by the Christian emperors, ib.; Ju-
lian's sentiments respecting their
faith,158; laws and conduct of adopt-
ed by the Christian clergy, 406 ; per-
secution of in Spain, iv. 341 ; their
intrigues promoted the Arabian con-
quest, 342; persecution of the by
Heraclius, v. 414 and note M.; their
belief of the immortality and trans-
migration of souls whence derived,
vi. 5; persecuted by Justinian, 37 ;
settled in Arabia, 215; military
laws of the, 245 ; Arabian, subdued
by Mahomet, 250; of Spain, assisted
the arms of the Saracens, 358;
massacre of by the first crusaders,
vii. 192 and note S.; Roman tribute

on, viii. 282 and note.
JEZDEGERD, king of Persia, supposed

guardianship of Theodosius the
Younger, iv. 159 ; war with Theodo-

sius, 166.
Joan, pope, probable origin of that

fable, vi. 183 and notes ; proved false

by two protestants, ib.
JOANNINA, daughter of Belisarius and

Antonina, her marriage with Anasta-
sius, nephew of Theodora, prevented

by her mother, v. 226.
JOANNITES or followers of Chrysostom,

iv. 157, note.
JOB, book of, its sublimity, vi. 228 ;

its dialect and age, 229, note, and

note M.
John the Almsgiver, archbishop of

Alexandria, entertains the fugitive
Christians of Jerusalem on its cap-
ture by Chosroes II., v. 392 ; his

charity, vi. 61.
John, bishop of Antioch, his decision

against and reconciliation with Cyril

of Alexandria, vi. 19-21.
John of Apri, patriarch of Constanti-

nople, conspires against the regent
John Cantacuzene, vii. 397 ; his ab-
surd vanity, ib. note ; deposed by the

Palamites, 406.
John the Armenian, general of Beli-

sarius, v. 107.
John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem,

elected emperor of Constantinople,
vii. 338, 339, note M.; prowess and
death, ib.
John of Cappadocia, minister of Jus-

tinian, arraigned by the people, v.
53; character of, 69 and notes M.;
conspiracy of Theodora against, 70;

wretched fate of, ib.; opposed the
African war, 98; fraud in the bread

supplied to the army, 104.
JOHN COMNENUS or Calo-Johannes,

emperor of Constantinople, vi. 119;
character, ib.; victories, 120; sin-

gular death, ib.
John, count, reputed father of Theodo-

sius the younger, iv. 158.
John the eunuch, brother and minister

of Michael IV., compels the empress
Zoe to adopt his nephew Calaphates,

vi. 109.
John, son of Isaac the Sebastocrator,

and grandson of Alexius Comnenus,

goes over to the Turks, vi. 123.
John, hermit of Lycopolis, consulted by

Theodosius the Great respecting the

usurpation of Eugenius, ii. 399.
JOHN, count of Nevers, his valour and

imprudence at the battle of Nicopo-

lis, viii. 32 ; ransom of, 34.
Joux, monophysite bishop of Asia, em-

ployed by Justinian to extirpato

pagans and heretics, vi. 37, note.
JOHN PHILOPONUS, solicits. Amrou to

spare the library of Alexandria, vi.

John XII., pope, grandson of Marozia,

his profligate life, vi. 183 ; degraded

by Otho I., 185.
John XXII., pope, immense wealth of,

viii. 92, note ; of Avignon, deposed

by the Romans, 213.
John XXIII., pope, his profligacy, viii.

255 ; deposed and imprisoned by the

council of Constance, 256.
John the præfect succours Carthage

against the Saracens, vi. 350; driven

out, 351,
John the primicerius usurps the West-

ern throne on the death of Hono-
rius, iv. 172 ; conspiracy of Ardabu-
rius against, and ignominious death,

John of Procida, history of, vii. 378;

excites the revolt of Sicily from

Charles of Anjou, ib.
John of Ravenna, professor of Latin at

Florence, viii. 112 and note.
JOHN, St., reveals the incarnation of

the Logos, iii. 48 ; beginning of his
gospel admired by the Platonists, ib.
note; his intention to confute the
Ebionites and Docetes, ib., and vi,
5, note ; controverted text of respect-
ing the Trinity, iv. 335 and notes,


John, St., Christians of in Bassora, vi. tion with Sapor, 219; irresolution
214 and note M.

and humiliating peace, ib. ; his in-
John, St., Damascenus, account of, vi. terested views, 220; retreat con-

143, note ; writings against Constan trasted with that of the Ten Thousand,
tine V., 144 and note ; last Father of ib.; losses in recrossing the Tigris,
the Greek church, vii. 43, note.

221; arrives at Nisibis, 222; astonish-
JOAN, St., of Jerusalem, hospital of ment and indignation of the Romans

founded by the Italians, vii. 172; at his treaty, 223; which he fulfils,
knights of, 231 ; profession of arms ib.; expels the citizens of Nisibis,

when assumed by them, ib. note. 224; proceeds to Antioch, 225; ap-
John the Sanguinary, general of Beli points Procopius to bury Julian, ib.;

sarius, his successes against the displays the Labarum on his march,
Goths, v. 147; defence of Rimini, 228; edict in favour of Christianity,

ib. ; declares for the Nicene faith,
John, officer of Basiliscus, desperate 229; proclaims universal toleration,
courage of, iv. 286.

230; march from Antioch, 231;
JOHNSON, Dr., commentary on Shaks makes his infant son consul, ib. ;

peare's Henry IV., vii. 184, note ; sudden death at Dadastana, ib.
passage of his 'Irene' censured, viii. JOVIANs, guards of Diocletian so called,
166, note.

ii. 92.
JOINVILLE, the historian, companion of JOVINUs, general of Julian, iii, 115;

Louis IX., vii. 272; editions of his besieges Aquileia, 119; made a judge
work, ib. notes.

at Chalcedon, 126; defeats the Ale-
Jonas of Damascus, story of his love manni at Scarponna, 258; on the

for Eudocia and apostasy, vi. 311. Moselle, ib.; at Châlons, ib.; made
JORNANDES, Gothic history of, i. 375. consul, 259; assumes the diadem at
JORTIN, Dr., character of his remarks Mentz, iv, 122 ; defeats Constantius

on the Arian controversy, iii. 57, and gains possession of Gaul, ib.;

rejects the friendship of Adolphus,
JOSEPH the Carizmian defends Ber. ib.; makes his brother Sebastian

zem against the sultan Alp Arslan, emperor, ib.; put to death by Adol-
vii. 163; assassinates him, ib.

phus, 123.
JOSEPH, the patriarch, said to be wor Jovius, title of Diocletian, ii. 67.

shipped in Egypt as Apis and Sera Jovius and Gaudentius commissioned
pis, iii. 416, note.

by Theodosius to close the pagan
JOSEPH, patriarch of Constantinople,

withdraws to a monastery on the Jovius, prætorian præfect, succeeds
union of the Greek and Latin Olympius as minister of Honorius,
churches, vii. 373.

iv. 95; instigates a mutiny of the
JOSEPHS of Amida, Nestorian sect, vi. guards, 96; negociates with Alaric,

ib.; deserts to Attalus, 100; betrays
JOSEPHUS, interpolated passage of re him, 101.

specting Christ, ii. 234, note ; whe JUBILEES, Popish, a copy of the secular
ther entirely a forgery, 235, note M.; games, i. 327, note; instituted by
his opinion that Plato derived his Pope Boniface VIII., viii. 217; altered
knowledge from the Jews contro to the Mosaic Jubilee by Clement
verted, iii. 45, note.

VI., 218; successive reductions of
JOSEPHUS, the false, his legend of Tse the term of the, ib.

pho, ii. 223, note; his literary cha JUDAISING Christians, ii. 157; Justin
racter, ib, note M.

Martyr s decision respecting, 160.
JOURNEYS of the Romans, how con Judas, the Gaulonite, ii. 236; obstinate
ducted, iv. 79, and note.

defence of his successors, ib. note.
Jovian, saluted emperor by the troops JUDE, St., his grandsons summoned

on the death of Julian, üi. 216; his before a Roman tribunal, ii. 238;
previous rank, ib. note; character, bis relationship to Christ, ib. note.
216 and 217, note ; retreat to Sao JUDGES, venality of under Constantine,
mara, 217; to Dura, 218; negotia ii. 317.

JUDGES, kings of the Visigoths assume

that title, iii. 282.
JUDGMENTS of God among the Franks,

iv. 369.
JULIA DOMNA, her marriage with Se-

verus and character, i. 263; Gibbon's
account too favourable, 264, note S. ;

suicide, 277.
Julia MÆSa banished, i. 277 ; gains

the army for Elagabalus, 278; per-
suadas him to adopt Alexander Se-

verus, 283.

JULIAN assumes the purple at Car-

thage, ii. 76 ; defeat and suicide, ib.

JULIAN, nephew of Constantine the

Great, his character of Octavianus,
i. 209, note ; of Alexander Severus,
293, note; escapes being assassin-
ated by Constantius, ii. 365; charges
that prince with murder, 366, note ;
education and imprisonment, 388;
saved by Mark, bishop of Arethusa,
ib. note; his epistle to the Athenians
the best account of his early life, ib. ;
was the son of Basilina, ib. note G.;
assisted by his brother Gallus, 389;
after the death of the latter he is
conveyed to Milan, 393 ; danger,
394 ; saved by Eusebia, ib.; banished
to Athens, ib.; conduct there, 395;
opposite character to Gallus, 396;
compared to Titus, ib.; Eusebia pro-
cures his recall, ib.; marries Helena,
ib.; appointed to the trans-Alpine
provinces, ib.; fear and regret at
leaving Athens, ib.; awkward de-
meanour, ib.; declared Cæsar, 397 ;
distress in his new situation, ib.;
conduct in Gaul, 413 ; first campaign
there, 414; march from Autun to
Rheims, ib. ; defeats the Germans at
Brocomagus, 415; winters at Sens,
ib.; besieged there by the Germans,
ib.; obtains the dismissal of Mar-
cellus, ib.; acquires supreme military
command in Gaul, ib.; second cam-
paign, 416; defeats the Germans at
Strasburg, 417; punishes his fugitive
cuirassiers, ib. note ; generous con-
duct to Chnodowar, 418; subdues the
Franks, 419; sends some captives
Constantius, ib. ; generous treatment
of the Chamavians, 420; three ex-
peditions beyond the Rhine, ih.;
composed commentaries of the Gallic
war, ib.; dictates conditions to six

kings of the Alemanni, 421 ; restores
the cities of Gaul, ib.; despatches
com ships to Britain, 422; his civil
administration, ib.; retort on Del-
phidius, 423 ; protects the Gauls from
the oppression of Florentius, ib. ; their
flourishing state under his rule, 424;
residence at Paris, ib.; his account
of the persecutions of Constantius II.,
iii. 93 ; jealousy of Constantius, 102;
perplexity of Julian on the Gallic
legions being ordered to the East,
105; discontent of the latter, 106;
they proclaim Julian emperor, 107 ;
his reluctant consent, ib.; inquiry
respecting his innocence, 108 ; his
dream, ib. ; embassy to Constantius,
109; demands the confirmation of the
title of Augustus, ib. ; fourth and
fifth expeditions beyond the Rhine,
110; his ambassadors angrily dis-
missed by Constantius, 111; con-
ditions offered by the latter, 112;
Julian resolves on civil war, ib.;
absurd accusation of poisoning his
wife, 112, note ; his violent epistle to
Constantius, 113; renounces Christi-
anity, ib. ; his soldiers consent to
follow him against Constantius, 114 ;
makes Sallust prætorian præfect in
Gaul, ib.; march to Illyricum, 115 ;
descends the Danube, 116 ; takes
Sirmium, ib.; acknowledged in Italy
and Illyricum, 117; his manifesto,
ib.; and epistle to the Athenians,
118; excellence of the latter, ib. note;
his claims admitted by the Romans,
ib.; death of Constantius and sub-
mission of his array, 120; Julian
enters Constantinople in triumph,
ib.; attends the funeral of Con-
stantius, 121 ; civil government and
private life, ib.; date of his birth,
ib. note ; vegetable diet, 122 ; chas-
tity, ib.; works, 123; reforms the
court, 124 ; but too hastily and in-
considerately, 125; to avoid foppery
becomes a sloven, ib.; description of
himself in his ‘Misopogon,' ib. and
note; institutes a chamber of justice
at Chalcedon, 126; punishes the
innocent with the guilty, 127; passes
an act of oblivion, 128; deceives the
Egyptians, ib.; clemency, ib.; dis-
misses the Stoica, ib. ; love of freedom,
129; refuses the title of Dominus,
130; affected devotion to republican

forms, ib. ; care of the Grecian cities,
131 ; an orator and judge, 132;
merits and faults as a judge and
legislator, 133; character, ib.; his
religion examined, 135; & devout
Pagan, ib.; cause of his apostasy,
136 ; Christian education, ib.; offi-
ciates in the church of Nicomedia,
ib.; a tolerable theologian, 137, note ;
opinion on the Trinity, ib.; admira-
tion for Homer and his mythology,
138; embraces Paganism, ib.; adopts
the allegorical mythology of the Pla-
tonists, 139; his theological system,
140; initiated in the Elcusinian
inysteries, 142 ; fanaticismn, 143;
dissembles his religion, 144 ; work
against Christianity, 145; character
of its fragments, ib. ; edict of uni-
versal toleration, 146 ; recalls the
Christian exiles of all sects, 147 ;
hears their disputes, ib. ; secret
motives for tolerating them, ib.;
becomes Pontifex Maximus, ib. ;
zealous in restoring Paganism, ib.;
his extravagant superstition, ib. sq.;
directions for the reformation of the
Pagan priests, 149; abhorrence of
the Epicureans and Sceptics, 150;
friendship for the philosophers and
diviners, 151 ; their

corruption at his
court, 152; Julian's proselytizing zeal,
ib.; success with the soldiery, 153;
favours the Jews, 154; epistle to,
ib.; design to rebuild the temple of
Jerusalem, ib.; motives, 158; his
attempt supernaturally frustrated,
160; this event physically explained,
ib, note G.; names the Christians
Galilæans, 162 ; his unjust prejudices
against them, ib.; transfers the re-
venues of the church to the pontiffs,
163; prohibits the Christians from
teaching schools, 27.; excludes them
from offices of trust and profit, 164;
condemns them to restore the Pagan
temples, 165; his visit to the Apollo
of Daphne, and disappointment at
its Christian profanation, 168; shuts
up the cathedral of Antioch in re-
taliation of the burning of the temple
cf Daphne by the Christians, 170;
confiscates the property of the church
ci Edessa, 173; epistle to the Alex-
Andrians, 174; expels their bishop
Athanasius, 175; his mortal hatred
of that prelate, 176; account of his

Cæsars,' 179; marches against the
Persians, 181 ; residence at Antioch,
182; insulted by the inhabitants,
184; retaliates in his ‘Misopogon,'
185; his friendship for Libanius,
186; march to the Euphrates, 187;
advances to Carrbæ, 188; march to
Circesium, 190; number and ccm-
position of his forces, ib. ; letter to
the satrap Arsaces, ib. and notes ;
fleet on the Euphrates, 191; he
enters Persia, ib. ; marches through
Mesopotamia, 192; invades Assyria,
196; takes Perisabor, 197; and Mao-
gamalcha, 198; how represented by
the Persians, 199; his temperance,
chastity, and valour, ib.; address to
his malcontent troops, 200; encamps
near Seleucia, 201 ; opens an old
canal of Trajan's, 202 ; passes the
Tigris, 203; inauspicious omens, 204;
abandons the siege of Ctesiphon,
205 ; obstinacy in refusing to treat
with Sapor, ib.; deceived by a Persian
deserter, 206; burns his fleet, 207;
marches against Sapor, 208; want of
provisions, 209; retreat, ib. ; harassed
by the Persians, 210; his dream,
211; wound, 212; last exhortation
and death, 213; funeral, 225; ru-
mours respecting his assassination,
226 and notes ; reflections on his

funeral, ib.
JULIAN, Salvius composes the Per-

petual Edict, v. 267.
JULIAN of Halicarnassus converts the

Armenians to Eutychianism, vi. 58.
JULIAN, count, repulses Musa from

Ceuta, vi. 353 ; offers to introduce
the Arabs into Spain, ib. ; story of
his daughter Cara, 354 and notes ;

probable motives of his treachery, ib.
JULIAN, Cardinal, manager for the

Latins at the council of Florence,
viii. 100; papal legate at the court
of Ladislaus, king of Poland and
Hungary, 128; stimulates that mo-
narch to violate his treaty with the
Turks, 130 and note ; his history
and character, 133; killed at the

battle of Varna, ib.
JULIAN, port, iv. 79, note.
JULIANUS, Didius, purchases the em-

pire, i. 244; the armies declara
against him, 246; distress, 250
deserted by the Prætorians, 251;
beheaded, it


JULIUB, master-general in the East,

massacres the Gothic youth in Asia,

iii. 341.
JURISPRUDENCE, Roman, perfection of

under Severus, i. 262; advocated arbi.
trary power, ib. ; account of, v. 257

599.; abuses of under Justinian, 327.
Jus relationis, ii. 42, note ; Italicum,

in what it consisted, 301 and note S.;

Papirianum, v. 259, note.
Justin the Elder, commander of the

guards, seizes the empire on the death
of Anastasius, v. 36 ; question as to
his illiterateness, ib. and note M.;

character and reign, 37; death, 39.
JUSTIN II. receives an embassy from

the Turks, v. 178 and note ; accepts
their alliance, 179; sends ambas-
sadors to Disabul, ib.; account of
his elevation to the empire, 329 ;
discharges his uncle Justinian's debts,
330; consulship, ib.; date of, ib.
note S. ; receives an embassy of
the Avars, ib.; supersedes Narses in
the exarchate, 336; weakness of his
reign, 341; associates Tiberius, cap-
tain of the guards, in the empire,
342; Justiu's speech on that occa-
sion, ib. ; death, 343 ; his war against

the Persians, 365.
JUSTIN MARTYR, his opinion respecting

Judaising Christians, ii. 160; his
Dialogue with Tryphon, ib. note ;
exaggerated account of the progress
of Christianity, 213; his education
and conversion, 215; his opinion of

the Ebionites, iii. 48 and note.
JUSTINA, her marriage with Valen-

tinian examined, iii. 290; whether
the widow of Magnentius, ib. note S.;
on the death of Valentinian I. she
appears in the camp with her infant
son, who is saluted emperor, 291;
was an Arian, 377; her disputes
with St. Ambrose, archbishop of
Milan, and final triumph of the
latter, ib. sqq.; flies to Aquileia with
her son Valentinian II. on the ap-
proach of Maximus, 382 ; and thence
to Thessalonica, ib.; visited there

by Theodosius, 383; death, 396.
JUSTINIAN, emperor of the East, his

Institutes, to whom addressed, ii.
317; yields the sovereignty of the
countries beyond the Alps to the
Franks, iv. 362; limitation of this
account, ib. note S.; birth and edu-

cation of, v. 35; genealogical table,
ib. note S. ; names, ib. note, and note

his artful ambition, 38; ortho-
doxy, ib.; splendour, ib. ; invested
with the diadem by his uncle Justin,
39; marriage with Theodora, 44;
abolishes the law prohibiting the
marriage of a senator with a slave or
actress, ib.; associates Theodora in
the empire, 45 ; patron of the blue
or orthodox faction of the hippo-
drome, 50; Nika sedition, 51 ; apo-
cryphal dialogue with his subjects, ib.
and note S.; extent, agriculture, and
manufactures of his dominions, 55 ;
his avarice and profusion, 64; taxes,
66; monopolies, 67; coinage, ib. ;
venality, ib.; humanity towards
Eulalius, 68; his ministers, 69;
edifices and architects, 71 ; founds
the new cathedral of St. Sophia, 73;
churches and palaces, 76 ; fortifica-
tions, 78; wall of the Thracian
Chersonese, 80; strengthens the
wall of Anastasius from the Pro-
pontis to the Euxine, ib.; his forti-
fications from the Euxine to the
Persian frontier, 82 ; suppresses the
schools of Athens, 93; and Roman
consulship, 95; purchases a truce
from the Persians, 96 and 187;
African expedition, 96 sq.; army,
102; fleet, 103; reduction of Africa,
114; fortifies and adorns Septem or
Ceuta, ib. ; re-establishes the Ca-
tholic church in Africa, 115; re-
models the civil government of, ib.;
seizes some Spanish cities, 124 ; ne-
gociates secretly with Theodatus,
king of Italy, 128; intercedes for
the life of Amalasontha, ib.; de-
clares war against Theodatus, 129;
treaty with him, 130; assumes the
title of Conqueror of the Franks, 152;
imprudent treaty with Vitiges, 153;
recalls Belisarius from Italy, 155 ;
disgraces him, 161; invites the Lom-
bards into Noricum and Pannonia,
165; receives an embassy from the
Ogors, or Avars, 177; assists the
Lazi against the Persians, 201 ; ne-
gociations with Chosroes, 204 ; em-
bassy to and alliance with the
Abyssinians, 207 sq.; pragmatic
sanction for the settlement of Italy,
241; rumoured death and conse-
quent riots, 245; conspiracy against,

« ForrigeFortsett »