Rialto, island of, Venice founded on,

vii. 290.
RICHARD I. of England redeems the

Jerusalem relics, vii, 260; assists at
the siege of Acre, 262; beheads the
Moslem prisoners, 263 and note S.;
character, 264; whether concerned
in the assassination of Conrad of
Montferrat, ib. and note M. ; con-
quests in Syria, ib. ; refuses to look
upon Jerusalem, 265 and note S.;
daring valour at Jaffa, ib.; treaty
with Saladin, 266 ; proposes to marry
his sister to the Sultan's brother, ib.;
return and captivity, 267; answer to
Fulk of Neuilly, preacher of the

fourth crusade, 289.
RICHARD of Cirencester, character of

his work, iv. 132, note.
RICIMER, Count, commander of the

barbarian troops, destroys a fleet of
the Vandals, iv, 264; hailed as deli-
verer of Italy, ib.; deposes Avitus,
ib. ; consents to the elevation of Ma-
jorian, 266 ; excites the barbarian
troops to depose him, 274; dictates
the election of Libius Severus, ib.;
exercises supreme power during six
years, 275 ; defeated by Ægidius at
Orleans, 287; fixes his residence at
Milan, 291 ; quarrel with Anthemius,
ib.; marches to Rome, 292; desig-
nates Olybrius as emperor, ib.; takes
Rome and kills Anthemius, 293 ;

death, 294.
RIENZI, Colà di, the Roman tribune,

Lives of, viii. 228, notes, and 229,
note M.; birth and character, 229
and note M. ; patriotic aspirations,
ib.; assumes the government of
Rome, 231 ; and title of tribune,
232; laws and administration, 233;
submission of the nobles, 234;
scheme of an Italian federative re-
public, 235; hears the cause of
Lewis of Hungary and Jane queen of
Naples, 236 and notes M. ; his vices
and follies, 237; knighthood, 238;
coronation, 240 and note M. ; impri-
scns and pardons the nobles, 241;
they rise against him, 242; defeats
and slays the Colonna, 1b.; excom-
munication, fall, and flight, 244 ;
adventures in exile, 245 ; visions,
ib, and note M.; imprisonment at
Avignon, 246 ; re-enters Rome as
senator, ib.; assassinated, 247.

RIMINI, council of, iji. 62; introduction

of Arianism at, ib. ; powers of Tau-
rus, prætorian prefect, to establish
unanimity in, 69; an Arian confes-
sion extorted from, ib. ; conference
at between Jovius and Alaric, iv. 96,
sq. ; seized by John the Sanguinary,
v. 147; besieged by Vitiges, and re-

lieved by Belisarius, 148.
RINALDO, hero of Tasso, exploits of

chimerical, vii. 199, note.
RIOTHAMUS, British chieftain, sails up

the Loire, iv, 288.
RIPAILLE, hermitage of, near Thonon,

viii. 104, note.
RIPUARIANS, or Riparii, their situation,

iv. 234 and note.
RIPUARIAN LAW8, when published, iv,

Roads, Roman, account of, i. 187.

Constantinople, vii. 337; mutilation

of his wife, ib.; death, 338.
ROBERT, count of Flanders, a leader in

the first crusade, character, vii. 197.
Robert, king of Naples, procures build-

ing materials from the ruins of Rome,

viii. 276.
ROBERT, duke of Normandy, a leader in

the first crusade, character, vii, 197;

pawns his duchy, ib, note.
ROBERT of Paris, his insolence towards

the Greek emperor, vii. 208.
Roderic, the Goth, deposes Witiza and

his sons, and usurps the crown of
Spain, vi. 354; collects an army
against the Saracens, 357 and note
S.; defeated at Xeres, ib.; flight
and death, ib.; legends respecting,

358, note.
RoGATIANS, Donatist sect, iii. 45.
Roger, count of Sicily, character, vii.

116; conquest of Sicily, 117; to
lerates the Moslems and encourages

their learning, 118.
ROGER II., great count of Sicily, cha-

racter, vii. 132; seizes the dukedom
of Apulia, 133; becomes first king
of Sicily, ib. ; driven from Italy, ib.;
recovers Apulia, 134 ; African con-

quests, ib. ; invades Greece, 135.
Roman EMPIRE, three periods of its de-

cline, Author's Pref., i. xviii. ; its
prosperity in the second century,
137; boundaries under Augustus,
139; military establishment, 145,
8q. ; total naval and military force

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gin and


155; view of the provinces, ib.; ex-
tent of the empire, 164; populous-
ness, 179, 180, note M. ; union and
obedience, 180; number of cities in,
185; progress of refinement and
luxury, 191; eastern commerce of,
192 ; supposed annual loss by, 193;
general prosperity, ib.; decline of
courage and genius, 194; of literary
taste, 195 ; state after the battle of
Actium, 196 ; general idea of the
imperial system, 206; happiest pe-
riod of, 216; sale of the empire by
the Prætorians, 243; civil wars of
characterized, 255 ; prosperity under
Sept. Severus, 259; that emperor the
principal author of its decline, 262;
finances of, 293, 899.; total revenue,
297 ; calamities from want of here-
ditary succession, 305; decline of,
328; limits under Philip, 329 ; its
provinces invaded by the Goths, 379;
fourfold division under Diocletian, ii.
68 and 96 ; eastern limits as settled by
the treaty between Diocletian and
Narses, 86 ; troubles after the abdica-
tion of Diocletian, 106 ; six emperors,
119; division of provinces between
Maximin and Licinius, 122 ; civil war
between Constantine and Maxentius,
125; empire divided between Con-
stantine and Licinius, 139; resettle-
ment after the battle of Mardia, 141,
$9.; reunited under Constantine the
Great, 150; distributed into one hun-
dred and sixteen provinces, 314 ; how
divided among the sons of Constan-
tine, 366; establishment of Chris-
tianity as the national religion, iii.
25; treaty of Dura, a memorable æra
in the decline of the, 225; divided
by Valentinian I. into the empires of
the East and West, 237 ; fall of may
be dated from the reign of Valens,
294; Dacia and Macedonia added to
the Eastern empire by Gratian, 343 ;
disuse of armour, an immediate cause
of the downfal of the, 405; right of
female succession, iv. 230; West-
ern, clear symptoms of its fall in the
twelfth century, 252 ; general ob-

servations on the fall of, 438.
Romanş averse to the sea, i. 154; their

religion, 165; peculiar misery under
their tyrants, 218; ill prepared for
slavery, 219; impossibility of escape,
220; their discontent at the taxes

of Galerius, ii. 113; declare Maxen-
tius emperor, 114 ; number of in
the Punic war, iv. 70, note; Empe-
ror of the, that title retained by the
emperors of the East, 136 ; of Gaul,
condition of under the Merovingian
princes, 380; their lands not exempt
from tribute, ib. note S.; blind ar-
dour of the Romans for the factions
of the circus, v. 49 ; progress of their
intercourse with the Greeks, 262,
note ; perpetual landed inheritance of
the first, 303 and note; their con-
quests and possessions in Arabia, vi.

202, note,
Romanus I., Lecapenus, his

character, vi. 102 ; deposes Constan-
tine Porphyrogenitus, and ascends
the throne, i?.; deposed and ba-
nished by his sons, ib.; marriage of
his granddaughter with a Bulgarian

prince denounced, vii. 24.
ROMANUS II., emperor of Constanti-

nople, vi. 103 ; poisoned by his wife

Theophano, 104.
Romanus III., Argyros, marries Zoe,

daughter of Constantine IX., vi.
109; connives at her adultery with
Michael the Paphlagonian, ib.;

poisoned by her, ib.
Romanus IV., Diogenes, becomes em-

peror by marrying Eudocia, widow
of Constantine XII., vi. 114 ; made
prisoner by the Turks, ib.; deposed
and put to death, 115; account of
his campaigns against the Turks, vii.
159 ; defeated and captured by Alp

Arslan, 161; disgraceful treaty, 162.
ROMANUS, son of Constantine Porphy-

rogenitus, marries Bertha, daughter
of Hugo, king of Italy, vii. 24; se-

cond marriage, 25.
ROMANUS, Count, his mal-administra-

tion in Africa, iii. 272; artfully frus-
trates the complaints of the Tripoli-
tans, ib. ; escapes justice through the

favour of Mellobaudes, 275.
ROMANUS, governor of Bosra, his

treachery and apostasy, vi. 304.
ROME, greatness of, its true nature, i.

165; foreign superstitions at, 169;
number of citizens, 170; freedom of,
171; æra of its foundation, 328,
note ; threatened by the Alemanni,
393; defended by the senate, 394;
pestilence at under Gallienus, 415;
fortified by Aurelian, ii. 16; walls,



ib, and notes ; ancient state of, ib.;
Diocletian and Maximian the first
princes who did not reside in the
capital, 90; Diocletian's single visit
to, 91; residence of Maxentius at,
125; the mystic Babylon of the pri-
mitive Christians, 175; its destruc-
tion by fire predicted, 176; fire of
under Nero, 232; præfects of, their
functions, 312; extent of their juris-
diction, ib.; the fountains of munici-
pal authority, 313; vicars of, 314;
visited by Constantius, 399 ; appeals
to, sanctioned by the council of Sar-
dica, iii. 75, note ; citizens of adopt
Christianity, 412 ; walls of restored
by Honorius, iv. 39; wealth and
splendour of in the Theodosian age,
74; citizens, their state described,
83; a mixed and degenerate race
under the empire, 84; distribution
of provisions at, ib. sq. ; baths, 85;
indolence and vice of the populace,
86 and note; games and spectacles,
86; population of, 87; walls, 88;
houses, ib.; number of, 89; besieged
by Alaric, 90; famine, ib.; plague,
91; siege raised, 93; second siege,

third siege and sack, 101; slaugh-
ter, 103 and note; edifices, how far
injured, 105 and notes ; captives and
fugitives, 106; sack by Alaric con-
trasted with that under Charles V.,
108; restoration of the city, 117;
sacked by Genseric, 257; monuments
of destroyed by the Romans them-
selves, 270; taken and sacked by
Ricimer, 293; regions of in the fifth
century, ib., note; propagation of
monasticism at, 308; prosperity of
under Theodoric the Great, v. 19; his
visit to, 20, and care of the public
monuments, 21 ; citizens invite Be-
lisarius, 135; besieged by Vitiges,
137; compass of the walls, 138 and
note S. ; walls restored by Belisarius,
139; a portion guarded by St. Peter,
ib. ; destruction of works of art during
the siege, ib.; distress at, 142 ; in-
vested by Totila, 216; famine at,
220; taken and sacked by Totila,
222; recovered by Belisarius, who
repairs the walls destroyed by Totila,
224; reoccupied by Totila, 227 ; re-
taken by Narses, 235; the citizens
send embassies to the emperors Ti-
berius and Maurice for assistance

against the Lombards, 346; duchy
of, its limits, 348; subject to ani
oppressed by the exarchs of Ravenna,
349; misery and depopulation of,
355 ; preserved from destruction
through the relics of the apostles,
357 ; duchy of, its territory, vi. 151
and note ; sovereignty of the Greek
emperors extinguished and a republic
established, ib.; depopulation and
decay, ib.; style of the Roman senate
and people revived, 152; but the
pope considered as the first magis.
trate, ib. ; saved from the Lombards
by Pepin, 155 ; final separation from
the Eastern empire, 166; menaced
and its suburbs plundered by the
Arabs, 410; project of Constans II.
to restore the seat of empire to, vii.
37; pillaged and deserted by him,
ib.; part of, burnt by the Saracens
under Robert Guiscard, 129; com-
pared with Constantinople, viii. 120;
state and revolutions of from the
eleventh century, 186; change in the
climate of, ib. note, and 187, note M.;
French and German emperors of,
ceremony of their coronation, ib.;
their jurisdiction, 188 ; authority of
the popes at, ib. ; seditions against,
191 ; character of the Romans by
St. Bernard, 194; supposed resto-
ration of the senate, consuls, and
tribunes, 198 and notes ; restoration
of the Capitol, 200 ; coin of the mo-
dern republic, ib. ; præfects of the
city restored, 201 ; wars against the
neighbouring cities, 209 ; secession
of the popes to Avignon, 214 ; nobles
and barons of, 219; coronation of
Petrarch at, 227 ; conspiracy of Rj-
enzi, 231 ; freedom and prosperity of
Rome under his administration, 234;
return of pope Gregory XI, froin
Avignon, 250 ; calamities of Rome
in the great schism, 253; expulsion
of pope Eugenius IV., 257; last co-
ronation of a German emperor at,
258; statutes and government of,
ib.; conspiracy of Porcaro, 260; tu-
mults of the nobles at, 261; taking
of by Charles V., 263 and note ; au-
thorities for its history in the thir.
teenth and fourteenth centuries, 265,
note; Poggius' description of its
ruins, 268 ; gradual decay of, 269;
four causes of destruction, 270 ; wordt


damage, how inflicted, 280, note M.;
games of Rome, 282 ; ignorance and
barbarism of the Romans, 285 ; po-
pulation, 287 and note S. ; restora-

tion of the city by the popes, ib.
ROME, CHURCH OF, not founded either by

St. Peter or by St. Paul, ii. 196, note
M.; statistics of, in the third century,
211; its firm adherence to Liberius,
iii. 89 ; refuses to associate Felix, ib.;
its vices under Valentinian, 255;
bloody contention of Damasus and
Ursicus for the episcopacy, ib. ; can-
onizes Augustin and reprobates Cal-
vin, iv. 183, note ; upholds the wor-
ship of images, vi. 144 ; discipline
how different from that of the Greek
church, vii, 279 ; its corruption, viii.

92; schism of, ib. ; healed, 104.
ROMILDA betrays Friuli to Baian, cha-

gan of the Avars, v. 396 ; cruelly

executed by him, ib.
RONCEVALLES, battle of, vi. 171 and

note M.
ROMULUB, interregnum after, ii. 34.
ROSAMOND, daughter of Cunimund,

king of the Gepidæ, carried off by
Alboin, v. 333; marries him, 334 ;
intrigues with Helmichis, 339; com-
pelled by Alboin to drink from her
father's skull, ib.; conspires and ac-
complishes his murder, ib.; takes
refuge and intrigues with Longinus,
exarch of Ravenna, 340; poisons
Helmichis and is murdered by him,
ib. ; her daughter sent to Constan-

tinople, ib.
ROTHARIS, laws of, v. 354; ignored

witchcraft, 355.
Rouda, island of the Nile at Memphis,

vi. 330.
Roum, Seljukian dynasty of, vii. 167;

kingdom of, established, 169; sultans
of remove their throne to Cogni or

Iconium, 239.
ROUMELIA, countries comprehended

under that name, i. 159.
Roussbau, observations on animal food,

iii. 296, note ; remark on his parallel

of Christ and Socrates, vi. 8, note.
RoxOLANI, Sarmatian tribe, ii. 359,

note S. ; iii. 317.
RUDBECK, OLAUS, accountofthe Swedish

women, i. 352, note; his Atlantica,

RUFINUs, minister of the great Theo

dosius, bis history and character, iv.

2 sqq. ; becomes præfect of the East,
4; governs Arcadius, 5; avarice and
oppression, ib.; deceived in his pro-
ject of marrying his daughter to
Arcadius, 7; alarm at the approach
of Stilicho, 12; put to death by
Gainas in the presence of Arcadius,
13; his body mangled by the popu-
lace, ib. ; treacherous correspondence

with the Goths, 24.
RUFINUS, presbyter of Aquileia, ac-

count of, iv. 32.
Roga, Spurius Carvilius, the first

Roman who divorced his wife, v.

296 and note.
RUGEN, holy island of the Varini, iv.

399, note s.
RUGIANS, probable situation of the, iv.

295 ; invade Britain, 389.
Ruginas, or Roas, uncle of Attila, settles

in Hungary, iv. 192.
RUNIC CHARACTERS, theories respecting,

i. 354, notes ; disappear after the

propagation of Christianity, iv. 323.
RURIC, Scandinavian chief, founds a

monarchy in Russia, vii. 82 (v. p. 80,

note S.)
RUBsia conquered by the Mongols, viii.

14; by Timour, 45.
RUSSIANS, their origin, iii. 317 and

note ; Greek form of their name, vii.
80; account of their origin, ib, note
S., and 81; were Scandinavians, ib.;
geography and trade of, 83; naval
expeditions against Constantinople,
86; conversion to Christianity, 92 ;
their zeal against the union of the

Greek and Latin churches, viii. 124.
RUSTAM, general of Yezdegerd, king of

Persia, vi. 292 ; slain at Cadesia, 293

and note S.
Rustan, saying of, i. 288.
Rustan and ASFENDIAR, Persian heroes,

iii. 304.
RUSTICIANA, widow of Boethius, saved

by Totila, v. 223.

voyage, iv. 117, note.

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his doctrine of the Trinity and Logos,
55; his followers called Patripassians,
56, note; unite with the Tritheists
at the Council of Nice against the

Arians, 57.
Sabians, their astronomical science and

worship, vi. 214; adopt the Scrip-

tures, ib.
SABINIAN supersedes Ursicinus in the

conduct of the war against Sapor, ii.

410; his indolence and timidity, 411.
SABINIAN, general of Anastasius, de-

feated by Theodoric the Ostrogoth at

Margus, v. 16.
SABINIANS, legal sect of the, v. 278.
SABINUS, Flavius, cousin of Domitian,

executed by him, ii. 239.
SABINUS, his circular respecting the

Christians in Asia, ii. 279.
SACR, tribe of the, ii. 81, note.
SACRIFICES, human, of the Suevi, i.

392 ; public, at Rome, prohibited by
Theodosius, iii. 413 and note M.;
human, of the Huns, iv. 195; of
sheep and camels by the Arabians,
vi. 212; human, of the Arabians,
213 and note S.; occasion and kinds

of Arabian sacrifice, 232, note S.
SACRIFICIAL KING, his dignity and

functions, iii. 407.
SADDER, authority of the, i. 334, notes

G. and M.
SADDUCEEB, sect of, ii. 171 ; rejected

the immortality of the soul, 172.
SADE, ABBÉ DE, character of his 'Life

of Petrarch,' viii. 225.
SAFFAH, AL (or Abul Abbas), assumes

the caliphate, vi. 391 and note S.
SAGREDO, John, character of his History

of the Ottoman Monarchs, viii. 185,

Said, lieutenant of the caliph Onar,

takes Madayn, vi. 294.
Sain, Persian general, flayed alive for

conducting à Roman embassy to

Chosroes II., v. 397.
Saint Martin, his account of the suc-

cessors of Tiridates, ii. 369, note M.
Saints, worship of, 426, sq. ; restored

the reign of Polytheism, 432 sq.
SALADIN, sultan, pedigree of, vii. 254 ;

military service and conquests, ib.;
character, 255; overthrows Guy de
Lusignan at Hittin, 257; treatment
of his prisoners, 258; takes Jerusa-
lem, 259; generosity, 260; besieges
Tyre, ib. · retreats to Damascus, 261 ;

defends Jerusalem against the Crust
ders, 264 ; treaty with Fichard I,

266 ; death, 267.
SALADINE TENTA, or tax for the Holy

War, vii. 267.
Salban taken by Heraclius, v. 404.
SALERNO, school of medicine at, sprang

from the Arabians, vi. 402 ; account

of, vii. 115.
Salian FRANKS, permitted by Julian

to remain in Toxandria, ii. 419 and

note M.
Salic laws, how composed, iv. 364 and

note ; when published, 365 ; language
of, ib. note S.; lands, tenure of, 373

and note M.
SALICES, battle of between the Goths

and Romans, iii. 329.
Sallust, officer of Julian, his character,

ii. 414; made prætorian præfect in

Gaul by Julian, iii. 114.
SALLUST, præfect of the East, appointed

by Julian judge at Chaloedon, iii.
126; his virtues, ib. and note ; re-
fuses the empire on the death of
Julian, 216; his embassy to Sapor,
219; the diadem again offered to and
refused, 233; confounded by Gibbon
with Secundus, ib. note S.; Valen-
tinian l. opposes his wish to retire,
236 ; voluntarily resumes the præ-
fecture of the East on the revolt of

Procopius, 241.
SALLUST, palace of at Rome burnt by

the Goths, iv. 105; site of, ib. note.
Salona, the retreat of Diocletian, de-

scribed, ii. 101 ; palace, 102.
Salvian, his invectives against the

Carthaginians, iv. 186 ; account of
the rebellion of the Bagaudæ, 252,

SAMANIDES, Saracen dynasty of the, vi.

421 ; vii, 147 and note.
Samara on the Tigris, iii. 217 and

note S. ; residence of the caliph Mo-

tassem VI., 416 and notes.
SAMARCAND conquered by the Saracens,

vi. 300; manufacture of paper in, ih.
and note ; marriages of six of Ti
mour's grandsons magnificently cele-

brated at, viii. 62.
SAMARITANS, sect of described, vi. 37;

rebellion of under Justinian, 38.
SAMOYEDES, their manners, viii. 16.
SAMUEL, the prophet, his ashes trans-

ferred to Constantinople, iii. 428.
SANCTUARY privilege of transferred

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