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JUSTINIAN.

th. ; disgraces Belisarius on suspicion
of treason, 246; death and character,
248; physical phenomena during his
reign, 249; his civil jurisprudence,
257; compilation of his Code, 282;
of the Digest or Pandects, 283; of
the Institutes, ib.; legal inconstancy,
287; second edition of the Code, ib.;
Novels, 288; charge of venality, ib.;
abuses of jurisprudence under, 327 ;
his religious character and govern-
ment, vi. 34; affected the name of
Pious, 35; his persecutions, 36;
held the slaughter of unbelievers not
to be murder, 38; his orthodoxy, ib.;
heresy, 40; translation of his Code
and Pandects into Greek, vii. 37 and
note; discovery of his corpse by the
crusaders, 316; colossus of at Con-
stantinople, viii. 122 and note.
JUSTINIAN II., tyrannous reign of, vi.
77; deposed and mutilated, ib.;
exile, 78; restoration, 79; assassi-
nated, 80.
JUSTINIAN, son of Germanus, conspires
with the empress Sophia against
Tiberius II., v. 343; discovered and
o 344; successes against the
ersians, ib.
JUSTINLAN, Roman advocate, confidant
of Stilicho, iv. 60.
JUSTINIAN, Roman general, successful
campaign against Nushirvan, 7.366.
JUSTINIANA PRIMA, city of, founded
by Justinian at Tauresium, v. 79.
JUSTINIANI, John, a Genoese noble,
assists in the defence of Constan-
tinople, viii. 156; wound and flight,
170 and notes M. and S.
JUSTUs, the apostate Paulician, slays
his master Constantine, vii. 51.
JUTEs invade Britain under Hengist,
iv. 388.
JUVENAL, his sixteenth satire when
composed, i. 259, note; his works
much read by the Roman nobles, iv.
81; complaints respecting the dwell-
ings at Rome, 88.

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LABARUM.

KEBLA of prayer, Mahometan, what, vi.
232 and note S.
KENRK, conquests of, in western Bri-
tain, iv. 390.
KERAITEs, account of that nation, viii.
3, note S.
KERBogA, prince of Mosul, besieges the
Crusaders in Antioch, vii. 218; de-
feated, ib.
KERMAN, Seljukian dynasty of, vii. 167.
KHALIL, sultan, takes Acre, vii. 276.
KHAN or Cagan, meaning of that
term, iii. 301, iv. 44; all lineal de-
scendants from Zingis, iii. 301; or-
thography of the title, viii. 2, note S.
KHEDER KHAN, his magnificence and
liberality, vii. 166, note.
KILIDJE ARSLAN, sultan of Roum, de-
stroys the vanguard of the first cru-
saders, vii. 194; confounded with
Soliman by Gibbon, ib. and note M.;
retires from Nice, 211; defeated at
Dorylaeum, 213; evacuates Roun,
214.
KINDRED, civil degrees of among the
Romans, v. 307.
KING, Hannibalianus the only Roman
prince so called, ii. 355 and 356,
mote M.
KIow, origin of that city, vii. 84 and
note.
KIPzAk conquered by the Mongols.
viii. 14; position of, ib. note.
KLAPROTH, theory respecting Amazons,
ii. 27, note M.
KNIGHTHood, origin of, vii. 200; cere-
monies and duties of, ib.; arms of
the knight, 201.
KNoLLEs, character of his History of
the Turks, viii. 22, note.
KoBAD, grandson of the Persian king,
commands the Persians in Italy
under Narses, v. 231 (v. Cabades).
KoRAN, the, how composed, vi. 227;
publication and editions of, 228;
style, ib.
KoREIshitFs, Arabian tribe of, vi. 201;
acquire the custody of the Caaba,
212; origin of the, 216, note S.;
oppose Mahomet, 240; subdued by
him, 253.
KUSSAI, v. Cosa.

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known, ib. note; disuse of, 13; motto
of, ib.; Cyril of Jerusalem's surprising
ignorance of, 66, note; Julian erases
the name of Christ from the, 153.
LABEo, Antistius, his voluminous legal
works, v. 275; nature of his legal
tenets, 278; founder of a legal sect,
279.
LACTANTIUs accuses Diocletian of
timidity, ii. 64; vindicated, 107,
note G.; whether author of the
treatise De Mortibus Persecutorum,
ib. note S. (v. Cacilius); his notion
of an Asiatic empire, 175, note M.;
preceptor of Crispus, 350; date of
his “Institutions,” iii. 1, note; ac-
count of Constantine's conversion, 2.;
exhortations to, 7; character of his
Christianity, 18 and note; purity of
his worship, 432; imitated the
method of the civilians in his Insti-
tutes, v. 288, note; his opinion on
image worship, vi. 134, note.
LACTARIUS, mount, its medicinal bene-
fits, v. 236 and note; defeat and
death of Teias at, ib.
LADIES, Roman, their Christian ardour,
iii. 253.
LADISLAUs, king of Poland and Hun-
gary, undertakes a crusade against
the Turks, viii. 129; violates the
treaty with, 130; second expedition
against, 131; defeat and death at
Varna, 132.
LADISLAUs, king of Naples, plunders
Rome, viii. 253; supposed title of
king of Rome, 254 and note.
LETA, widow of the emperor Gratian,
relieves the indigent Romans during
the siege of Alaric, iv. 90.
LAETI, Gallic tribe, iv. 234 and note.
LAETUs, praetorian praefect, conspires
against Commodus, i. 233.
LAITY and clergy, distinction between
established, ii. 197.
LAMPADIUS, Roman senator, opposes
the demands of Alaric, iv. 59.
LANCE, holy, legend of the, vii. 220.
LANDLORD and tenant, Roman law of,
v. 313 and note.
LANDs, conquered, how divided by the
barbarians, iv. 371; allodial and
Salic, 373; nature of the latter, ib.
and note M.
LAND TAx, provincial, i. 302, note S.;
method of raising, ii. 337, note S.;
called capitatio, ib,

LAW.

LANFRANC, archbishop of Canterbury,
corrected the Bibles, iv. 335, note.
LaodicKA, its ancient splendour, i. 187;
ruins of, viii. 24.
LAPLANDERs, their consanguinity with
the Hungarians, vii. 72 and note S.;
ignorance of war, 73 and note.
LASCARIs, Theodore, son-in-law of
Alexius Angelus, defends Constanti-
nople against the Latins, vii. 303;
becomes emperor of Nice, 326;
reign, 358.
LASCARIs, Theodore II., son of John
Wataces, emperor of Nice, his cha-
racter and reign, vii. 360; death,
362.
LASCARIs, John, grandson of Wataces,
emperor of Nice, blinded and ban-
ished by Michael Palaeologus, vii.
369.
LASCARIs, James, Greek grammarian,
account of, viii. 114 and note, 117.
LATHAM, Dr., his hypothesis respect-
ing the Goths, i. 375, note S.; re-
specting the Saxons, iii. 263, note S.
LATIN Christians, moderation and igno-
rance of, iii. 61; indisposed to
Arianism, 62; entrapped by Valens
and Ursacius, ib.
LATIN Fathers and Classics, Greek
versions of, vii. 347 and note.
LATIN language in Britain, i. 174,
note M.; debased by pride and
flattery, ii. 304; corruption of in
Gaul, iv. 381; date of its gradual
oblivion, vii. 37; language of govern-
ment in the Eastern empire, ib.
LATINs, name of the Franks, vii. 38;
massacre of, at Constantinople, 284 ;
contrasted with the Greeks and
Arabians, 347; how improved by
the crusades, ib.; disdained the
learning of the Greeks and Arabians,
ib.; progress of learning among the,
viii. 116.
LATIUM, right of, explained, i. 173.
LATRONIAN, a poet, put to death for
Priscillianism, iii. 374.
LAURA, circle of solitary cells round
eastern monasteries, iv. 319.
LAURE DE Noves, mistress of Petrarch,
history of, viii. 225 and notes.
LAw, study and profession of, ii. 317;
books of, quantity of in fourth cen-
tury, 318, note; Roman or civil, in
what countries adopted, v. 257,
note; modern writers on, ib, nota

LAWYERS.

W.; laws of the kings, 259; best
notice of the fragments of, 260, note
S.; twelve tables, 261; gradual ac-
cumulation of laws, 263; laws of
the people, 264; decrees of the
senate, 265; had the force of laws
before the time of the emperors, ib.
note W.; edicts of the praetors and
other magistrates, 265 and note W.;
perpetual edict of Hadrian, 267;
modifications of Gibbon's account,
268, notes W.; constitutions of the
emperors, ib.; legal fictions respect-
ing the legislative power of the
emperors, 269; their rescripts, 270;
Gregorian, Hermogenian, and Theo-
dosian codes, 271; authorities for
the Roman law at the commence-
ment of the fifth century, ib. note S.;
pantomimic forms of, 272; not to
be regarded as unimportant, 273,
note W.; origin and succession of
the civil lawyers, 273; first and
second period, 274; third period,
275; authority, 277; legal sects,
278; reforms of Justinian, 280; de-
struction of legal works, 286; review
of the Institutes of Justinian, 289,
sqq.; judgments of the people, 324;
select judges, 325; assessors, ib.;
Byzantine, account of its sources, vii.
44, note S.; best histories of, ib., p. 45.
LAwYERs, later Roman, degraded cha-
racter of, ii. 318; how esteemed by
the barbarians, iv. 203 and note.
LAYMEN, how far invested with a
sacerdotal character, ii. 193 and
note M.
LAZ1, tribe of, occupy Colchis, and
give it the name of Lazica, v. 198;
dependent on the Persians, 199;
conversion to Christianity, ib.; alli-
ance with the emperor Justin, ib.;
oppressed by the Romans, ib.; revolt
to the Persians, 200; repentance, ib.;
assisted by the Romans against
Chosroes, 202.
LEAKE, Col., his edition of the Edict
of Diocletian, ii. 97, note M.; his
opinion as to the site of Dodona, v.
228, note S.
LEANDER, archbishop of Seville, assists
the rebellion of his orthodox convert
prince Hermenegild, iv. 338.
LEARNING, Greek, revival of, vii. 39;
in Italy, viii. 105-107; writers on,
ib. note; second revival under Ma-

LEO.

nuel Chrysoloras, 111 ; restorers
of in the fifteenth century, 113;
their faults and merits, 114; vicious
pronunciation, ib. and note; emula-
tion of the Latins, 116; ancient, use
and abuse of, 118.
LE BEAU, his theory of the origin of
the story of Belisarius’ beggary, v.
247, note S.
LEBEDIAs refuses the sceptre of Hun-
gary, vii. 71.
LE CLERC, his character as an ecclesi-
astical historian, vi. 2, note.
LEGACIEs and inheritances, clergy ex-
cluded from, by a law of Walentinian
I., iii. 253 and 254, note S.
LEGACY DUTY introduced by Augustus,
i. 299; confined to property be-
queathed by Roman citizens, ib. '
note S.; exemptions, ib.; suited Ro-
man manners, 300; doubled by Ca-
racalla, 302.
LEGACY HUNTERs, i. 300, iv. 82.
“LEGIBUs solutus,” how to be inter-
preted as applied to the emperors,
v. 269 and note S.
LEGION, Roman, how composed and
levied, i. 146, 148; arms, 149; con-
trasted with the phalanx, 150;
march and evolutions, 153; number
of men in, ib.; revolt of the under
Alex. Severus, 291; pay, origin of,
294; Niebuhr's opinion, ib. note S.;
reduction in the size of the, ii. 322.
LEGISLATION of Constantine, ii. 142;
Roman, unity of in the Eastern and
Western empires dissolved, iv. 174
and note.
LEKHs, or Lygii, ancestors of the Poles,
ii. 44, note S. .
LENFANT, M., character of his history
of the councils of Pisa, Constance.
and Basil, viii. 256, note.
LEO of Thrace, or the Great, steward
of Aspar, elected emperor of the
East, iv. 279; the first Christian
prince crowned by a priest, ib., ; ex-
traordinary scene with his former
master, ib. ; introduces Isaurian
troops into Constantinople, ib.;
makes Anthemius emperor of the
West, 280 ; sends an armament
against the Vandals, 284; its cost
and magnitude, ib.; approves the
nomination of Olybrius as emperor of
the West, 292; murders Aspar and
his sons, v. 3.

LEO.

LEo III., the Isaurian, emperor of Con-
. stantinople vi 81; genealogy of his
dynasty, ib. note S.; his birth, name,
early history, and reign, 82; born
at Germanicia, ib. note S.; his pro-
ceedings for the abolition of images,
141; insolent epistles of pope Gregory
II. to, 146; revolt of Italy from,
148; publishes a Greek Manual of
law, vii. 44, note S.
LEo IV., emperor of Constantinople,
v. 84.
LEO W., the Armenian, emperor of
Constantinople, vi. 89; assassinated
by Michael II., 90.
LEo VI., the Philosopher, emperor of
Constantinople, vi. 99 ; his claim to
the former title, 100; violates his
own laws by a fourth marriage with
Zoe, 101; establishes absolutism at
Constantinople, vii. 26; coronation
oath, ib.; encouraged learning, 42.
LEo, appointed general in Asia by
Eutropius, iv. 145; character, ib.
Leo the Great, bishop of Rome, em-
bassy to Attila from Valentinian III.,
iv. 245; assisted by the apparition
of St. Peter and St. Paul, 246; me-
diates with Genseric, 256; calls the
council of Chalcedon, vi. 26; his
epistle on the incarnation subscribed
by the Oriental bishops, 27; ap-
proved by the council of Chalcedon,
29

LEo III., pope, attempted assassination
of, vi. 168; miraculous restoration
of his eyes and tongue, ib.; visits
Charlemagne at Paderborn, ib. ;
crowns him in St. Peter's, 169; his
conduct in the dispute respecting the
procession of the Holy Ghost, vii.
279 and notes.
LEo IV., pope, his character and reign,
vi. 410; victory over the Saracens,
411; founds Leopolis and the Leo-
nine city, 412.
LEo IX., pope, his character, vii. 108;
alliance with the emperors of the
East and West against the Normans,
ib. ; expedition against them, ib. ;
defeat and captivity, 109.
LEo the Jew, family of, at Rome, viii.
219; his grandson becomes pope,
with the title of Anacletus, 220.
LEo AFRICANUs, account of, vi. 343,

note.
Lzo, archbishop of Thessalonica, head

LIBANIUS.
of the Casar Bardas' College at Mag-

naura, vii. 40.
LEO PILATUs, first professor of the
Greck language at Florence and in
the West, viii. 110; his person, cha-
racter, and learning, ib.; death, 111.
LEONARD ARETIN, pupil of Manuel
Chrysoloras, viii. 112; history of,
ib. note.
LEONAs, the Quaestor, embassy from
Constantius to Julian, iii. 112.
LEoNTIUs rebels against Justinian II.
and ascends the throne, vi. 77 ; de-
throned and mutilated by Apsimar,
78; executed by Justinian, 79.
LEoPolis and the Leonine city founded
by pope Leo IV., vi. 412.
LEovigild, Gothic and Arian king of
Spain, character, iv. 337; puts to
death his orthodox and rebellious son
Hermenegild, 339.
LETHE, castles on the Bosphorus, so
called, ii. 289, note.
LETI, Gregorio, character of his Life of
Pope Sixtus W., viii. 265, note and
mote M.
LETTERs, when introduced into Europe,
i. 161 ; Gibbon's opinion corrected,
ib. note S.
LEUDERIs, Gothic commander in Rome,
v. 135; refuses to fly before Beli-
sarius, 136; sent with the keys of
Rome to Belisarius, ib.
LEUTETIA, or Leucetia, ancient name
of Paris, ii. 425 and note.
LEVIEs, difficulty of, ii. 323.
LEwis the Pious, emperor of the West,
vi. 177; empire divided among his
sons, 178.
LEwis II., son of Lewis the Pious, ob-
tains the kingdom of Italy, vi. 178;
letter to the Byzantines respecting
the title of emperor, 181; his epistle
to Basil the Macedonian, vii. 97.
LEwis of Bavaria, emperor, elected
senator of Rome, viii. 205; endea-
vours to restore the popular election
of popes, 213; deposes John XXII.,
pope of Avignon, ib. and notes.
LEwis of Hungary, appeals to Rienzi,
the Roman tribune, against Jane,
queen of Naples, viii. 236.
LIBANIUS, the Sophist, his account of
Julian's eloquence, iii. 132; praises
Julian's hypocrisy, 145; account of,
185; his writings secretly studied
by Julian, ib.; literary character, 186

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and notes ; remarks on Jovian's
treaty with Sapor, 220; funeral ora-
tion on Valens and his army, 337;
patronised by Theodosius, 425; re-
mark concerning Chrysostom, iv.151.
LIBELs, how punished among the Ro-
mans, v. 317 and note.
LIBER PoWTIFICALIs, the, by whom and
when eomposed, vi. 146, note.
LIBERIUs, bishop of Rome, supports
Athanasius against Constantius II.,
iii. 80; banished, ib.; purchases his
return by compliances, ib. and 90.
LubERIUs, praetorian praefect of Theo-
doric the Great, v. 19; commands
an expedition for the relief of Sicily,
229; superseded by Artaban, ib.
LIBURNIAN galleys, i. 154.
LicINIUs saved by Tiridates, ii. 79;
probable age, ib. note; invested with
the purple by Galerius, 119; divides
the empire with Maximin, 122;
alliance with Constantine, 135; war
with Maximin, ib.; defeats him,
136; cruelty, ib.; foments a con-
spiracy against Constantine, 139;
defeated at Cibalis by Constantine,
140; again at Mardia, 141; treaty
with Constantine, ib.; is attacked
by Constantine, 145; defeated at
Hadrianople, 147; retires to Byzan-
tium, ib.; his fleet destroyed, 148;
defeated at Chrysopolis, 149; sub-
mission and death, ib.; counteracted
the edict of Milan, iii. 9; vision of
an angel, 14.
LicINIUs the Younger made Caesar, ii.
142.
LICINITIs, son of Constantia, put to
death by his uncle Constantine, ii.
352.
LIEUTENANTs, imperial, their office and
rank, i. 200.
I.IGHTNING, superstition respecting
things struck with, ii. 56 and note;
knowledge of the ancients respecting
the conducting of, iv. 91 and 92,
note M.
Lignitz, battle of between the Mongols
and Germans, viii. 114.
LIKENESs of the Son, how explained by
three Arian sects, iii. 59, sq.
LILIUs, ambassador from Phocas to
Chosroes, King of Persia, v. 390.
LILYsARUM resigned to the Vandals by
the Goths, v. 125; by whom built,
ib. note; claimed by Belisarius, ib.

LOMBARDS.

LIMIGANTES, Sarmatian slaves so
called, insurrection of, ii. 362; sub-
dued by Constantius II., 402; their
interview with Constantius, 403;
attempt to seize him, ib.; are totally
extinguished by the Romans, 404.
LINEN, unknown at Rome, iv. 76.
LITERATURE, diffusion of, i. 194; not
incompatible with arms, 402; de-
cline of under Diocletian, ii. 104 (v.
Learning).
LITHUANIA, late conversion of from
idolatry, vi. 94.
LitoRIUs, Count, relieves Narbonne,
besieged by Theodoric, iv. 225; de-
feated and captured by the Goths in
an attempt on Toulouse, it .
LITTUs SAxonicum, what, iii. 264, note
S.; extent of in Britain, iv. 388
note S.; why so called, ib.
LITURGY, Roman, modelled by pope
Gregory the Great, v. 359.
LIUTPRAND, king of the Lombards, his
obedience to pope Gregory II., and
devotion at the tomb of St. Peter, vi.
153; declares himself the champion
of images, ib.; enters Ravenna, ib.;
expelled by the Venetians, ib.
LIUTPRAND, bishop of Cremona, his
contempt for the Byzantine Romans,
vi. 151 and note M.; his embassy to
Constantinople, vii. 4, 21.
LocusTs, probably the ancient harpies,
ii. 288, note.
Logos, the Platonic, iii. 46; how ap-
plied by the Alexandrian Jews, 47;
revealed by St. John, ib.; confes-
sion of Athanasius respecting, 50
opinions of the Christians respecting,
51; of Arius, 54; of the Gregories,
Cyril, and others, 55; represented
by the sun, 141.
Logo.THETE, officer of the Byzantine
emperors, his functions, vii. 19.
LoLLIANUs, competitor of Posthumous,
medals of, ii. 18, note.
LoMBARDs of ITALY converted to the
Nicene faith, iv. 341; date, ib. note;
or Longobards, invited by Justinian
into Noricum and Pannonia, v. 165;
etymology of their name, ib. and
note S.; situation of, ib. note; origin,
166 and note ; migrations, ib., fero-
city, ib.; subdue the Gepidae, 167 ;
conquer a great part of 1taly, 337 ;
their numbers, language, and man-
ners, 349; exact a third of agricul-

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