the pagan temples, 415; origin of, iv.
306; industry in making proselytes,
310; vows and blind submission,
312; punishments, ib. note; dress and
habitations, 313; diet, 314; manual
labour, 315; property in common,
ib. and note; riches, 316; solitude,
317; devotion and visions, 318; two
classes, Coenobites and Anachorets,
319; miracles and worship of, 321;
persecuted and suppressed by Con-
stantine W., vi. 144; how esteemed
by the Saracens, 302 and notes.
Monophysite doctrine, vi. 24.
Monophysites, massacre of the in
Persia, vi. 47.
Monopolies under Justinian, v. 67.
Monothelite controversy, vi. 41; doc-
trine condemned in the sixth general
council, 43.
MonTAIGNE, his account of Roman
spectacles, ii. 58, note.
MoNTANER, Ramon de, companion and
historian of Roger de Flor and the
Catalans, vii. 384, notes G. and M.
MonTANISTs, their rigid adherence to
ancient discipline, ii. 254; of Phrygia,
persecution of the by Justinian, vi.
Mont AssFR, caliph, son and parricide
of Motawakkel, his remorse, vi. 416.
MonTEsquieu, his dialogue of Sylla
and Eucrates, i. 319, note; descrip-
tion of Roman military government,
326; account of the censorship, 383,
note; remark on taxation in free and
despotic states, ii. 333; misappre-
hension of the English laws, iii. 128;
theory of the revolutions of Asia,
299, note; error respecting the
Goths, 355, note.
MonTFAUcon, Father, edition of St.
Chrysostom, iv. 136; his description
of Rome, viii. 288, note.
MonTIUs, quaestor of the palace, his
insolence towards Gallus, ii. 391;
put to death, ib.
MonTREAL, Chevalier, Italian free-
booter, executed by Rienzi, viii.247,
Monuments, Roman, i. 181; mostly
for public use, 184.
Mooks, war of Antoninus Pius against
the, i. 145, note; manners of the an-
cient, v. 116, 121 ; revolt from Jus-
tinian, 213; defeat and slay the
eunuch Solomon at Tebeste, 214;

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reduced, ib. ; conquered, converted,
and adopted by the Arabs, vi. 352,
MopsuestiA taken by Nicephorus
Phocas, vi. 426.
MoRALs, purity of those of the early
Christians, ii. 182.
MoRAvlass driven from Hungary, vii.
MoREA, the, occupied by the Turks,
viii. 181.
MoRGING-cup, wedding-gift
Lombards, iv. 115.
MoRosiNI, a Venetian, made patriarch
of Constantinople, vii. 222.
Moseila MA, the false Arabian prophet,
interview with the prophetess Sedjah,
vi. 286 and note S.; defeated by
Caled, 287; slain, ib.
Moses, his religion suited a particular
country, ii. 156; did not inculcate
the immortality of the soul, 171;
causes of this omission examined, ib.
note M.; how regarded in the Koran,
vi. 226; his military laws compared
with those of Mahomet, 245.
Moses of Chorene, his authority erro-
neously used by Gibbon, ii. 369,
note M.; character of his Armenian
history, iv. 168, note.
Mosheim, his character as an eccle-
siastical historian, vi. 2, note.
MosLEMAH, brother of the caliph Soli-
man, invests Constantinople, vi. 379 ;
destruction of his fleet, 380; retreats,
MosLIM, or Musulman, meaning of that
term, vi. 222, note S.
Most ALI, caliph of Egypt, his nego-
ciations with the crusaders, vii. 222.
Most AsFM, last of the Abbassidecaliphs,
captured and put to death by Hola-
gou, khan of the Mongols, viii. 12.
Most HADI, Abbasside caliph of Bagdad,
recognised as true Commander of the
Faithful, vii. 253.
MoTAssem, caliph, his name of ‘Octo-
nary,” how founded, vi. 413 and note;
defeats Theophilus at Amorium,
414; destroys that town, 415; dan-
gerous example of introducing Turk-
ish guards, 416.
MoTAwakkei, caliph, son of Motassen),
killed by his Turkish , vi. 416.
MoUNTAIN, old man of the, chief of the
Assassins, viii. 12.
MoUBzou FLE deposes Isaac Angelus

of the


and his son and usurps the empire,
vii. 309; defeated by Henry of Flan-
ders, 310; flight, 312; alliance with
Alexius Angelus, 325; blinded by
him, ib.; seized by the Latins, ib.; his
singular execution, ib. and note M.
MoUsA, son of Bajazet, made king of
Anatolia by Timour, viii. 57; reign
and character, 67.
Moxof NE, province of, ii. 87 and notes.
MozARABEs of Spain and Africa, vi.
370 and note.
MUcAPER assassinates Aurelian, ii. 32.
MucII, renowned for their knowledge
of the law, v. 274.
MUMMOLUs the patrician, last governor
of Burgundy, iv. 381.
MUNICIPAL cities, Italian, i. 171 note
M.; privileges of, 173.
MUNUzA (or Abu Nesa), rebel Moor,
quelled by Abderame, vi. 386.
MURATOR1, Italian annalist, account of,
and list of his works, viii. 266, note.
MURC1, origin and meaning of that
term, ii. 324, note.
MURDER punished capitally under
Charlemagne, iv. 368.
MURRA, or Chinese porcelain, iv. 79,
MURSA, or Essek, remarkable bridge

at, ii. 381 and note; battle of between

Constantius and Magnentius, 381;
great slaughter at, 382.
MURSA, Tatar chiefs so called, iii. 301.
MUSA the Saracen defeats the Greeks
at Utica, vi. 351; takes and
destroys Carthage, ib. and note
S.; finally reduces Africa, 352;
repulsed from Ceuta, 355; cor-
respondence with count Julian, ib.;
sends an expedition into Spain, ib.;
lands at Algezire and completes the
conquest of Spain, 360; ignomini-
ously punishes his lieutenant, Tarik,
361; account of his penetrating into
France, ib. and note; probable origin
of the story, ib. note S.; his ambi-
tious projects, 363; disgrace and re-
turn to Damascus, ib.; ignominious
punishment and death, 364.
Music, much cultivated by the later
Romans, iv. 82; instruments of, ib.
MUsoniaN, praetorian praefect, negoti-
ates with the Persians, ii. 404.
MUsTAPHA, reputed son of Bajazet,
history of, viii. 66.
MUTA, battle of between the Moslems

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NACOLA, battle of between Valens and
Procopius, iii. 242.
NACORAGAN, Persian general in the
Lazic war, vain boast of, v. 203;
defeat and flight, ib.; flayed alive by
Chosroes, ib.
NAHAR-MALCHA, canal of the Tigris,
how used by Julian, iii. 202.
NAISSUs, battle of between Claudius
and the Goths, ii. 7; birthplace of
Constantine, 109.
NAPLEs, account of, v. 132; capture of
by Belisarius, 133.
NAPLEs, kingdom of, a fief of the Holy
See, vii. 110; monarchy of how com-
posed, 114; dukes of, ib.; conquered
by Charles of Anjou, brother of St.
Louis, 376.
324, note.
NAPHTHA, the basis of the Greek fire,
vi. 382 and note M.
NARBONNE, province of, i. 156; acquired
by the Visigoths, iv. 287; conquered
by the Moslems, vi. 386 and note S.
NARSEs, king of Persia, ii. 81; defeated
by Galerius, 84; embassy to Diocle-
tian and Galerius, 85; treaty, 86.
NARSEs, Persian ambassador from Sapor
to Constantius II., ii. 404; conciliat-
ing behaviour, 405.
NARSEs the eunuch, marches to the
relief of John the Sanguinary, v.
148; dissension with Belisarius,
150; recalled to Constantinople, ib. .
appointed to command an expedition
against Italy, 230; character, ib.; a
Pers-Armenian, ib. note S.; march
from Ravenna towards Rome, 232;
defeats Totila at Tagina, 233; enters
Rome, 235; besieges Cumae, ib.; de-
feats and slays Teias at Mount Lac-
tarius, 236; reduces the Ostrogoths
to submission or exile, ib.: takes
Lucca, 237; defeats the Franks and
Alemanni under Bucelin at Casi-
linum, 240; enters Rome with mili-
tary pomp, ib.; administers the
2 C

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NATIONs, or Ditch, battle of the between
Abu Sophian and Mahomet, vi. 250.
NATURAL CHILDREN, right of legiti-
mating, v. 300; when first conferred,
ib. note G.; incapable of inheriting,
ib. note M.
NAULobATUs, chief of the Heruli, made
a consular, i. 401.
NAvigation, Roman, described, i. 189.
Navy, Roman, how stationed, i. 154;
Byzantine, vii. 28; its tactics, 29;
fleet for the reduction of Crete, ib.
NAZARENE church, ii. 158; trans-
planted to Pella, 159; Gibbon's error
respecting the date of that event, ib.
note M.; renounces the Mosaic law,
ib.; the remnant that refuses called
Ebionites, 160; question as to its
orthodoxy, iii. 48 and note.
NAzARIUs, his description of divine
warriors who assisted Constantine,
iii. 16.
NAziANZUs, site of, iii. 366, note.
NEANDER, his work on Julian, iii. 134,
note S.
NEBRIDIUs, praetorian prefect in Gaul,
alone opposes Julian's enterprise
against Constantius, iii. 114; Julian
rescues him from the fury of the
soldiers, ib.
NECTARIUs, successor of Gregory at
Constantinople, his baptism delays
his consecration, iii. 372.
NEGED, district of Arabia, vi. 198.
NEGRA, city of Yemen, Christians of
persecuted by Dunaan prince of the
Homerites, v. 207 and note M.; site

of that town, ib. note.
NEGROEs, African, their moral and in-

tellectual character, iii. 277. -
Negus of Abyssinia, his reception of


Nonnosus, the ambassador of Just:-
nian, v. 208.
NEHAvKND, decisive victory of the
Saracens at over the Persians, vi.
NEMESIANUs, contends in poetry with
Numerian, ii. 61, note.
NENNIUS, his account of the Saxon in-
vasion of Britain, iv. 387 and note.
NEPTHALITEs (Epthalites) or White
Huns, defeat and slay Perozes, king
of Persia, v. 85; conquered by the
Turks, 175.
NEPos, Julius, marries a niece of the
empress Werina, iv. 294; succeeds
his uncle Marcellinus in the sove.
reignty of Dalmatia, ib. ; made
emperor of the West by Leo the
Great, ib.; flies to Dalmatia on the
approach of Orestes, 295; assass-
nated by Glycerius, ib.
NEPOTIAN, nephew of Constantine, re-
volt of, ii. 383; assumes the purple
at Rome, ib.; slain, ib.
NERO, the last of the Julian line, i
208; conspiracy against, 210; cha-
racterized, 217 ; wished to abolish
taxes, 301; accused as the incendiary
of Rome, ii. 233; evades the charge
by punishing the Christians, ib.:
reasons why he did not accuse the
Jews, 236.
NERVA, his character, i. 213; adopts
Trajan, ib.; his gentle administra-
tion, ii. 240.
NEston, Russian annalist, account of,
vii. 81 and note G.
NESTORIAN controversy, iv. 342.
NEstoriaNs, inconsistency of their
opinions, vi. 41, note; chiefly cor-
fined to Persia, 46; missions of the,
48; among the Tatars, 49 and not:
M.; their numbers under the caliphs
50; modern sects of, 51; of Mala-
bar, their primitive Christianity and
persecution by the Portuguese, 52.
NESToRIUs, patriarch of Constanti-
nople, his persecuting zeal, vi. 15;
his heresy, 16; condemned by Cyril,
patriarch of Alexandria, and by
pope Celestine, 17; condemned and
degraded by the Council of Ephesus,
19; exiled, 23 ; persecut 24;
death, ib.; tradition respecting his
sepulchre, ib.
NetheRLANDs, number of protestant.
executed in the, ii. 285.

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o under Orchan, 23.

s: NICEPHoRIUM, or Callinicum, town of,
*... iii. 190.
* NicEphorus I., great treasurer, deposes
o! Irene and ascends the throne of
.* Constantinople, vi. 87; character and

3 reign, 88 and notes M. and S.; sends
3. an embassy to Charlemagne, 180;
* reception of his ambassadors by Ha-
so run al Rashid, 405; conquered by
o' that caliph, 406; slain in an expedi-
to tion against the Bulgarians, vii. 67;
jo his skull made into a cup, ib.
NICEPHoRUs II., Phocas, emperor of
o Constantinople, his character, vi. 104;
zoo intrigue with Theophano, widow of
Romanus II., ib.; assumes the dia-
dem, 105; murdered by John Zi-
misces, 106; reduced Crete, 424;
eastern conquests, 425 ; mostly tran-
sient, 428.
NICEPHoRUs III., Botaniates, emperor
of Constantinople, revolts from Mi-
chael VII. and assumes the purple,
vi. 115; Michael VII. abdicates in
his favour, 116.
NICEPHoRUs Bryennius, revolts from
Michael VII. and assumes the
purple, vi. 115; rejected by the Con-
stantinopolitans, ob.; vanquished by
Botaniates, 116.
NICEPHoRUs, son of Constantine Co-
pronymus, conspires, with his four
brothers, against Leo IV. and his
son Constantine, vi. 85; tragic fate,
NICEPHoRUs, patriarch and chronicler,
account of, v. 391, stote.


NICETAs, expedition against Phocas, v.
388 ; marries a daughter of Hera-
clius, 390.
NICETAs, Greek senator and historian,
his adventures during the sack of
Constantinople by the Latins, vii.
315; his birth and promotion, 317,
NICETIUS, bishop of Trèves, exhorta-
tion to Justinian, vi. 41.
NICHOLAs I., pope, constituted judge
between Photius and Ignatius,
patriarchs of Constantinople, vii.
Nicholas III., pope, transfers the
kingdom of the Sicilies from the
house of Anjou to that of Aragon,
vii. 379.
NICHOLAs V., pope, his origin, cha-
racter, and zeal in encouraging learn-
ing, viii. 116; founds the Vatican
library, ib.; foretells the fall of
Constantinople, 153; restores and
adorns Rome, 257; crowns the
Emperor Frederick III. of Austria,
NICHOLAs III., marquis of Este, viii.
98 and note.
NicomEDIA taken by the Goths, i. 398;
burnt, 399; residence of Maximian
and Diocletian, ii. 91 ; embellished
by the latter, ib.; church of, de-
stroyed, 269; taken by the Turks
under Orchan, viii. 23.
NICOPOLIs besieged by the Goths, i.
382; belonged to Paula, pupil of
Jerom, iv. 75; battle of, between
Sigismond, king of Hungary, and
the sultan Bajazet, viii. 32.
NIEBUHR, father of the historian, his
work on Arabia the best, vi. 203,
note M.
NIEBUHR, on the census, i. 171, note
M.; his opinion on the Philopatris,
ii. 55, note.
NIGER, Pescennius, governor of Syria,
his character, i. 247; assumes the
imperial dignity, 248; vanquished
by Severus, 255; Gibbon corrected,
ib. note W.; death, 257.
NIKA sedition at Constantinople, v. 51;
suppressed, 55.
NILE, navigation improved by Probus,
ii. 51; rise of the, iii. 421 and note;
vi. 331, note; canal to the Red Sea,
339 and note S.; statue of the, dis-
covered at Rome, viii. 286.



NINE, reverence of the Tatars for that
number, viii. 44, note.
NINEVEH, battle on the site of, between
the Romans under Heraclius and the
Persians, v. 408.
NINUs, date of his accession, i. 331,
note. -
NISIBIs, capture of, i. 403 and note M.
NISIBIs, negociations respecting, ii. 86;
described, 372; third siege of by
Sapor, ib.; raised, 373; surrendered
to the Persians by Jovian, iii. 219;
who expels the citizens, 124.
NITRIA, slaughter of the monks at,
under Valens, iii. 253; monasteries
of, iv. 307.
Nizam, vizir of the sultans Alp Arslan
and Malek Shah, his learning and
virtues, vii. 166; assassinated, 167
and note M.
NoAH, a prophet, vi. 225.
NoBATAE, or Nubians,
treaty with, ii. 77.
NobiLissimus, title invented for Hanni-
balianus, ii. 355.
NoGA, Mongol chief, marries the
natural daughter of Michael Palaeo-
logus, viii. 19.
NogaRET, William of, minister of
Philip the Fair of France, seizes and
imprisons pope Boniface VIII. at
Anagni, viii. 215.
Nogent, near Soissons, field of battle
between Clovis and Syagrius, iv.
348, note.
NoLA besieged by Alaric, iv. 110.
NoNNosUs, embassy of from Justinian
to the Negus of Abyssinia, v. 207;
journey and reception, 208.
NoFICUM described, i. 158.
NoFMANs, their expeditions stimulated
by the conquests of Charlemagne,
vi. 177; occasion of their invading
Italy, vii. 102 and note M.; their
language, ib. note ; serve against the
Saracens in Sicily, 105; conquer
Apulia, ib.; their character, 106;
tyranny in Apulia, 107; Italian
conquests, 114; conquest of Sicily,
117; extinction of the, 145.
NotoRIA, official despatch received by
the emperors from the frumentarii,


ii. 3.
Notitia, when published, ii. 303, notes.
NourEDDIN, sultan of Aleppo, his re-

capture of Damascus and other con-

quests, vii. 250 : character, ib. and

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OAR, synod of the, iv. 154; condemns
and deposes Chrysostom, 155.
OASIS of Libya described, iv. 142, note;
vi. 23, note and note M.
OATH by the head of the emperor, iv.
97 and note.
OBEDIENCE, passive, of the Christians,
favourably regarded by Constantine,
iii. 7.
OBEIDOLLAH, governor of Cusa, insults
the dying Hosein, vi. 280.
OBELISK of the temple of the Sun,
transferred to Rome by Constantius
II., ii. 400; whether now extant,
401, note ; several transported to
Rome by Augustus and his succes-
sors, 401.
OBLATIONs, origin of, ii. 197.
OBLIGATIONS, Roman law respecting,
v. 311.
OcKLEY, author of the History of the
Saracens, his literary merits and un-
worthy fate, vi. 377, note.

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