib.; and epistle to the Athenians,
118; excellence of the latter, ib. note ;
his claims admitted by the Romans,
ib.; death of Constantius and sub-
mission of his army, 120; Julian
enters Constantinople in triumph,
ib.; attends the funeral of Con-
stantius, 121; civil government and
private life, ib.; date of his birth,
ib. note; vegetable diet, 122; chas-
tity, ib.; works, 123; reforms the
court, 124; but too hastily and in-
considerately, 125; to avoid foppery
becomes a sloven, ib.; description of
himself in his “Misopogon,’ ib. and
note; institutes a chamber of justice
at Chalcedon, 126; punishes the
innocent with the guilty, 127; passes
an act of oblivion, 128; deceives the
Egyptians, ib.; clemency, ib.; dis-
misses the Stoics, ib.; love of freedom,
129; refuses the title of Dominus,
130; affected devotion to republican


forms, ib.; care of the Grecian cities,
131; an orator and judge, 132;
merits and faults as a judge and
legislator, 133; character, ib.; his
religion examined, 135; a devout
Pagan, ib.; cause of his apostasy,
136; Christian education, ib.; offi-
ciates in the church of Nicomedia,
ib.; a tolerable theologian, 137, note;
opinion on the Trinity, ib.; admira-
tion for Homer and his mythology,
138; embraces Paganism, ib.; adopts
the allegorical mythology of the Pla-
tonists, 139; his theological system,
140; initiated in the Eleusinian
mysteries, 142 ; fanaticism, 143;
dissembles his religion, 144; work
against Christianity, 145; character
of its fragments, ib.; edict of uni-
versal toleration, 146; recalls the
Christian exiles of all sects, 147;
hears their disputes, ib. ; secret
motives for tolerating them, ib.;
becomes Pontifex Maximus, ib. ;
zealous in restoring Paganism, ib.;
his extravagant superstition, ib. sq.;
directions for the reformation of the
Pagan priests, 149; abhorrence of
the Epicureans and Sceptics, 150;
friendship for the philosophers and
diviners, 151; their corruption at his
court, 152; Julian's proselytizing zeal,
ib.; success with the soldiery, 153;
favours the Jews, 154; epistle to,
ib.; design to rebuild the temple of
Jerusalem, ib.; motives, 158; his
attempt supernaturally frustrated,
160; this event physically explained,
ib. note G.; names the Christians
Galilaeans, 162; his unjust prejudices
against them, ib.; transfers the re-
venues of the church to the pontiffs,
163; prohibits the Christians from
teaching schools, ih.; excludes them
from offices of trust and profit, 164;
condemns them to restore the Pagan
temples, 165; his visit to the Apollo
of Daphne, and disappointment at
its Christian profanation, 168; shuts
up the cathedral of Antioch in re-
taliation of the burning of the temple
cf Daphne by the Christians, 170;
confiscates the property of the church
cf Edessa, 173; epistle to the Alex-
andrians, 174; expels their bishop
Athanasius, 175; his mortal hatred
of that prelate, 176; account of his


“Caesars,’ 179; marches against the
Persians, 181; residence at Antioch,
182; insulted by the inhabitants,
184; retaliates in his “Misopogon,”
185; his friendship for Libanius,
186; march to the Euphrates, 187;
advances to Carrhae, 188; march to
Circesium, 190; number and com-
position of his forces, ib.; letter to
the satrap Arsaces, ib. and notes;
fleet on the Euphrates, 191; he
enters Persia, ib.; marches through
Mesopotamia, 192; invades Assyria,
196; takes Perisabor, 197; and Mao-
gamalcha, 198; how represented by
the Persians, 199; his temperance,
chastity, and valour, ib.; address to
his malcontent troops, 200; encamps
near Seleucia, 201; opens an old
canal of Trajan's, 202; passes the
Tigris, 203; inauspicious omens, 204;
abandons the siege of Ctesiphon,
205; obstinacy in refusing to treat
with Sapor, ib.; deceived by a Persian
deserter, 206; burns his fleet, 207;
marches against Sapor, 208; want of
provisions, 209; retreat, ib.; harassed
by the Persians, 210; his dream,
211; wound, 212; last exhortation
and death, 213; funeral, 225; ru-
mours respecting his assassination,
226 and notes; reflections on his
funeral, ib.
JULIAN, SALVIUS composes the Per-
petual Edict, v. 267.
JULIAN of Halicarnassus converts the
Armenians to Eutychianism, vi. 58.
JULIAN, count, repulses Musa from
Ceuta, vi. 353; offers to introduce
the Arabs into Spain, ib.; story of
his daughter Cara, 354 and notes;
probable motives of his treachery, ib.
JULIAN, Cardinal, manager for the
Latins at the council of Florence,
viii. 100; papal legate at the court
of Ladislaus, king of Poland and
Hungary, 128; stimulates that mo-
narch to violate his treaty with the
Turks, 130 and note; his history
and character, 133; killed at the
battle of Warna, ib.
JULIAN, port, iv. 79, note.
JULIANUs, Didius, purchases the em-
pire, i. 244; the armies declare
against him, 246; distress, 250
deserted by the Praetorians, 251;
beheaded, ib.


JULIUs, master-general in the East,
massacres the Gothic youth in Asia,
iii. 341.
JURISPRUDENCE, Roman, perfection of
under Severus, i. 262; advocated arbi-
trary power, ib.; account of, v. 257
sqq.; abuses of under Justinian, 327.
JUs relationis, ii. 42, note ; Italicum,
in what it consisted, 301 and note S.;
Papirianum, v. 259, note.
JUSTIN the Elder, commander of the
guards, seizes the empire on the death
of Anastasius, v. 36; question as to
his illiterateness, ib. and note M.;
character and reign, 37; death, 39.
JUSTIN II. receives an embassy from
the Turks, v.178 and note; accepts
their alliance, 179; sends ambas-
sadors to Disabul, ib.; account of
his elevation to the empire, 329;
discharges his uncle Justinian's debts,
330; consulship, ib.; date of, ib.
note S.; receives an embassy of
the Avars, ib.; supersedes Narses in
the exarchate, 336; weakness of his
reign, 341; associates Tiberius, cap-
tain of the guards, in the empire,
342; Justin's speech on that occa-
sion, ib.; death, 343; his war against
the Persians, 365.
JUSTIN MARTYR, his opinion respecting
Judaising Christians, ii. 160; his
Dialogue with Tryphon, ib. note ;
exaggerated account of the progress
of Christianity, 213; his education
and conversion, 215; his opinion of
the Ebionites, iii. 48 and note.
JUSTINA, her marriage with Valen-
tinian examined, iii. 290; whether
the widow of Magnentius, ib. note S.;
on the death of Walentinian I. she
appears in the camp with her infant
son, who is saluted emperor, 291;
was an Arian, 377; her disputes
with St. Ambrose, archbishop of
Milan, and final triumph of the
latter, ib. sqq.; flies to Aquileia with
her son Valentinian II. on the ap-
proach of Maximus, 382; and thence
to Thessalonica, ib.; visited there
by Theodosius, 383; death, 396.
JUSTINIAN, emperor of the East, his
Institutes, to whom addressed, ii.
317; yields the sovereignty of the
countries beyond the Alps to the
Franks, iv. 362; limitation of this
account, ib. note S.; birth and edu-

JUstin LAN.

cation of, v. 35; genealogical table,
ib. note S.; names, ib. note, and note
S.; his artful ambition, 38; ortho-
doxy, ib.; splendour, ib.; invested
with the diadem by his uncle Justin,
39; marriage with Theodora, 44;
abolishes the law prohibiting the
marriage of a senator with a slave or
actress, ib.; associates Theodora in
the empire, 45; patron of the blue
or orthodox faction of the hippo-
drome, 50; Nika sedition, 51; apo-
cryphal dialogue with his subjects, ib.
and note S.; extent, agriculture, and
manufactures of his dominions, 55 :
his avarice and profusion, 64; taxes,
66; monopolies, 67; coinage, ib. ;
venality, ib.; humanity towards
Eulalius, 68; his ministers, 69 ;
edifices and architects, 71; founds
the new cathedral of St. Sophia, 73;
churches and palaces, 76; fortifica-
tions, 78; wall of the Thracian
Chersonese, 80; strengthens the
wall of Anastasius from the Pro-
pontis to the Euxine, ib.; his forti-
fications from the Euxine to the
Persian frontier, 82; suppresses the
schools of Athens, 93; and Roman
consulship, 95; purchases a truce
from the Persians, 96 and 187;
African expedition, 96 sq.; army,
102; fleet, 103; reduction of Africa,
114; fortifies and adorns Septem or
Ceuta, ib. ; re-establishes the Ca-
tholic church in Africa, 115; re-
models the civil government of, ib.;
seizes some Spanish cities, 124; ne-
gociates secretly with Theodatus,
king of Italy, 128; intercedes for
the life of Amalasontha, ib.; de-
clares war against Theodatus, 129;
treaty with him, 130; assumes the
title of Conqueror of the Franks, 152;
imprudent treaty with Vitiges, 153;
recalls Belisarius from Italy, 155;
disgraces him, 161; invites the Lom-
bards into Noricum and Pannonia,
165; receives an embassy from the
Ogors, or Avars, 177; assists the
Lazi against the Persians, 201; ne-
gociations with Chosroes, 204; em-
bassy to and alliance with the
Abyssinians, 207 sq.; pragmatic
sanction for the settlement of Italy,
241; rumoured death and conse-
quent riots, 245; conspiracy against,

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