tural produce, 351 and note S.;
their dress, 352; monarchy elective,
353; government, 354; laws, il.

and note S.
LOMBARDY, ancient, described, i. 157;

ravaged by Attila, iv. 241; founda-
tion of the kingdom of by Alboin, v.
337; oppressed by a ducal aristo-
cracy after the death of Clepho, 341;
extent of the kingdom of, 349; its
destruction by Charlemagne, vi. 156;
Greek province of, its limits, and

government, vii. 98.
London, Roman treasury at, under

Constantine, . 329, note; descrip-
tion of, by Chalcocondyles, the Greek

historian, viii. 88 and note.
LONGINUS, his character, i. 195, note ;

tutor of Zenobia, ii. 20; betrayed by

her, 26; heroic death, ib.
LONGINUS appointed to supersede

Narses as exarch of Ravenna, v.

LORIA, Roger de, Catalan admiral,

destroys the French fleet, vii. 380.
LOTHAIRE I., emperor of the West, his

dominions, vi. 178.
LOTHAIRE, Duke of the Alemanni, in-

vades Italy with his brother Bucelin,
v. 237 ; ravages Apulia and Cala-
bria, 238; return and death, 231;
defeat of a body of his troops, ib.

note M.
LOUIS VII. of France delivered from

the Greeks by the Sicilian admiral
George, vii. 136 ; undertakes the se-
cond crusade, 239; interview with
the Emperor Manuel, 243; march
through Anatolia, 244 and note S.;

narrow escape of, 245 and note S.
Louis IX., or St., established by the

French Parliament as founder of
the royal line, vii. 354 and note ;
crusades of, 271; character, ib.;
takes Damietta, 272; captured by
the Saracens, 273; ransom, ib. ; un-
dertakes the seventh crusade, 274;

expedition to Tunis and death, ib.
Louis XVI, offended by a passage in

Gibbon's History, iv. 407, note S.

(Louis, v. Lewis).
LUBLIN, city of destroyed by the Mon-

gols, viii. 14.
Lucan, character of Cæsar, i. 253, note.
Lucas Notaras, great duke of Con-

stantinople, his reception by Mahomet
II., viii. 177 ; executed, 178.

Lucca, siege of by Narses, v. 237.
Lucian, count of the East, put to death

by Rufinus, iv. 6.
Lucian attacks paganism, i. 167; ori-

ginality of that writer, 195.
Lucian, presbyter of Jerusalem, dis-

covers in a vision the body of St.

Stephen, iii. 429.
LUCILIANUS, count, intrepid defence of

Nisibis, ii. 372; Constantius' gene-
ral in Illyricum, surprised and made
prisoner by Julian, iii. 117; ap-
pointed by Jovian to Gaul and Illy-

ricum, 231; massacred at Rheims, ib.
LUCILLA attempts the assassination of

her brother Commodus, i. 224.
LUCILLA, a wealthy matron, purchases

the bishopric of Carthage for Majori-

nus, ii, 262, note.
Lucius II., pope, killed in a riot at

Rome, viii. 193.
Lucius III., pope, insulted by the Ro-

mans, viii. 193.
Lucius succeeds Athanasius in the

throne of Alexandria, iii. 251; worth-

less character and persecutions, ib.
LUCRINE lake described, iv. 79 and

LUCULLUS, villa of in Campania, his-

tory of, iv. 300.
Luden's History of the Germans, i.

355, note M.
LUGDUNENSIS GALLIA, province, i. 156.
LUGDUNUM, or Lyons, colony of, i.

LUKE, St., his body transported to

Constantinople, iii. 427; probably a

physician, vi. 138.
LUPERCALIA, festival described, iv. 282;

celebrated under the reign of Anthe-
mius, ib.; abolished by pope Gela-

sius, 283.
LUPICINUS, general of the cavalry,

ordered into Britain, iii. 105; im-
prisoned, 110; marches against Pro-

copius, 241.
LUPICINUS, Valens' commander in

Thrace, oppresses the Gothic emi-
grants, 323; provokes them to hosti-
lities at Marcianopolis, 325 ; de-

feated by them, 326.
LUPUS, St. saves Troyes from the

Huns, iv. 231.
LUBATIA, Vandals in, v. 121.
LUSITANIA, province of Spain, i. 155.

so called, ii. 342.


LOTHER, furious spirit of, iv, 109 ; his MACRINU8, Opilius, i. 273 ; .the empire

doctrine of the Èucharist, vii. 59. predicted to him, 274; election and
LUXURY, beneficial effects of, i. 191. character, 275; the first emperor not
LYCHNIDUS, or ACHRIDA, capital of of senatorial rank, 276; origin, ib.
Bulgaria, vii. 64 and note.

note; reforms the army, 277; de.
Lycia degraded by Rufinus, minister feat and death, 259.

of Theodosius, from the rank of a Madayn (or Ctesiphon), taken and
Roman province, iv. 4.

sacked by the Saracens, vi. 294 ;
Lycus, river, ii. 289.

date, ib. note S.; ruin of, 295 (v.
Lydus, his character of Anastasius, v. Ctesiphon).

63, note M.; his life, 64, note M. ; Madras, shrine of St. Thomas near, vi.
character of John of Cappadocia, 69,

note M.

MÆONIUS assassinates his uncle Ocena-
LYGIANS driven from Gaul by Probus, thus, ii, 21; put to death by Zeno-

ii. 44 ; identical with the Lekhs, ib., bia, ib.
note S.

MAFFEI, his "Verona Illustrata,' i.
Lyons, battle of between Severus and 172, note.

Albinus, i. 255; reduced by Aure Magi, council of, i. 333; power of,
lian, ii. 19; martyrs of, 211, note ; 337 ; doctrine, whence derived, ib.;
229, note ; 245, note; date of, 257, superintended education, 338; in
note M.; council of, receives the sub tolerance, ib.; predictions concerning
mission of the Greek church, vii. 273. the birth of Sapor, ii. 366 ; multi-

tude of the, iii. 30, note ; Persian,

take refuge in Arabia, vi. 215; fall

of the, 367; remnant of the, 369 and

MACARIUS, patriarch of Antioch, con Magian religion reformed, i. 332 ; its

demned of heresy, vi. 43; a zealous simple worship, 335; whether idola-
Monothelite, 56.

trous, ib. note S.
MACEDONIA, maid of Antonina, wife of Magic, i. 251 and note M.; studied by

Belisarius, accuses her mistress of Severus, 262; whence named, 338;
alultery, v. 158 ; put to death, ib. inquisition into under Valentinian
MACEDONIA described, i. 159 ; pedigree and Valens, iii. 242; almost extin-

of the kings of, iii. 132 and note. guished heathen philosophy, ib. note
MACEDONIANS, sect of condemned at M.; ancient belief in described, 243;

the council of Constantinople, iii. two sorts, Theurgic and Goetic, ib.
370; Gregory's serinon against, ib. note; rigour and extent of the inqui-

sition into, 344.
MACEDONIUS, semi - Arian bishop of MAGISTRACIES, civil, abolished, ii.

Constantinople, his contest with Paul, 93.
iii. 90; installed by force, 91; his MAGISTRATES, Roman, their religious
turbulent reign, ib. sq.; crueltics, policy, i. 168; situation of under
92; persecutes the Novatians, 33. the empire, 204 ; their humanity
MACEPRACTA, town of, iii. 194; mean towards the Christians, ii. 244.
ing of the name, ib., note M.

MAGNAURA, the Cæsar Bardas' school
MACKINTOSH, Sir James, his opinion on

at, vii. 40.
Gibbon's 15th chapter, ii. 151, note

MAGNENTIUS saluted emperor in Gaul,
M.; opinion of Gibbon's 16th chap ii. 375; compared with Leicester, ib.
ter, ii. 220, note.

note ; puts Constans to death, 376;
MACPHERSON'S Ossian, its authenticity assumes the purple, ib.; campaign
questioned, i. 266 and note M.

against Constantius II., 380; in-
MACRIANUS, prætorian præfect under solent message to, ib. ; defeated at

Valeriar, weak and fatal counsels of, Mursa, 382 ; flight, ib.; forced to
i. 404.

retire from Italy, 383; victory near
MACRIANUS, prince of the Alemanni, Pavia, ib.; oppressions in Gaụl, 384 ;

his alliance with Valentinian I., iii. last defeat and death, 385.

Magnus, death of that senator, i. 30%.

252 ;

Magyars of Hungary, of the Ugrian

race, iii. 303, note S. ; national and
Oriental denomination of the Hun-
garians, rii. 70 and 72, note S.
MAHADI, or the Guide, last of the

twelve Persian Imams, belief of his
reappearance, vi. 280.
MAHADIA, capital of the Zeirides, taken

by the Normans, vii. 135.
MAHMUD, the Gaznevide, pedigree of,

vii. 147; expeditions into Hindostan,
ib.; destroys the idol in the pagoda
of Sumnat, 149; character and anec-

dotes of, ib.
MAHOMET the Prophet adopted the

legend of the Seven Sleepers, iv. 190 ;
his prediction on the rejection of his
summons by Chosroes II., v. 395 and
note M. ; ancestors of, their princely
dignity, vi. 205; birth and education,
216 ; genealogy, ib. and notes M. and
S.; mcaning of his name (Moham-
med), 217, note S. and 227, note ;
date of his birth, ib. and note, and
218, note S.; an orphan, ib.; his
patrimony, ib, and note S.; marries
Cadijah, ib.; assumes the title of
Prophet, 219; personal appearance,
ib. and note S.; mental qualities,
220 ; question of his illiterateness,
ib. and note S. ; travels, 221 ; soli.
tary contemplation, 222 ; summary
of his crced, ib.; held the Unity of
God, 223; and predestination, 224 ;
Gibbon's view of his tenets examined
and modified, ib. note S.; the last
of the prophets, 225; ac used the
Jews and Christians of corrupting
the Scriptures, 227 ; appropriated
the promise of the Paraclete, ib.;
composes the Koran, ib.; miracles,
229; journey beyond the seventh
heaven, 230; miracle of the moon,
ib. and note ; precepts, 231; ritual,
232 ; an enemy of asceticism, 233 ;
inculcatcd charity, ib.; doctrine of
the Resurrection, 234; hell and
paradise, ib.; converts his family,
237; preaches at Mecca, ib.; ma-
terials for his Life, ib, note and note
S.; emigrations of his proselytes
to Abyssinia, 240 and note S.; per-
sonal danger, 241 and note S.; flies
from the conspiracy of Abu Sophian
and the Koreishites, 242 ; arrives at
Medina, ib. ; received as prince, 243;
his rogal and sacerdotal dignity, 244;

declares war against unbelievers, 245;
his military character, 246 and 248,
note S.; defensive wars against the
Koreish, 247; battle of Beder, 248 ;
his conduct at, ib, and note S.; battle
of Ohud, 249 ; wounded, 250 and
notes S.; batile of the Nations or
Ditch, ib.; expeditions to Mecca,

waives his title of Apostle, 253
and note S.; submission of Mecca,
ib. ; Mahomet's clemency, 254 ; in-
stalled Prince and Prophet at Mecca,
ib. ; battle of Honain, 255; besieges
Tayef, ib.; his presents to Abu
Sophian and the Koreishites, 256 ;
submission of Arabia, 257; number
of Moslems at his last pilgrimage,
ib. and note S.; intercourse with
Heraclius, ib. ; war with the Roman
empire, ib.; expedition of Tabuc,
258, 259, note S.; tolerates the
Christians, 259; epileptic fits, ib.
and 260, note S.; suspicion of poison,
260; humility, ib. ; question as to
his ability to write, ib. and note S.;
death, 261 ; tomb, 262 and notes ;
date of his death, ib. note S. ; cha-
racter, 262; story of his tame pigeon,
263 note ; account of his physical
temperament, 264, note S. ; domestic
life, 265; wives, 266 ; incontinence,
267; children, 268; choice of his
successor, 270; causes of the success
and permanency of his religion, 282;

merit towards his country, 283.
MAHOMET I., son of Bajazet, character

and reign, vii. 68.
Mahomet II., Sultan, strengthened the

castles on the Bosphorus, ii. 288;
his character, viii. 143 ; learning, ib.
and 144, note M. ; reign, 145 ; mur-
ders his brothers, ib.; preparations
for the siege of Constantinople, 147;
builds a fortress on the Bosphorus,
148; levies a tribute on its naviga-
tion, 150; builds the palace of Jehan
Numa at Adrianople, ib.; his great
cannon, 152 and note M. ; invests
Constantinople, 154 ; forces, 155 ;
artillery, 159; attack, 160; defeat
of his navy, 162; transports hie
ships overland, 164; parallel feats,
ib, notes ; general assault, 168; and
capture of the city, 171 ; brutality
of Mahomet, 174 ; enters Constan-
tinople, 176; behaviour to the
Greeks, 177 ; repeoples and adoras


Constantinople, 178;

secures the

conquests and empire, ib. ; patronizes
Greeks in their lives, liberties, and learning, 166 ; reforms the calendar,
religion, 179; death, 185.

ib. ; death, 167.
MAHOMETANISM, its spirit of toleration, MALLIUS, prætorian præfect, Claudian's

vi. 366; propagation, 367 ; eulogium epigram on, iv. 64.
of, ib.

Malta, conquered by Roger, king o..
MAHOMETANS, their detestation of Sicily, vii. 134.

image worship, vi. 139 and note G. MALTHUS on the population of Ger-
Mahon, Lord, his ‘Life of Belisarius,' many, iii. 260, note G.

v. 99, note S.; his opinion on the MAMÆA, mother of Alexander Severus,
beggary of Belisarius examined, 247, i. 278; sole regent, 285; power,
note S.

286 ; wise administration, ib. ; coun-
MAINFROY, king of Naples and Sicily, cil, ib.; pride and avarice, 293 ;

defeated and slain at Benevento by murdered, 308; her interview with
Charles of Anjou, vii. 376.

Origen, ii. 259.
MAINOTES, or Eleuthero-Laconians, vii. MAMALUKES, their origin and esta-

10; their adherence to idolatry, ib. blishment in Europe, vii. 252;
MAJESTAS, crime of, i. 219 and notes. murder Touran Shaw, sultan of
Majo, great admiral of Sicily, con Egypt, 273; their project of elect-

spires against William I., vii. 141. ing Louis IX. for their sultan,
MAJORCA and neighbouring isles, an ib. note, and note S.; their two

appendix of the African kingdom, v. dynasties, 274 ; repulse the Mongols

from Egypt, viii. 13.
MAJORIAN, character of, iv. 265 ; origin Mamas, St., monument of at Cæsarea

and services, 266 ; elected emperor, erected by Gallus and Julian, iii.
ib.; noble epistle to the senate, ib.; 137; miracle in its construction, ib.
salutary laws, 267 89.; checks the note.
demolition of the public monuments, MAMERTINUS, the panegyrist, a minister
270 ; repels an invasion of the Van of Julian, iii. 126; consul, 130.
dals, 271; collects an army of bar Mango, the Scythian, ii. 80 and
barians, ib.; reunites Gaul and note M.
Spain, 272; constructs a navy, ib.; Man compared with the hog, i. 352,
it is surprised and destroyed at note.
Carthagena by Genserio, 273; Ri MANCIPIUM, meaning of that term in
cimer excites the barbarians against the Roman law explained, v. 304

him, 274 ; abdication and death, ib. and notes.
MAJORINUS, controversy with Cæcilian, MANDARINS, Chinese, superstition of,
iii. 43.

vi. 49.
MALABAR, Nestorian Christians of per MANDRACIUM, suburb of Carthage re-

secuted by the Portuguese, vi. 52. stored by Belisarius, v. 110.
Malala, the historian, age of, v. 39, MANES, his death, i. 339 note, and
note and note M.

note M.; origin of his heresy, iii. 42,
MALARICH declines Jovian's appoint note.

ment to Gaul and Illyricum, iii. MANIACES, Greek governor of Lom-

bardy, reduces the Saracens in Sicily,
MALATERRA, his character of the Nor vii. 105.
mans, vii. 106.

MENIACH, prince of the Sogdoites, am-
MALAZKERD besieged by Romanus Dio bassador from the Turks to Justin II.,
genes, vii. 159.

v. 178 and note.
MALDIVES, islands described, iii. 25, MANICHRANS, their heresy made capital

by Theodosius, iii. 373.
MALEK RODOSACES annoys Julian's MANUEL COMNENUS, emperor of Con-

march, üi. 194 ; a king, not emir, ib. stantinople, vi. 120; his martial
note M.

prowess, 121 ; inconsistent character,
MALEK SHAH, son of the sultan Alp 122; repulses the Normans, vii. 137;

Arslan, defeats his competitors for reduces Apulia and Calabria, 138;
the throne, vii. 164; character, 165; attempts to recover the Western

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Empire, ib.; failure of his designs, Marcian, nominally marries the etn.
139; peace with the Normans, 140; press Pulcheria and is acknowledged
his character, 242 ; violates his en emperor, iv. 161, 219; origin and cha-
gagements with the crusaders, ib. racter, ib.; temperately refuses the
MANUEL, Roman general at the battle demands of Attila, 220; ratifies the
of the Jermik, fate of, vi. 319.

election of Avitus to the Western em-
MANUFACTURERS, Roman, i. 191.

pire, 260; death, 278.
MANUMISSION, tax on, i. 295, note S.; MARCIANOPOLIS besieged by the Goths,

limited by the Caninian law, ii. 37, i. 382 ; quarrel between the Goths

and Romanis at, iii. 325 ; Romans de-
MANUSCRIPTS, ancient, destruction of feated at by Attila, iv. 200.

in the sack of Constantinople by the MARCIONITES, sect of, ii. 164, and note.
Turks, viii. 176.

MARCOMANNI, subdued by M. Anto-
MAOGAMALCHA, fortress of, besieged ninus, i. 370; site of, ib. note; &

and destroyed by Julian, ii. 197. general name=Marchmen, ib. note S.
MARBLE, varieties of, i. 311 and note. MARCOMANNIC war, how occasioned, i
MARCELLINUS, count of the sacred lar 380, note,

gesses, assists Magnentius's designs MARCOMIR, Frankish king banished by
on the empire, ii. 375; his ambas Stilicho, iv. 51.
sador to Constantius, 377; killed Marcus, bishop of the Nazarenes, ii. 159.
at Mursa, 385.

MARCUS elected emperor by the British
MARCELLINUS, son of Maximin, ob legions, iv. 54; murdered, ib.

tains the government of Valeria, iii. MARDAITES, Maronites of Mount Li
287 ; oppresses the Quadi, ib.; trea banus so called, vi. 56, and note M.
cheruusly murders their king Ga MARDAVIGE, the Dilemite, last of the
binius, ib.

Magians, vi. 369, note.
MARCELLINUS, Roman general, friend Mardia, battle of between Constantine

of Aëtius, maintains in Dalmatia his and Licinius, ii. 141.
independence during the sway of MARDONIU8 the eunuch, Julian's pre-
Ricimer, iv, 275; acknowledges and ceptor, iii, 136, note.
assists Anthemius, 283; expels the MÂREB, i. 138, note S.
Vandals from Sardinia, 284 ; joins Margus, battle of between Carinus
the expedition of Basiliscus, 285 ; and Diocletian, ii. 63; site of, ib.
assassinated, 286.

notes ; treaty of violated by the Huns,
MARCELLUS the centurion, martyrdom iv. 199; town of betrayed to them
of, ii. 267.

by its bishop, 200; battle of between
MARCELLUS, general of the cavalry, Theodoric the Ostrogoth and the

dismissed at the instance of Julian, Roman general Sabinian, v. 16.
ii. 415; his son executed by the Maria, daughter of Eudamon the
latter, iïi. 129.

Carthaginian, story of, iv. 187.
MARCELLUS, bishop of Rome, exiled, MARIA, widow of Manuel Comnenus,
ii, 277.

put to death by Andronicus, vi. 129.
MARCELLUS, bishop of Apamea, crusade MARIABA, or Merab, i. 138, note; means

against the pagan temples, iii. 415; “metropolis,” ib. S.; said to be de-
slain, ib.

stroyed by the legions of Augustus,
MARCELLUS of Ancyra, his Sabellian vi. 200, and note S.
opinions, iii, 58.

Mariana, his description of the inva-
MARCELLUS, conspiracy of against Jus sion of Spain by the barbarians, iv.
tinian, and suicide, v. 245.

124; character of his History of
March, Spanish, instituted by Charle Spain, vi. 354, note.
magne, vi. 174.

MARINUS, & subaltern, elected emperor
Marcia, concubine of Commodus, i. by the Mæsian legions, i. 373; mur-

229; conspires against him, 233 ; a dered, 374.
patroness of the Christians, ii, 257; MARIUs, one of the Thirty Tyrants, i.

had been actually converted, ib.notes. 410,
MARCIAN conspires against Galliecus, Marius reignis in Gaul by the infinenco
ii. 2.

of Victoria, ii. 18.

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