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tural produce, 351 and note S.;
their dress, 352; monarchy elective,
303; government, 354; laws, il.
and note S.
LoMBARDY, ancient, described, i. 157;
ravaged by Attila, iv. 241; founda-
tion of the kingdom of by Alboin, v.
337; oppressed by a ducal aristo-
cracy after the death of Clepho, 341;
extent of the kingdom of, 349; its
destruction by Charlemagne, vi. 156;
Greek province of, its limits, and
government, vii. 98.
LoNDoN, Roman treasury at, under
Constantine, ii. 329, note; descrip-
tion of, by Chalcocondyles, the Greek
historian, viii. 88 and note.
LoNGINUs, his character, i. 195, mote;
tutor of Zenobia, ii. 20; betrayed by
her, 26; heroic death, ib.
LoNGINUs appointed to supersede
Narses as exarch of Ravenna, v.
LoRIA, Roger de, Catalan admiral,
destroys the French fleet, vii. 380.
Lotharitr I., emperor of the West, his
dominions, vi. 178.
LothaiBE, Duke of the Alemanni, in-
vades Italy with his brother Bucelin,
v. 237; ravages Apulia and Cala-
bria, 238; return and death, 239;
defeat of a body of his troops, ib.
note M.
Louis VII. of France delivered from
the Greeks by the Sicilian admiral
George, vii. 136; undertakes the se-
cond crusade, 239; interview with
the Emperor Manuel, 243; march
through Anatolia, 244 and note S.;
narrow escape of, 245 and note S.
Louis IX., or St., established by the
French Parliament as founder of
the royal line, vii. 354 and note ;
crusades of, 271; character, ib.;
takes Damietta, 272; captured by
the Saracens, 273; ransom, ib.; un-
dertakes the seventh crusade, 274;
expedition to Tunis and death, ib.
Louis XVI, offended by a passage in
Gibbon's History, iv. 407, note S.
(Louis, v. Lewis).
LUBLIN, city of destroyed by the Mon-
gols, viii. 14.
LUCAN, character of Caesar, i. 253, note.
Lucas NoTARAs, great duke of Con-
stantinople, his reception by Mahomet
II., viii. 177; executed, 178.


Lucca, siege of by Narses, v. 237.
LuciaN, count of the East, put to death
by Rufinus, iv. 6.
LUCLAN attacks paganism, i. 167; ori-
ginality of that writer, 195.
LUCLAN, presbyter of Jerusalem, dis-
covers in a vision the body of St.
Stephen, iii. 429.
LUCILIANUs, count, intrepid defence of
Nisibis, ii. 372; Constantius' gene-
ral in Illyricum, surprised and made
prisoner by Julian, iii. 117; ap-
pointed by Jovian to Gaul and Illy-
ricum, 231; massacred at Rheims, ib.
LUCILLA attempts the assassination of
her brother Commodus, i. 224.
LUCILLA, a wealthy matron, purchases
the bishopric of Carthage for Major-
nus, ii. 262, note.
LUCIUs II., pope, killed in a riot at
Rome, viii. 193.
LUCIUs III., pope, insulted by the Ro-
mans, viii. 193.
LUCIUs succeeds Athanasius in the
throne of Alexandria, iii.251; worth-
less character and persecutions, ib.
LUCRINE lake described, iv. 79 and
LUCULLUs, villa of in Campania, his-
tory of, iv. 300.
LUDEN's History of the Germans, i.
355, mote M.
LUGDUNENSIs GALLIA, province, i. 156.
LUGDUNUM, or LYoNs, colony of, i.
LUKE, St., his body transported to
Constantinople, iii. 427; probably a
physician, vi. 138.
LUPERCALIA, festival described, iv.282;
celebrated under the reign of Anthe-
mius, ib.; abolished by pope Gela-
sius, 283.
LUPICINUs, general of the cavalry,
ordered into Britain, iii. 105; im-
prisoned, 110; marches against Pro-
copius, 241.
LUPiciNUs, Valens' commander in
Thrace, oppresses the Gothic emi-
grants, 323; provokes them to hosti-
lities at Marcianopolis, 325; de-
feated by them, 326.
LUPUs, St., saves Troyes from the
Huns, iv. 231.
LUSATIA, Vandals in, v. 121.
LUSITANIA, province of Spain, i. 155.
LUSTRAL contRIBUTION, tax on industry
so called, ii. 342.


LUTHER, furious spirit of, iv. 109; his
doctrine of the Eucharist, vii. 59.
LUxURY, beneficial effects of, i. 191.
LYCHNIDUs, or ACHRIDA, capital of
Bulgaria, vii. 64 and note.
LYCIA degraded by Rufinus, minister
of Theodosius, from the rank of a
Roman province, iv. 4.
Lycus, river, ii. 289.
LYDUs, his character of Anastasius, v.
63, note M.; his life, 64, note M.;
character of John of Cappadocia, 69,
note M.
Lygians driven from Gaul by Probus,
ii. 44; identical with the Lekhs, ib.,
mote S.
Lyons, battle of between Severus and
Albinus, i. 255; reduced by Aure-
lian, ii. 19; martyrs of, 211, note;
229, note ; 245, note; date of, 257,
note M.; council of, receives the sub-
mission of the Greek church, vii. 273.


MacARIUs, patriarch of Antioch, con-
demned of heresy, vi. 43; a zealous
Monothelite, 56.
MACEDONIA, maid of Antonina, wife of
Belisarius, accuses her mistress of
adultery, v. 158; put to death, ib.
MACEDONIA described, i. 159; pedigree
of the kings of, iii. 132 and note.
MACEDONIANs, sect of condemned at
the council of Constantinople, iii.
370; Gregory's sermon against, ib.
, note.
MACEDONIUs, semi-Arian bishop of
Constantinople, his contest with Paul,
iii. 90; installed by force, 91; his
turbulent reign, ib. sq.; crueltics,
92; persecutes the Novatians, 93.
MACEPRACTA, town of, iii. 194; mean-
ing of the name, ib., note M.
MACKINTosh, Sir James, his opinion on
Gibbon's 15th chapter, ii. 151, note
M.; opinion of Gibbon's 16th chap-
ter, ii. 220, note.
MACPHERSON's OssiaN, its authenticity
questioned, i. 266 and note M.
MACRIANUs, praetorian praefect under
Valerian, weak and fatal counsels of,
i. 404.
MACRLANUs, prince of the Alemanni,
. alliance with Walentinian I., iii.

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MACRINUs, Opilius, i. 273; the empire
predicted to him, 274; election and
character, 275; the first emperor not
of senatorial rank, 276; origin, ib.
note; reforms the army, 277; de-
feat and death, 259.
MADAYN (or Ctesiphon), taken and
sacked by the Saracens, vi. 294;
date, ib. note S.; ruin of 295 (v.
Ctesiphon). -
MADRAs, shrine of St. Thomas near, vi.
51. -
MAEONIUs assassinates his uncle Odena-
thus, ii. 21; put to death by Zeno-
bia, ib.
MAFFEI, his ‘Verona Illustrata,’ i.
172, note.
MAGI, council of, i. 333; power of,
337; doctrine, whence derived, ib.;
superintended education, 338; in-
tolerance, ib.; predictions concerning
the birth of Sapor, ii. 366; multi-
tude of the, iii. 30, note; Persian,
take refuge in Arabia, vi. 215; fall
of the, 367; remnant of the, 369 and
MAGIAN religion reformed, i. 332; its
simple worship, 335; whether idola-
trous, ib. note S.
MAGIC, i. 251 and note M.; studied by
Severus, 262; whence named, 338;
inquisition into under Valentinian
and Valens, iii. 242; almost extin-
guished heathen philosophy, ib. note
M.; ancient belief in described, 243;
two sorts, Theurgic and Goetic, ib.
note; rigour and extent of the inqui-
sition into, 344.
MAGISTRACIES, civil, abolished, ii.
MAGISTRATEs, Roman, their religious
policy, i. 168; situation of under
the empire, 204; their humanity
towards the Christians, ii. 244.
MAGNAURA, the Caesar Bardas' school
at, vii. 40.
MAGNENTIUs saluted emperor in Gaul,
ii. 375; compared with Leicester, ib.
note; puts Constans to death, 370 ;
assumes the purple, ib.; campaign
against Constantius II., 380; in-
solent message to, ib.; defeated at
Mursa, 382; flight, ib.; forced to
retire from Italy, 383; victory near
Pavia, ib.; oppressions in Gaul, 384;
last defeat and death, 385.
MAGNUs, death of that senator, i. 300,


MAGYARs of Hungary, of the Ugrian
race, iii. 303, note S.; national and
Oriental denomination of the Hun-
garians, vii. 70 and 72, note S.
MAHADI, or the Guide, last of the
twelve Persian Imams, belief of his
reappearance, vi. 280.
MAHADIA, capital of the Zeirides, taken
by the Normans, vii. 135.
MAHMUD, the Gaznevide, pedigree of,
vii. 147; expeditions into Hindostan,
ib.; destroys the idol in the pagoda
of Sumnat, 149; character and anec-
dotes of, ib.
MAHoMET the Prophet adopted the
legend of the Seven Sleepers, iv. 190;
his prediction on the rejection of his
summons by Chosroes II., v. 395 and
note M.; ancestors of, their princely
dignity, vi. 205; birth and education,
216; genealogy, ib. and notes M. and
S.; meaning of his name (Moham-
med), 217, note S. and 227, note;
date of his birth, ib. and note, and
218, note S.; an orphan, ib.; his
patrimony, ib. and note S. ; marries
Cadijah, ib.; assumes the title of
Prophet, 219; personal appearance,
ib. and note S.; mental qualities,
220; question of his illiterateness,
ib, and note S.; travels, 221; soli-
tary contemplation, 222; summary
of his creed, ib.; held the Unity of
God, 223; and predestination, 224;
Gibbon's view of his tenets examined
and modified, ib. note S.; the last
of the prophets, 225; accused the
Jews and Christians of corrupting
the Scriptures, 227 ; appropriated
the promise of the Paraclete, ib.;
composes the Koran, ib.; miracles,
229; journey beyond the seventh
heaven, 230; miracle of the moon,
ib. and note; precepts, 231; ritual,
232; an enemy of asceticism, 233;
inculcated charity, ib.; doctrine of
the Resurrection, 234; hell and
paradise, ib.; converts his family,
237; preaches at Mecca, ib.; ma-
terials for his Life, ib. note and note
S.; emigrations of his proselytes
to Abyssinia, 240 and note S.; per-
sonal danger, 241 and note S.; flies
from the conspiracy of Abu Sophian
and the Koreishites, 242; arrives at
Medina, ib.; received as prince, 243;
his regal and sacerdotal dignity, 244;


declares war against unbelievers, 245;
his military character, 246 and 248,
note S.; defensive wars against the
Koreish, 247; battle of Beder, 248 ;
his conduct at, ib. and note S.; battle
of Ohud, 249 ; wounded, 250 and
notes S.; battle of the Nations or
Ditch, ib.; expeditions to Mecca,
252; waives his title of Apostle, 253
and mote S.; submission of Mecca,
ib.; Mahomet's clemency, 254; in-
stalled Prince and Prophet at Mecca,
ib.; battle of Honain, 255; besieges
Tayef, ib.; his presents to Abu
Sophian and the Koreishites, 256 ;
submission of Arabia, 257; number
of Moslems at his last pilgrimage,
ib. and note S.; intercourse with
Heraclius, ib.; war with the Roman
empire, ib.; expedition of Tabuc,
258, 259, note S.; tolerates the
Christians, 259; epileptic fits, ib.
and 260, note S.; suspicion of poison,
260; humility, ib.; question as to
his ability to write, ib. and note S.;
death, 261; tomb, 262 and notes;
date of his death, ib. note S.; cha-
racter, 262; story of his tame pigeon,
263 note; account of his physical
temperament, 264, note S.; domestic
life, 265; wives, 266; incontinence,
267; children, 268; choice of his
successor, 270; causes of the success
and permanency of his religion, 282;
merit towards his country, 283.
MAHoMET I., son of Bajazet, character
and reign, vii. 68.
MAHoMET II., Sultan, strengthened the
castles on the Bosphorus, ii. 288 ;
his character, viii. 143; learning, ib.
and 144, note M. ; reign, 145; mur-
ders his brothers, ib.; preparations
for the siege of Constantinople, 147;
builds a fortress on the Bosphorus,
148; levies a tribute on its naviga-
tion, 150; builds the palace of Jehan
Numa at Adrianople, ib.; his great
cannon, 152 and note M.; invests
Constantinople, 154; forces, 155;
artillery, 159; attack, 160; defeat
of his navy, 162; transports his
ships overland, 164; parallel feats,
ib. notes ; general assault, 168; and
capture of the city, 171; brutality
of Mahomet, 174; enters Constan-
tinople, 176; behaviour to the
Greeks, 177; repeoples and adorns

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Constantinople, 178; secures the
Greeks in their lives, liberties, and
religion, 179; death, 185.
MAHoMETANISM, its spirit of toleration,
vi. 366; propagation, 367; eulogium
of, ib.
MAHOMETANs, their detestation of
image worship, vi. 139 and note G.
MAhoN, Lord, his ‘Life of Belisarius,’
v. 99, note S.; his opinion on the
beggary of Belisarius examined, 247,
note S.
MAINFRoy, king of Naples and Sicily,
defeated and slain at Benevento by
Charles of Anjou, vii. 376.
MAINOTEs, or Eleuthero-Laconians, vii.
10; their adherence to idolatry, ib.
MAJESTAs, crime of, i. 219 and notes.
MAJo, great admiral of Sicily, con-
spires against William I., vii. 141.
MAJORCA and neighbouring isles, an
appendix of the African kingdom, v.
MAJoRIAN, character of, iv. 265; origin
and services, 266; elected emperor,
ib.; noble epistle to the senate, ib.;
salutary laws, 267 sq.; checks the
demolition of the public monuments,
270; repels an invasion of the Wan-
dals, 271; collects an army of bar-
barians, ib.; reunites Gaul and
Spain, 272; constructs a navy, ib.;
it is surprised and destroyed at

Carthagena by Genseric, 273; Ri- t
cimer excites the barbarians against

him, 274; abdication and death, ib.
MAJoBINUs, controversy with Caecilian,
iii. 43.
MALABAR, Nestorian Christians of per-
secuted by the Portuguese, vi. 52.
MALALA, the historian, age of, v. 39,
note and note M.
MALARICH declines Jovian's appoint-
ment to Gaul and Illyricum, iii.
MALATERRA, his character of the Nor-
mans, vii. 106.
MALAzKERD besieged by Romanus Dio-
genes, vii. 159.
MALDIVES, islands described, iii. 25,
MALEK RodosacEs annoys Julian's
march, iii. 194; a king, not emir, ib.
note M.
MALEK SHAH, son of the sultan Alp
Arslan, defeats his competitors for
the throne, vii. 164; character, 165;


conquests and empire, ib. ; patronizes
learning, 166; reforms the calendar,
ib.; death, 167.
MALLIUS, praetorian praefect, Claudian's
epigram on, iv. 64.
MALTA, conquered by Roger, king of
Sicily, vii. 134.
MALTHUs on the population of Ger-
many, iii. 260, note G.
MAMAEA, mother of Alexander Severus,
i. 278; sole regent, 285; power,
286; wise administration, ib.; coun-
cil, ib.; pride and avarice, 293;
murdered, 308; her interview with
Origen, ii. 259. -
MAMALUKES, their origin and esta-
blishment in Europe, vii. 252;
murder Touran Shaw, sultan of
Egypt, 273; their project of elect-
ing Louis IX. for their sultan,
ib. note, and note S.; their two
dynasties, 274; repulse the Mongols
from Egypt, viii. 13.
MAMAs, St., monument of at Caesarea
erected by Gallus and Julian, iii.
137; miracle in its construction, ib.
MAMERTINUs, the panegyrist, a minister
of Julian, iii. 126; consul, 130.
MAMGo, the Scythian, ii. 80 and
note M.
MAN compared with the hog, i. 352,
MANCIPIUM, meaning of that term in
the Roman law explained, v. 304
and notes.
MANDARINs, Chinese, superstition of,
vi. 49.
MANDRACIUM, suburb of Carthage re-
stored by Belisarius, v. 110.
MANES, his death, i. 339 mote, and
note M.; origin of his heresy, iii. 42,
MANIACEs, Greek governor of Lom-
bardy, reduces the Saracensin Sicily,
vii. 105.
MENIACH, prince of the Sogdoites, am-
bassador from the Turks to Justin II.,
v. 178 and note.
MANICHAEANs, their heresy made capital
by Theodosius, iii. 373.
MANUEL CoMNENUs, emperor of Con-
stantinople, vi. 120; his martial
prowess, 121; inconsistent character,
122; repulses the Normans, vii. 137;
reduces Apulia and Calabria, 138;
attempts to recover the Western



Empire, ib.; failure of his designs,
139; peace with the Normans, 140;
his character, 242; violates his en-
gagements with the crusaders, ib.
MANUEL, Roman general at the battle
of the Jermuk, fate of, vi. 319.
MANUFACTURERs, Roman, i. 191.
MANUMISSION, tax on, i. 295, note S.;
limited by the Caninian law, ii. 37,
MANUSCRIPTs, ancient, destruction of
in the sack of Constantinople by the
Turks, viii. 176.
MAOGAMALCHA, fortress of, besieged
and destroyed by Julian, iii. 197.
MARBLE, varieties of, i. 311 and note.
MARCELLINUs, count of the sacred lar-
gesses, assists Magnentius's designs
on the empire, ii. 375; his ambas-
sador to Constantius, 377; killed
at Mursa, 385.
MARCELLINUs, son of Maximin, ob-
tains the government of Waleria, iii.
287; oppresses the Quadi, ib.; trea-
cherously murders their king Ga-
binius, ib.
MARCELLINUs, Roman general, friend
of Aëtius, maintains in Dalmatia his
independence during the sway of
Ricimer, iv. 275; acknowledges and
assists Anthemius, 283; expels the
Vandals from Sardinia, 284; joins
the expedition of Basiliscus, 285;
assassinated, 286.
MARCELLUs the centurion, martyrdom
of, ii. 267.
MARCELLUs, general of the cavalry,
dismissed at the instance of Julian,
ii. 415; his son executed by the
latter, iii. 129.
MARCELLUs, bishop of Rome, exiled,
ii. 277.
MARCELLUs, bishop of Apamea, crusade
against the pagan temples, iii. 415;
slain, ib.
MARCELLUs of Ancyra, his Sabellian
opinions, iii. 58.
MARCELLUs, conspiracy of against Jus-
tinian, and suicide, v. 245.
MARCH, Spanish, instituted by Charle-
magne, vi. 174.
MARCIA, concubine of Commodus, i.
229; conspires against him, 233; a
troness of the Christians, ii. 257;
#. been actually converted, ib.noteS.
MARCIAN conspires against Gallienus,
ii. 2.


MARCIAN, nominally marries the em.
press Pulcheria and is acknowledged
emperor, iv. 161,219; origin and cha-
racter, ib.; temperately refuses the
demands of Attila, 220; ratifies the
election of Avitus to the Westernem-
pire, 260; death, 278.

MARCIANopolis besieged by the Goths,
i. 382; quarrel between the Goths
and Romans at, iii. 325; Romans de-
feated at by Attila, iv.200.

MARCIONITEs, sect of, ii. 164, and note.

MARCOMANNI, subdued by M. Anto-
ninus, i. 370; site of, ib. note; a
general name=Marchmen, ib. note S.

MARCOMANN1c war, how occasioned, i
380, note.

| MARcomir, Frankish king banished by

Stilicho, iv. 51.
MARCUs, bishop of the Nazarenes, ii.159.
MARCUs elected emperor by the British
legions, iv. 54; murdered, ib.
MARDAITEs, Maronites of Mount Li
banus so called, vi. 56, and note M.
MARDAvige, the Dilemite, last of the
Magians, vi. 369, note.
MARDIA, battle of between Constantine
and Licinius, ii. 141.
MARDONIUs the eunuch, Julian's pre-
ceptor, iii. 136, note.
MÁ REB, i. 138, note S.
MARGUs, battle of between Carinus
and Diocletian, ii. 63; site of, ib.
notes; treaty of violated by the Huns,
iv. 199; town of betrayed to them
by its bishop, 200; battle of between
Theodoric the Ostrogoth and the
Roman general Sabinian, v. 16.
MARIA, daughter of Eudaemon the
Carthaginian, story of, iv. 187.
MARIA, widow of Manuel Comnenus,
put to death by Andronicus, vi. 129.
MARIABA, or Merab, i. 138, note; means
“metropolis,” ib. S.; said to be de-
stroyed by the legions of Augustus,
vi. 200, and note S.
MARIANA, his description of the inva-
sion of Spain by the barbarians, iv.
124; character of his History of
Spain, vi. 354, note.
MARINUs, a subaltern, elected emperor
by the Moesian legions, i. 373; mur-
dered, 374.
MARIUs, one of the Thirty Tyrants, i.
MARIUs reigns in Gaul by the influence
of Victoria, ii. 18.

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