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JUSTINIAN.
b. ; disgraces Belisarius on suspicion
of treason, 246 ; death and character,
248; physical phenomena during his
reign, 249 ; his civil jurisprudence,
257 ; compilation of his Code, 282;
of the Digest or Pandects, 283; of
the Institutes, ib.; legal inconstancy,
287; second edition of the Code, ib. ;
Novels, 288; charge of venality, ib.;
abuses of jurisprudence under, 327 ;
his religious character and govern-
ment, vi. 34 ; affected the name of
Pious, 35; his persecutions, 36;
held the slaughter of unbelievers not
to be murder, 38; his orthodoxy, ib.;
heresy, 40; translation of his Code
and Pandects into Greek, vii. 37 and
note; discovery of his corpse by the
crusaders, 316 ; colossus of at Con-

stantinople, viii. 122 and note.
JUSTINIAN II., tyrannous reign of, vi.

77 ; deposed and mutilated, ib.;
exile, 78; restoration, 79; assassi-

nated, 80.
JUSTINIAN, son of Germanus, conspires

with the empress Sophia against
Tiberius II., v. 343; discovered and
pardoned, 344; successes against the

Persians, ib.
JUSTINIAN, Roman advocate, confidant

of Stilicho, iv. 60.
JUSTINIAN, Roman general, successful

Campaign against Nushirvan, 7. 366.
JUSTINIANA PRIMA, city of, founded

by Justinian at Tauresium, v. 79.
JUSTINIANI, John, a Genoese noble,

assists in the defence of Constan-
tinople, viii. 156; wound and flight,

170 and notes M. and S.
Justus, the apostate Paulician, slays

his master Constantine, vii. 51.
JUTES invade Britain under Hengist,

iv. 388.
JUVENAL, his sisteenth satire when

composed, i. 259, note ; his works
much read by the Roman nobles, iv.
81 ; complaints respecting the dwell-
ings at Rome, 88.

LABARUM.
KEBLA of prayer, Mahometan, what, vi.

232 and note S.
KENRK, conquests of, in western Bri-

tain, iv. 390.
KERAITES, account of that nation, viii.

3, note S.
KERBOGA, prince of Mosul, besieges the

Crusaders in Antioch, vii. 218; de-

feated, ib.
KERMAN, Seljukian dynasty of, vii. 167.
KHALIL, sultan, takes Acre, vii. 276.
KHAN or Cagan, meaning of that

term, iii. 301, iv. 44; all lineal de-
scendants from Zingis, iii. 301 ; or-

thography of the title, viii. 2, note S.
KHEDER KHAN, his magnificence and

liberality, vii. 166, note.
KILIDJE ARSLAN, sultan of Roum, de-

stroys the vanguard of the first cru.
saders, vii. 194; confounded with
Soliman by Gibbon, ib, and note M.;
retircs from Nice, 211 ; defeated at
Dorylæum, 213; evacuates Roun,

214.
KINDRED, civil degrees of among the

Romans, v. 307.
KING, Hannibalianus the only Roman

prince so called, ii. 355 and 356,

note M.
Kiow, origin of that city, vii. 84 and

note.
KIPZAK conquered by the Mongols,

viii. 14; position of, ib. note.
KLAPROTH, theory respecting Amazons,

ii. 27, note M.
KNIGHTHOOD, origin of, vii. 200; cere-

monies and duties of, ib.; arms of
the knight, 201.
KNOLLES, character of his History of

the Turks, viii. 22, note.
KOBAD, grandson of the Persian king,

commands the Persians in Italy

under Narses, v. 231 (v. Cabades).
KORAN, the, how composed, vi. 227;

publication and editions of, 228;
style, ib.
KOREISHITES, Arabian tribe of, vi. 201 ;

acquire the custody of the Cazba,
212; origin of the, 216, note S.;
oppose Mahomet, 240; subdued by

him, 253.
Kussai, v. Cosa.

K.

L.

Kaori, emperor of China, defcated by

the Huns, ii. 309.
KASIGAR, Chinese garrison at, ii. 80.
KEATING, Dr., his History of Ireland, i.

353, note,
VOL VIII.

LABARUM, or standard of the Cross, iii

11; described, 12; etymology un.

accuses

LABEO.

LAW.
known, ib. note ; disuse of, 13; motto LANFRANC, archbishop of Canterbury,
of, ib. ; Cyril of Jerusalem's surprising corrected tho Bibles, iv. 335, note.
ignorance of, 66, note ; Julian erases LAODICEA, its ancient splendour, i. 187;

the name of Christ from the, 153. ruins of, viii. 24.
Labeo, Antistius, his voluminous legal | LAPLANDERS, their consanguinity with

works, v. 275; nature of his legal the Hungarians, vii. 72 and note S.;
tenets, 278; founder of a legal sect, ignorance of war, 73 and note.
279.

LASCARIS, Theodore, son-in-law of
LACTANTIUS

Diocletian of Alexius Angelus, defends Constanti-
timidity, ii. 64; vindicated, 107, nople against the Latins, vii. 303;
note G.; whether author of the becomes emperor of Nice, 326;
treatise De Mortibus Persecutorum, reign, 358.
ib, note S. (v. Cæcilius); his notion LASCARIS, Theodore II., son of John
of an Asiatic empire, 175, note M. ; Vataces, emperor of Nice, his cha-
preceptor of Crispus, 350; date of racter and reign, vii. 360; death,
his Institutions, iii. 1, note; ac-

362.
count of Constantine's conversion, 2; LASCARIS, Johın, grandson of Vataces,
exhortations to, 7; character of his emperor of Nice, blinded and ban-
Christianity, 18 and note; purity of ished by Michael Palæologus, vii.
his worship, 432; imitated the 369.
method of the civilians in his Insti LASCARIS, James, Greek grammarian,
tutes, v. 288, note; his opinion on account of, viii. 114 and note, 117.
image worship, vi. 134, note.

LATHAM, Dr., his hypothesis respect-
LACTARIUS, mount, its medicinal bene ing the Goths, i. 375, note S.; re-

fits, v. 236 and note; defeat and specting the Saxons, iii. 263, note S.
death of Teias at, ib.

Latin Christians, moderation and igno-
LADIES, Roman, their Christian ardour, rance of, iii. 61; indisposed to
ii. 253.

Arianism, 62; entrapped by Valens
LADISLAUS, king of Poland and Hun and Ursacius, ib.

gary, undertakes a crusade against LATIN Fathers and Classics, Greek
the Turks, viii. 129; violates the versions of, vii. 347 and note.
treaty with, 130; second expedition LATIN language in Britain, i. 174,
against, 131 ; defeat and death at note M.; debased by pride and
Varna, 132.

flattery, ii. 304; corruption of in
LADISLAUS, king of Naples, plunders Gaul, iv. 381; date of its gradual
Rome, viii

. 253 : supposed title of oblivion, vii. 37; language of govern-
king of Rome, 254 and note.

ment in the Eastern empire, ib.
LÆTA, widow of the emperor Gratian, LATINS, name of the Franks, vii. 38;

relieves the indigent Romans during massacre of, at Constantinople, 284;
the siege of Alaric, iv. 90.

contrasted with the Greeks and
LÆTI, Gallic tribe, iv. 234 and note. Arabians, 347; how improved by
LÆTUS, prætorian præfect, conspires the crusades, ib.; disdained the
against Commodus, i. 233.

learning of the Greeks and Arabians,
LAITY and clergy, distinction between ib.; progress of learning among the,
established, ii. 197.

viii. 116.
LAMPADIUS, Roman senator, opposes LATIUM, right of, explained, i. 173.

the demands of Alaric, iv. 59. LATRONIAN, a poet, put to death for
LANCE, holy, legend of the, vii. 220. Priscillianism, iii. 374.
LANDLORD and tenant, Roman law of, LAURA, circle of solitary cells round
v. 313 and note.

eastern monasteries, iv. 319.
LANDS, conquered, how divided by the LAURE DE NOVES, mistress of Petrarch,

barbarians, iv. 371; allodial and history of, viii. 225 and notes.
Salic, 373; nature of the latter, ib. Law, study and profession of, ii. 317;
an] note M.

books of, quantity of in fourth ceno
LAND TAX, provincial, i. 302, note S.; tury, 318, note ; Roman or civil, in
method of raising, ii. 337, note S.;

what countries adopted, v. 257,
called capitatio, ib.

note; modern writers on, ib, noto

LEO.
nuel Chrysoloras, 111; restorers
of in the fifteenth century, 113;
their faults and merits, 114; vicious
pronunciation, ib. and note; emula-
tion of the Latins, 116; ancient, use

and abuse of, 118.
LE BEAU, his theory of the origin of

the story of Belisarius' beggary, v.

247, note S.
LEBEDIAS refuses the sceptre of Hun-

gary, vii. 71.

LAWYERS.
W.; laws of the kings, 259; best
notice of the fragments of, 260, note
S.; twelve tables, 261; gradual ac-
cumulation of laws, 263 ; laws of
the people, 264; decrees of the
senate, 265; had the force of laws
before the time of the emperors, ib.
note W.; edicts of the prætors and
other magistrates, 265 and note W.;
perpetual edict of Hadrian, 267;
modifications of Gibbon's account,
268, notes W.; constitutions of the
emperors, ib.; legal fictions respect-
ing the legislative power of the
emperors, 269; their rescripts, 270;
Gregorian, Hermogenian, and Theo-
dosian codes, 271; authorities for
the Roman law at the commence-
ment of the fifth century, ib. note S.;
pantomimic forms of, 272; not to
be regarded as unimportant, 273,
note W.; origin and succession of
the civil lawyers, 273; first and
second period, 274 ; third period,
275; authority, 277 ; legal sects,
278; reforms of Justinian, 280; de-
struction of legal works, 286 ; review
of the Institutes of Justinian, 289,
899. ; judgments of the people, 324;
select judges, 325; assessors, ib.;
Byzantine, account of its sources, vii.

44, note S.; best histories of, ib., p. 45.
LAWYERS, later Roman, degraded cha-

racter of, ii. 318; how esteemed by

the barbarians, iv. 203 and note.
LAYMEN, how far invested with a

sacerdotal character, ii. 193 and

note M.
Lazi, tribe of, occupy Colchis, and

give it the name of Lazica, v. 198;
dependent on the Persians, 199;
conversion to Christianity, ib.; alli-
ance with the emperor Justin, ib.;
oppressed by the Romans, ib. ; revolt
to the Persians, 200; repentance, ib. ;
assisted by the Romans against

Chosroes, 202.
LEAKE, Col., his edition of the Edict

of Diocletian, ii. 97, note M.; his
opinion as to the site of Dodona, v.

228, note S.
LEANDER, archbishop of Seville, assists

the rebellion of his orthodox convert

prince Hermenegild, iv. 338.
LEARNING, Greek, revival of, vii. 39;

in Italy, viii. 105-107; writers on,
ib, note; second revival under Ma-

LE CLERC, his character as an ecclesi-

astical historian, vi. 2, note.
LEGACIES and inheritances, clergy ex-

cluded from, by a law of Valentinian

I., iii. 253 and 254, note S.
LEGACY DUTY introduced by Augustus,

i. 299; confined to property be-
queathed by Roman citizens, ib.'
note S.; exemptions, ib.; suited Ro-
man manners, 300; doubled by Ca-

racalla, 302.
LEGACY HUNTERS, i. 300, iv. 82.
“ LEGIBUS SOLUTUS,” how to be inter-

preted as applied to the emperors,

v. 269 and note S.
LEGION, Roman, how composed and

levied, i. 146, 148; arms, 149; con-
trasted with the phalanx, 150;
march and evolutions, 153; number
of men in, ib. ; revolt of the under
Alex. Severus, 291; pay, origin of,
294 ; Niebuhr's opinion, ib. note S.;

reduction in the size of the, ii. 322.
LEGISLATION of Constantine, ii. 142 ;

Roman, unity of in the Eastern and
Western empires dissolved, iv. 174

and note.
LEKHS, or Lygii, ancestors of the Poles,

ii. 44, note S.
LENFANT, M., character of his history

of the councils of Pisa, Constance,

and Basil, viii. 256, note.
LEO of Thrace, or the Great, steward

of Aspar, elected emperor of the
East, iv. 279; the first Christian
prince crowned by a priest, ib. ; ex-
traordinary scene with his former
master, ib. ; introduces Isaurian
troops into Constantinople, ib.;
makes Anthemius emperor of the
West, 280; sends an armament
against the Vandals, 284 ; its cost
and magnitude, ib.; approves the
nomination of Olybrius as emperor of
the West, 292 ; murders Aspar and
his sons, v. 3.

LEO.

1. 84.

LIBANIOS.
LEO III., the Isaurian, emperor of Con of the Cæsar Bardas’ College at Mage
.stantinople vi 81; genealogy of his

naura, vii. 40.
dynasty, ib. note S. ; his birth, name, LEO PILATUS, first professor of the
early history, and reign, 82; born Greck language at Florence and in
at Germanicia, ib. note S.; his pro the West, viii. 110; his person, cha-
ceedings for the abolition of images, racter, and learning, ib. ; death, 111.
141; insolent epistles of pope Gregory LEONARD ARETIx, pupil of Manuel
II. to, 146; revolt of Italy from, Chrysoloras, viii. 112 ; history of,
148; publishes a Greek Manual of

ib. note.
law, vii. 44, note S.

LEONAS, the Quæstor, embassy from
LEO IV., emperor of Constantinople, Constantius to Julian, iii. 112.

LEONTIUS rebels against Justinian II.
LEO V., the Armenian, emperor of and ascends the throne, vi. 77 ; de-

Constantinople, vi. 89; assassinated throned and mutilated by Apsimar,
by Michael II., 90.

78; executed by Justinian, 79.
LEO VI., the Philosopher, emperor of LEOPOLIS and the Leonine city founded

Constantinople, vi. 99; his claim to by pope Leo IV., vi. 412.
the former title, 100; violates his LEOVIGILD, Gothic and Arian king of
own laws by a fourth marriage with Spain, character, iv. 337; puts to
Zoe, 101; establishes absolutism at death his orthodox and rebellious son
Constantinople, vii. 26 ; coronation Hermenegild, 339.

oath, ib.; encouraged learning, 42. LETHE, castles on the Bosphorus, so
Leo, appointed general in Asia by called, ii. 289, note.

Eutropius, iv. 145 ; character, ib. LETI, Gregorio, character of his Life of
LEO the Great, bishop of Rome, em Pope Sixtus V., viii. 265, note and

bassy to Attila from Valentinian III., note M.
iv. 245; assisted by the apparition | LETTERS, when introduced into Europe,
of St. Peter and St. Paul, 246; me i. 161 ; Gibbon's opinion corrected,
diates with Genseric, 256 ; calls the ib, note S.
council of Chalcedon, vi. 26 ; his LEUDERIS, Gothic commander in Rome,
epistle on the incarnation subscribed v. 135 ; refuses to fly before Beli-
by the Oriental bishops, 27; ap sarius, 136 ; sent with the keys of
proved by the council of Chalceden, Rome to Belisarius, ib.
29.

LEUTETIA, or Leucetia, ancient name
LEO III., pope, attempted assassination of Paris, ii. 425 and note.

of, vi. 168 ; miraculous restoration LEVIES, difficulty of, ii. 323.
of his eyes and tongue, ib. ; visits LEWIS the Pious, emperor of the West,
Charlemagne at Paderborn, ib.; vi. 177; empire divided among his
crowns him in St. Peter's, 169; his
conduct in the dispute respecting the LEWIS II., son of Lewis the Pious, ob-
procession of the Holy Ghost, vii. tains the kingdom of Italy, vi. 178;
279 and notes.

letter to the Byzantines respecting
LEO IV., pope, his character and reign, the title of emperor, 181; his epistle

vi. 410; victory over the Saracens, to Basil the Macedonian, vii. 97.
411; founds Leopolis and the Leo LEWIS of Bavaria, emperor, elected
nine city, 412.

senator of Rome, viii. 205 ; endea-
LEO IX., pope, his character, vii. 108; vours to restore the popular election

alliance with the emperors of the of popes, 213; deposes John XXII.,
East and West against the Normans, pope of Avignon, ib, and notes.
ib. ; expedition against them, ib.; LEWIS of Hungary, appeals to Rienzi,
defeat and captivity, 109.

the Roman tribune, against Jane,
LEO the Jew, family of, at Rome, viii. queen of Naples, viii. 236.

219; his grandson becomes pope, LIBANIUS, the Sophist, his account of

with the title of Anacletus, 220. Julian's eloquence, iii. 132 ; praises
LEO AFRICANUS, account of, vi. 343, Julian's hypocrisy, 145; account of,
note.

185; his writings secretly studied
LEI), archbishop of Thessalonica, head by Julian, ib.; literary character, 186

sons, 178.

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LIBELS.
and notes ; remarks on Jovian's
treaty with Sapor, 220; funeral ora-
tion on Valens and his army, 337 ;
patronised by Thcodosius, 425; re-

mark concerning Chrysostom, iv, 151.
LIBELS, how punished among the Ro-

mans, v. 317 and note.
LIBER PONTIFICALIS, the, by whom and

when composed, vi. 146, note.
LIBERIUS, bishop of Rome, supports

Athanasius against Constantius II.,
iii. 80; banished, ib. ; purchases his

return by compliances, ib. and 90.
LIBERIUS, prætorian præfect of Theo-

doric the Great, v. 19; commands
an expedition for the relief of Sicily,

229; superseded by Artaban, ib.
LIBURNIAN galleys, i. 154.
LICINIUS saved by Tiridates, ii. 79;

probable age, ib. note ; invested with
the purple by Galerius, 119; divides
the empire with Maximin, 122;
alliance with Constantine, 135; war
with Maximin, ib.; defeats him,
136; cruelty, ib.; foments a con-
spiracy against Constantine, 139;
defeated at Cibalis by Constantine,
140; again at Mardia, 141 ; treaty
with Constantine, ib. ; is attacked
by Constantine, 145; defeated at
Hadrianople, 147; retires to Byzan-
tium, ib.; his fleet destroyed, 148;
defeated at Chrysopolis, 149; sub-
mission and death, ib.; counteracted
the edict of Milan, iii. 9; vision of

an angel, 14.
LICINIUS the Younger made Cæsar, ii.

142.
LICINIUS, son of Constantia, put to

death by his uncle Constantine, ii.

352.
LIEUTENANTS, imperial, their office and

rank, i. 200.
LIGHTNING, superstition respecting

things struck with, ii. 56 and note ;
knowledge of the ancients respecting
the conducting of, iv. 91 and 92,

note M.
Lignitz, battle of between the Mongols

and Gerinans, viii. 114.
LIXENESS of the Son, how explained by

three Arian sects, iii. 59, sq.
Lilius, ambassador from Phocas to

Chosroes, King of Persia, v. 390.
LILYBRUM resigned to the Vandals by

thu Goths, v. 125 ; by whom built,
ib, note; claimed by Belisarius, ib.

LOMBARDS.
LIMIGANTES,

Sarmatian slaves
called, insurrection of, ii. 362 ; sub-
dued by Constantius II., 402 ; their
interview with Constantius, 403;
attempt to seize him, ib. ; are totally

extinguished by the Romans, 404.
LINEN, unknown at Rome, iv. 76.
LITERATURE, diffusion of, i. 194 ; not

incompatible with arms, 402 ; de-
cline of under Diocletian, ii. 104 (v.

Learning).
LITHUANIA, late conversion of from

idolatry, vi. 94.
LITORIUS, Count, relieves Narbonne,

besieged by Theodoric, iv. 225; de-
feated and captured by the Goths in

an attempt on Toulouse, it.
LITTUS SAXONICUM, what, iii. 264, note

S.; extent of in Britain, iv. 388

note S. ; why so called, ib.
LITURGY, Roman, modelled by pone

Gregory the Great, v. 359.
LIUTPRAND, king of the Lombards, his

obedience to pope Gregory II., and
devotion at the tomb of St. Peter, vi.
153; declares himself the champion
of images, ib.; enters Ravenna, ib. ;

expelled by the Venetians, ib.
LIUTPRAND, bishop of Cremona, his

contempt for the Byzantine Romans,
vi. 151 and note M.; his embassy to

Constantinople, vii. 4, 21.
Locusts, probably the ancient harpies,

ii. 288, note.
Logos, the Platonic, iii. 46; how ap-

plied by the Alexandrian Jews, 47;
revealed by St. John, ib. ; confes-
sion of Athanasius respecting, 50 •
opinions of the Christians respecting,
51 ; of Arius, 54 ; of the Gregories,
Cyril, and others, 55; represented

by the sun, 141.
LOGOTAETE, officer of the Byzantine

emperors, his functions, vii. 19.
LOLLIANUS, competitor of Posthumi,

medals of, ii. 18, note.
LOMBARDS of Italy converted to the

Nicene faith, iv. 341; date, ib. note ;
or Longobards, invited by Justinian
into Noricum and Pannonia, v. 165;
etymology of their name, ib. and
note S. ; situation of, ib. note ; origin,
166 and note ; migrations, ib. ; fero-
city, ib.; subdue the Gepidæ, 167;
conquer a great part of Italy, 337;
their numbers, language, and man-
ners, 349 ; exact a third of agricul.

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