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POPPÆA.

PRÆTORIAN.
with the Carlovingian family, 156; PORTORIA, or customs, i. 295, note S.;
donations of Pepin

and Charlemagne re-established by Augustus, 298 and
to, 159; forgery of the donation of note S. ; rate, ib.
Constantine, 161; transfer the em PORTUGUESE persecute the Nestorian
pire to Charlemagne, 166; admoni Christians of Malabar, vi. 52; their
tion to on their accession, 168, note ; expedition to Abyssinia, 64.
average length of reign, ib.; their POSIDEB, eunuch of Claudius, ii. 386,
dexterous use of the quarrels of the note,
Carlovingians, 178; method of their

POSTHUMUS, general of Gallienus, his
election and authority of the em victories over the Franks, i. 391;
perors, 181; their abasement and murdered by his troops at Mentz, ii.
indigence in the ninth and tenth 18.
centuries, 182 ; acquiesced at first in Posts and post-houses under the en-
the Greek doctrine of the procession

pire, i. 188.
of the Holy Ghost, vii. 279; their PRÆFECTS of Rome and Constantinople,
authority in Rome, viii. 188 ; dona ii. 312; equal in dignity to the
tion of Constantine, ib.; appeals to, Prætorian præfects, 313; Augustal
189; election of, 211; absence of of Egypt, 314.
from Rome, 213; origin of the papal PRÆFECTUS MORUM, what, i. 204, note
schism, 214; temporary return of S.
Urban V. to Rome, 249; final return PRÆJECTA, niece of Justinian, her
of pope Gregory XI., 250; greatschism marriage with Artaban prevented
of the West, 253; negociations for a by Theodora, v. 226.
union, 254; of Rome and Avignon, PRÆPOSITUS, or chamberlain, under
deposed by the council of Pisa, 255; Constantine, functions of, ii. 326.
three popes, ib.; election of Martin V. PRÆTEXTATUS, proconsul of Achaia,
by the council of Constance, and obtains from Valentinian toleration
restoration of the popes to the Vati for the Eleusinian mysteries, iii. 249 ;
can, 256; acquire the absolute do-

tranquillises the disturbances occa-
minion of Rome, 262; merits and sioned at Rome by the schism of
defects of their government, 264 ; Donatus and Ursinus, 256; jest of
power over the public buildings, 274 to Damasus, ib. ; his honours and
and note M.

titles, ib. note.
Poppka, Nero's mistress, ii, 236.

PRÆTORS, Roman, reduction of thei:
POPULATION of Rome, iv. 87, 89; va number and power, ii. 312; legisla

rious modern computations of, ib. tive power of the, v. 265 and note
note S. ; writers on, ib. 90.

W.; often abused, 267.
PORCABO, Stephen, his conspiracy at PRETORIAN hands, or city cohorts, i.

Rome, viii. 260; execution, 261. 154; their origin, 241; numbers, ib.
PORCELAIN, Chinese, whether known

and note; camp, 242; site of, ib.
to the Romans, iv. 79, notes.

note S.; their power, 242; dona-
PORPHYRIANS, the Arians so called, iii. tives to, ib.; claim to be the Roman
64.

people, 243; sell the empire, ib.;
PORPHYRIO, the celebrated whale of the dread the Pannonian legion, 250;
Propontis, v. 78.

disgraced by Severus, 252 ; remo-
PORPHYRIUS OPTATIANUS, panegyric of, delled and increased by him, 260;
ii. 352 and note.

pay, 273; Gibbon corrected, ib. note
PORPHYROGENITE, meaning and appli G.; murder Ulpian, 290; Gibbon

cation of that term explained, vi. corrected, ib. note W.; besieged by
101.

the people, 322; weakened and re-
PORPHYRY, neo-Platonist, ii. 104; bis duced by Diocletian, ii. 92; their

Life of Plotinus, ib. note; his treatise desperate resistance against Con-

against the Christians, 266, note. stantine, 132; suppressed by him,
PORSON, settled the controversy re 134.

specting 1 John v. 7, iv. 335, note PRETORIAN prefects, office of, i. 260 ;
M.

progress of, ib. note S.; civil func-
PORTO, present state of, viii. 210.

tions, ib. 261; their civil and military

PRAGMATIC SANCTION.
power, ii. 310; deprived of the latter
by Constantine, ib.; increased to
four, ib.; their civil functions, 311;
salary, ib. and note; no appeal from,
ib.; had no jurisdiction in Rome and
Constantinople, 312; table of their
provinces, 315, note S.; prerogatives
of, 316; gradual degradation of that

office, v. 65, note M.
PRAGMATIC SANCTION of Justinian for

the settlement of Italy, v. 241, 242,

note.
PRAXAGORAS, Life of Constantine, ii.

126, note.
PRAXEAS, heresy of, iii. 52 and 53,

note ; confuted by Tertullian, ib.
PRAXITELES, sculptures of destroyed

by Belisarius in his defence of Rome,

v. 139; excelled in fauns, ib. note.
PREACHING, introduction and freedom

of, iii. 37; abuse of, 38.
PRECEDENCY, severe law of Gratian

against the infringement of, ii. 304,

note; rules of, 305, note.
PREDESTINATION, doctrine of, taught in

the Koran, vi. 224-247 ; its influence

on the courage of the Saracens, ib.
PREROGATIVES, imperial, i. 204; aug-

mented by Severus, 262.
PRESBYTERS, institution of, ii. 191.
PRESENTS, Roman, to foreign kings,

ambassadors, &c., i. 386 and note.
Presidius despoiled by Constantine,

governor of Spoleto, v. 149.
PRESTER JOHN, story of, vi, 49 and

note; his skull enchased in silver
by Zingis, viii. 3; monarchs of the

Keraites so called ib. note S.
PRIESTBOOD, pagan, hereditary succes-

sion of in various nations, iii. 30,
note; partly elective among the

Druids, ib.
PRIESTLEY, Dr., tendency of his opi-

nions, vi. 62, note and note M.
PRIE8Ts, pagan, their tricks, iii. 419.
PRIMOGENITURE, prerogative of, un-

known to the Romans, v. 307.
PRINCE of the Waters, Persian officer,

his functions, v. 184 and note.
PRINCEPS JUVENTUTIS, what, i. 151,

note S.
PRINCEPS SENATUS, nature of that title,

i. 197 and note S.; the emperor

Tacitus so called, ii. 35, note.
PRINCIPLES, two, doctrine of, i. 334.
PRINTING, ancient use of by the

Chinese, v. 62.

PROCESSIONS.
Prisca, wife of Diocletian, put te

death by Licinius, ii. 138 ; her col•

version to Christianity, 264.
PRISCILLIAN, bishop of Avila, put to

death with some of his sect by
Maximus, üi. 374 ; account of his

heresy, 375.
Priscus, Thrasea, i. 270.
Priscus accepts the purple from the

Goths, i. 383.
Priscus, engineer, i. 256 and note.
Priscus, the historian, conversation

with a renegade Greek in the camp
of Attila, iv. 204, 209; probably a

pagan, ib. notes.
Priscus, general of the emperor

Maurice, his successes against the

Avars, v, 381.
PRIULF, Gothic leader, his character,

iii. 355 ; slain by Fravitta, ib.
PROBA, widow of the præfect Petro-

nius, escapes from the sack of Rome
with her daughter Læta and grand-

daughter Demetrias, iv. 107.
PROBOLE, or Prolatio, Valentinian

doctrine adopted by orthodox Chris-

tians, iii. 51, note.
Probus, general of Aurelian, i. 23,

25; opposes the usurpation of Flo-
rianus, 40; his character and ser-
vices, 41; elected emperor,

42;
respectful letter to the Senate, ib.;
victories over the barbarians, 43 ;
mostly gained. in person, 44; de-
livers Gaul from the Germans, ib.;
invades Germany, 45; dictates &
treaty, ib. ; builds a wall from the
Rhine to the Danube, 46; intro-
duces barbarians into the army, 47;
quells the revolt of Saturninus, 49;
of Bonosus and Proculus, 50;
triumph, ib.; military discipline,
ib.; employed the troops in agricul-

ture, 51; murdered, 52.
PROBUS, prætorian præfect, defende

Sirmium against the Quadi, iii. 288.
PROBUS, chief of the Anician family,

honours and fortunes of, iv. 73; two
sons of associated in the consular

dignity, ib.
PROCESSION of the Holy Ghost from

the Son as well as from the Father
first established in the eighth
cil of Toledo, iv. 340 and note ; con-

troversy concerning, vii. 279.
PROCESSIONS of the Greek emperora,

vii. 22.

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PROCHIRON.
L'ROCHIRON, or legal manual of Basil I.,

account of, vii. 45, note S.
PROCLUS, the quæstor of Justin, v. 37;

prevents the adoption of Nushirvan,
son of Cabades king of Persia, by

Justin, 182.
Proclus, story of his renewing the ex-

pedient of Archimedes to burn the

fleet of Vitalian, v. 71.
Proclus, the Platonist, account of,v.92.
PROCONNESUS, isle, marble of, ii. 296.
PROCONSUL, duties of, ii. 316, note.
PROCOPIA, consort of Michael I., her

martial spirit, vi. 88.
PROCOPIUS, kinsman and general of

Julian, iii. 189; fails to join Julian
at Ctesiphon, ib.; appointed by
Jovian to conduct Julian's funeral,
225; regarded as the successor of
Julian, 238; escapes the satellites
of Valentinian and Valens, ib. ; his
adventures, ib.; how connected with
Julian, ib, note ; a pagan, ib. ; seizes
on Constantinople, 239; progress of
his rebellion, 240; betrayed by his

troops, 242; beheaded, ib.
PROCOPIUS, father-in-law of Valens, ap-

pointed to try Timasius, iv. 141.
PROCOPIUS, the historian, account of

the testament of Arcadius, iv. 150;
fabulous account of Britain, 399; his
character and writings, v. 39 ; occa-
sion of his “Edifices,' 40, fate of
his works, ib. note ; character of his
*Anecdotes,' 41 and note M.; enters
the service of Belisarius, 100; his
defence of archery, 102 ; his confes-
sion of dishonesty, 129, note; his
description of the temple of Janus,
140, note ; mission into Campania,
146; estimate of the numbers de-
stroyed by the inroads of the bar-
barians, 172; escapes with Solomon
from the rebellion at Carthage, 211;
description of the desolation of Africa,
214 ; his medical skill, 254 and
note ; description of the plague under
Justinian, ib. sq.; his sentiments

concerning religion, vi. 35.
PROCULIANS, legal sect of, v. 278.
PROCULUS, revolt and character, ii. 50.
PROFESSORS, salaries of, i. 194, notes

G. and W.
PROMOTUS, master - general of the

infantry, his quarre! with Kufinus,

banishment and death, iv. 3.
PROPERTY-TAX, establishment of, i.

VOL. VW.

PSALMCDY.
294 ; history of, ib. note S.; Gitbon

corrected, 298, note S.
PROPERTY, right of, on what founded,

v. 302; Roman laws respecting,
304; Gibbon's view developed and

corrected, ib. note W.
PROPHETS of the early Christian church,

ii. 191; evil consequences and alo-
lishment of, ib.; female, reproved

by St. Paul, ib. note M.
PROPONTIS, or Sea of Marmora, de-

scribed, ii. 290; abounds in excellent

fish, 292.
PROSTITUTES, taxation of, ii. 342 ; how

and when abolished, ib. note G.
PROTECTORS, Constantine’s body-guard

so called, ii. 330.
PROTERIUS, successor of Dioscorus as

patriarch of Alexandria, murdered by

the monk Timothy, the Cat, vi. 30.
PROTESTANTS, their political views dif-

ferent from those of the primitive

Christians, iii. 8.
PROTOSEBASTOS,

title invented by
Alexius Comnenus, vii. 18.
PBOTOSPATHAIRE, Byzantine officer,

vii, 20.
PROTOSTRATOR, Byzantine officer, vii.

20.
PROTOVESTIARE, officer of the Byzantine

emperors, his functions, vii. 19.
PROVINCES, "Roman, described, i. 155,

sq.; list of under Hadrian, 162,
note S.; how governed, 172; dif-
ference between the eastern and
western, 174; how divided between
the emperor and senate, 201 and
note S.; division of under Constan-
tine, ii. 314; two singular provisions
for the government of, 316; gover-
nors of not to be natives, ib.; Zeno's
law respecting governors of, 317,
note ; numerous revolts of governors,

319.
PRUDENTIUS, his testimony as to the

debate in the senate respecting Chris-
tianity or Paganism, iii. 411 and

notes.
Prusa, conquest of, by Orchan, son of

the caliph Othman, viii. 23; the

true æra of the Ottoman empire, ib.
PRUSSIA, conquest and conversion of

i. 378, note.
PRUSSIANS invade Britain, iv. 389.
PRYPEC, river, i. 380.
PSALMODY, when and by whom intro.

duced, iii. 88 and notes.

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RATIONARIUM IMPERII.
of, 328 and notes ; office of sometimes

filled by the heir-apparent, ib.
QUINDECEMVIRS, functions of the, iii.

407.
QUINTIANUS, bishop of Rodez, iv. 358.
QUINTILIAN brothers, their history, i.

225.
QUINTILIUS, brother of Claudius, at-

tempts to seize the empire, ii. 9;

suicide, ib.
Quintus Curtius, inquiry as to the

age of, i. 324 and note, and note S.
QUIRITES, soldiers disgraced by that

term, i. 292; whether used by Al.

Severus, ib. note S.
Qoss, a præ-Mahometan, preaches the

unity of God, vi. 224, note S.

R.

PTOLEMAIS.
PTOLEMAIS, v. Acre.
PTOLEMIES, library of, at Alexandria,

ii. 417, notes.
PTOLEMY, Roman senator, heads a re-

volt against Otho III., vi. 186.
PUDENTIUS assists the Romans against

Gelimer, Vandal king of Africa, v.

99.
Pugione, d, whether Cleander's title?

i, 229 and note M.
PULCHERIA, sister of Theodosius the

Younger, her character and adminis-
tration, iv. 161; effects the disgrace
of the empress Eudocia, 166; pro-
claimed empress of the East on the
death of her brother, 218; executes
the eunuch Chrysophius, 219; mar-
ries the senator Marcian, ib.; death
and canonization, 278 and note ; sup-
ports the cause of Cyril against Nes-

torius, vi, 22.
POLE RUDBAR, or Hyrcanian Rock, v.

369.
PULLANI, or Poullains, name of the

descendants of the crusaders settled

in Palestine, vii, 231 and note.
PUNISHMENTS, Roman, v. 316; disuse

of penal laws, 318; rigour of the
Christian emperors, 322; capital,
abolished by the emperor Calo-

Johannes, vi, 119.
PURIM, Jewish festival of, ii. 223, note.
PURPLE colour, Phænician, described,

v. 56 and note ; restricted to impe-

rial use, ib.
PURPLE, or porphyry, ancient, nature

of, vi. 101.
PURPLE CHAMBER of the Byzantine pa-

lace, vii, 16.
PURPURIUS, his violence against Cæci-

lian, iïi. 43.
PYRRHIO dance, i. 148.
PYTHEAS, navigations of, i. 378, note.

Racca, palace of Harun al Rasbid, vi.

406 and note.
RADAGAISUS, or Rhodogast, leads the

German emigration in the reign of
Honorius, iv. 44; the god of war
so called by the Slavonians, ib. note
M.; forces how composed, 45; was a
Slavonian, ib. note S.; date of his
invasion of Italy, 46, note S.; be-
sieges Florence, 47 ; threatens Rome,
ib.; defeated by Stilicho, 48; put to
death, 49; his execution justified, i.

note M.
RADIGER, king of the Varni, conquered

and compelled to fulfil his promise of
marriage by an Anglo-Saxon prin-

cess, iv. 400.
Randi, the Abbasside, the last who de

served the title of caliph, vi. 422.
RAINULF, count, leader of the Normans

in Italy, vii. 104 and note G.
Ramadan, fast of instituted by Maho-

met, vi. 233.
RAMON DE MONTANER, his History of
the Catalan freebooters, vii. 384,

notes G. and M.
Ramusio, his History of the Conquest

of Constantinople, vii. 319, note.
Rando, a chief of the Alemanni, sur.

prises Moguntiacum, iii. 259.
RAPES, Constantine's severe law

against, ii. 143.
RASAPHE obtains the name of Sergio

polis, v. 375, note.
RATIONABIUM IMPEBU of Augustus, i

295 and note W.

Q.

QUADI vanquished by M. Anto-

ninus, i. 370; invade the Illyrian
provinces, ii. 401; reduced by Con-
stantius II., 402 ; oppressed by Mar-
cellinus, iii. 287; who murders their

king, ib.; they ravage Pannonia, 288.
QUÆSTORS, revolution in the office of,

ii. 327; their origin obscure, ib.
note; Niebuhr's opinion, ib. note S.;
number, ib, note ; imperial functions

RAVENNA.
RAVENNA, a naval station, i. 154; siege

of by Maximian, ii. 116; account of
its foundation and progress, iv. 41;
becomes the residence of Honorius,
42; and seat of government, 43;
siege of by Theodoric the Ostrogoth,
v. 10; exarchate of, its limits, 348;
conquered by Pepin and presented
to the popes, vi. 159; limits, ib. ;
reclaimed by Charlemagne, 161;
archbishops of rival the pope, ib.;
exarch of murdered in a sedition
respecting image - worship, 149;
Greeks repulsed from, 150 ; exarchs
restored, but with limited power,
ib.; entry and expulsion of Liut-
prand, 153; finally subdued by As.

tolphus, ib.
RAYMOND, count of Toulouse, engages

in the first crusade, vii. 183; charac-
ter, 198; march to Constantinople,
203; keeper of the holy lance, 221;
incursion into Syria, 224 and note ;
declines to compete for the crown of

Jerusalem, 228 and note S.
RAYMOND, count of Tripoli, his in-

trigues with the Saracens, vii. 257

and note M.
RAYNAL, Abbé, mistake respecting Con-

stantine's law about Christian slaves,
iii. 23, note ; erroneously attributes
the suppression of Paganism to Con-

stantine, 97.
Razis, Arabian physician, vi. 402.
RECARED, son and successor of Leovi-

gild, first Catholic king of Spain, iv.
339 ; his two substantial arguments
for orthodoxy, ib.; converts his king-
dom to the Nicene faith; 340; em-

bassy to pope Gregory the Great, ib,
RECHIARIUS, king of the Suevi in Spain,

defeated by Theodoric II., iv. 262;

capture and death, 263.
RED SEA, only a part of the ancient

Mare Rubrum, vi. 196, note; com-
munication with the Nile by a canal,

339 and note S.
REFORMATION, Protestant, character of,

vii. 59, sy.
REGINALD of Châtillon, his forays

against the Saracens, vii. 257 ; put

to death by Saladin, 258 and note.
REI or RagÆ, site of, v. 368, note.
REIGNING, art of, Diocletian's remark

on, ii, 100.
REINDEER in Germany, i. 351.
RELICA, progress of the worship of, iii.

RHYNDACUS.
428 ; forgeries of, ib.; lucrative trade
of the Latins in after the pillage of
Constantinople, vii. 319; sale of by

Baldwin II. to St. Louis, 342.
RELIGION of the Roman people, i. 165

difference of a lawful ground of en-
mity with the Arabs, vi. 353 and

note.
REMIGIUS, bishop of Rheims, converts

and baptizes Clovis, iv. 351.
RENNELL, Major, his maps and memoirs

of Asia, v. 60, note.
RENATUS PROFUTURUS FRIGERIDUS, his

character of Aëtius, iv, 221.
RENT of houses at Rome, iv. 88 and note.
REPENTANCE, Christian doctrine of,

favoured conversions, ii. 182.
REPUBLIC, Roman, that name confined

to the Latin provinces after the

division of the empire, iv. 137.
RES MANCIPI explained, v. 304 and note

W.
RESPONSES and psalmody, introduction

of, iii. 88.
RESTOM or Rostam, the Persian hero,

romance of, v. 185.
RESURRECTION of the dead, frequent in

second century, ii. 179; this test
declined by Theophilus, ib.; Maho-

metan doctrine of the, vi. 234.
Retz, Cardinal de, description of a con-

clave, viü. 213, note.
REVENUE, total under Augustus, i.

297 and note S.
RHÆTIA described, i. 158.
RHAZATES, general of Chosroes II., de-

feated and slain by the hand of

Heraclius, v. 409.
RUEGINA COLUMNA, v. 348 and note.
RHETORIC, study of congenial to a

popular state, v. 90.
RHETRA, in Mecklenburg, temple of

Radagaisus at, iv. 45, note M.
RHINE, freezing of the, i. 351 and note

M.; seven posts on established by
Julian, ii. 421 and note ; and Neckar,
banks of fortified by Valentinian I.,

iii, 260 and notes.
RHODES, isle of, taken by Chosroes II.,

v. 293; colossus of, its fragments
sold by the Arabians, vi. 328
knights of, their defence against tho
Turks, viii. 24; commanded by pope
Gregory XI, to defend Smyrna, 26

note.
RHETEUM, city of, ii. 291.
RHYNDACUS, river, i, 399.

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