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SAND.
0 Christian temples, iii. 35; Fra
Paolo's remarks on the abuse of,

ib. note.
Sand, a substitute for water in Ma-

hometan ablutions, vi. 232, 303, note.
SANGIAR, Seljukian sultan of Persia,

his character, vii. 249 and note.
SANGIBAN, king of the Alani, invites

the arms of Attila, iv. 232.
SAPAUDIA, or Savoy, when first men-

tioned in history, iv. 224.
SAPAADIN or Ardel, brother of Saladin,

refuses the hand of the sister of

Richard I., vii. 266.
SAPOR, son of Artaxerxes, king of Persia,

i. 346; his victories, 403; causes
Chosroes king of Armenia to be
assassinated, ib. ; takes Valerian
prisoner, 404; overruns Syria, Cili-
cia, and Cappadocia, ib.; cruelties,
405; his army harassed by Ode-
nathes, 406 ; treatment of Valerian,

ib.
SAPOB, son of Hormouz, king of Persia,

crowned before his birth, ii. 366 and
367, note M. ; subdues the Arabs,
367; besieges Nisibis, 368, 372 ;
occupies several fortresses in Meso-
potamia, ib.; persecutes the Chris-
tians, ib. note M. ; imposes hard con-
ditions of peace on Chosroes, king of
Armenia, 369; defeats Constantius
at Singara, 371; Sapor's son exe-
cuted by the Romans, ib.; abandons
the siege of Nisibis, 373; truce with
the Romans, ib.; haughty epistle to
Constantius, 404; invades Mesopo-
tamia, 406; besicges Amida, 407;
great losses before, 409; reduces Sin-
gara and Bezabde, 410; his distress
at the rapid progress of Julian, iii.
206; anxiety to conclude a peace, ib.;
joy on the death of Julian, 217;
treaty with Jovian, 219; artful de-
lay, ib.; terms imposed by him, ib.;
enters Armenia, 277; imprisons Ar-
saces Tiranus and reduces the king-
dom, 278; subdues Sauromaces, king
of the Iberians, ib. ; besieges Arto

gerassa, ib. ; death, 280.
SARACENS, Greek and Latin name for

the Arabians, vi. 204; its etymology,
ib. note, and note M.; assist the
Greeks in Italy, vii. 99; discomfited

in Sicily, 105 (v. Arabs).
SARAGOSSA, emir of restored by Charle-

'pagne, vi, 174.

PATURNINUS.
SARBAR, the Persian general, besieges

Constantinople, v. 405; revolts to

Heraclius, 408.
SARBARAZA, Persian general, vanquished

by Heraclius, v. 404.
SARDICA, interview of Constantius II.

and Vetranio at, ii. 378; Council of,
iii. 75; its dissensions, ib.; reveals
the first symptoms of schism between
the Greek and Latin churches, ib. ;
allowed appeals to the Roman pon-

tiffs, ib. note.
SARDINIA, Vandals expelled from by

Marcellinus, iv. 284; conquered by
Zano, brother of Gelimer, v. 111;

recovered by the Romans, 114.
SARMATIAN games, ii. 144, note.
SARMATIANS how distinguished from

Germans, i. 381; races of, ib. ; sig-
nally defeated by the emperor Carus,
ii. 53; allied with the Goths, 144;
account of, 357, 899.; Were Slavo-
nians, 359, note S.; war with the
Goths, 360; implore the aid of Con-
stantine the Great, ib. ; their ingrati-
tude induces Constantine to abandon
them, 361; defeated with great loss
by the Goths, 362 ; expelled by the
slaves whom they had armed, ib. ;
some retire among the Quadi, ib.; the
greater part received into the Roman
provinces, ib.; allied with the Quadi,
401; formed into a kingdom by Con-

stantius II., 402.
SARUS, a Gothic warrior, attempts the

life of Stilicho, iv. 61; received in
Ravenna by Honorius, 101 ; successo
ful sally against the Goths, ib.; enters
the service of Jovinus, 122 ; sur-

prised and killed by Adolphus, ib.
Sarus, river, battle at the, between

the Romans under Heraclius and

the Persians, v. 404.
SASIMA, wretchedness of that bishop-

rick, iii. 366.
SASSANIDES, Persian dynasty of the,

founded, i. 331 ; origin of that name,
ib. note; genealogical table of the,

348, note S.; fall of the, vi, 292.
SATALIA, the ancient Attalia, vii. 245

and note S.
SATRAPIES, Persian, i. 343 and note.
SATURNINÚS, competitor of Gallienus,

his observation on being made em-

peror, i, 411.
SATURNINUS, general of Probas, revolt

of, ii. 49.

SAUCE.

SEGUEN,
SAUCE, Elagabalus' punishment for a SCHAFARIK, character of his •Schla-
bad one, i, 282, note.

wische Alterthümer,' vii. 66, note M.
Saul, general of Stilicho, iv. 36. Schism, religious, origin of, ii. 163 and
SAUROMACES, king of the Iberians, de note G.

posed by Sapor, iii. 278; supported SCIENCE reducible to four classes, vi
by Valens, 279.

400.
Sausages, Bologna, how made, v. 143, Sciri, or SCIRBI, their situation, iv. 295.
note.

SCLAVONIANS, v. Slavonians.
Sauzes, son of Amurath I., forms a SCLERENA, concubine of Constantine

conspiracy with Andronicus, son of X., vi. 110.
John Palæologus, to murder their Sclerus, his rebellion suppressed by
fathers, viii. 35. discovered and Basil II., vi. 107.
blinded, ib.

Scodra, or SCUTARI, vii. 203 and note.
SAVELLI, Italian family of, viii. 220. Scots and Picts, how distinguished,
Savigny, his account of taxation under ji. 266; controversies concerning

Constantine, ii. 337, 341, notes S. their descent, 268, note and note S.;
Saxa RUBRA, battle of between Con invade Britain, 268.

stantine and Maxentius, ii. 132 ; site SCOURGE OF GOD,' epithet of Attila,
of, ib. note.

iv, 202 and note.
Saxons, when first mentioned, ii. 70, SCRIBONIANUS, revolt of, i. 211, note.

note; situation and manners of the, SCRINIA, four ministerial offices so
iii. 262; according to Dr. Latham, a called, ii. 326.
generic appellation, including Ger SCRIPTURES, Christians compelled to
mans, &c., 263, note S.; their ships, deliver up the, ii, 273; Eastern ver.
264 ; harass the coast of Gaul, ib.; sions of, vi. 45 and note.
settlements in Gaul at this time, ib. SCYRRI, tribe of the Huns, defeated, iv,
note S.; and iv. 234 and note ; their 160.
defeat, iii. 265; come to the defence Scythia, v. Tartary.
of Britain, iv. 387; massacre 300 SCYTHIANS confounded with the Goths,
British chiefs, ib. and note ; were in i. 401 (v. Tatars).
England before the date assigned to SEBASTIAN, count of Egypt, places
Hengist's invasion, 388, note S.; pro George of Cappadocia on the epis-
bable date of their earliest settle copal throne of Alexandria, iii. 83;
ments, ib.; havoc committed by, 394; despatched towards Nisibis by Julian,
influence on the British language, 189; fails in joining that emperor,
395 and note S.; vanquished, how 205.
treated by Charlemagne, vi. 170 and SEBASTIAN, general of Valens, his ex-
note, 174; character of the, by Liut ploits against the Goths, ii. 324;
prand, vii. 36.

killed at the battle of Hadrianople,
Saxony, ancient, boundaries of, vi. 175. 337.
SCABINI, or assessors, origin and elec SEBASTIAN created emperor by his
tion of, iv. 368 and note M.

brother Jovinus, iv. 122 ; put to
SCANDERBEG, prince of Albania, history death by Adolphus, king of the

of, viii. 135 ; revolt from and exploits Goths, 123.

against the Turks, 137; death, 138. SEBASTOCRATOR, title of invented by
SCANDINAVIA, ancient, i. 350, note; Alexius Comnenus, vii. 18.
subdued by Attila, iv. 196.

SECULAR GAMES, account of, i. 327.
SCARPonna, battle of between Jovinus SEEZ, the bishop and canons of cas-
and the Alemanni, iii. 258.

trated, viii. 191, note.
SCATINIAN LAW, account of, v. 322. SEDJAH, Arabian prophetess, her in-
Scaurus, degradation of the family of, terview with Moseilama, vi. 286 and
ii. 309, note.

note S.
SCEPTICISM, prevalence of among the SEGESTAN, independence of, i. 340,

pagans, ii. 205 ; assisted the growth note ; Rustan, prince of, ib.; alliance
of Christianity, ib.

with Sapor, ii. 408 and note.
SCEPTRE Greek, described, vii. 367, SEGUED, emperor of Abyssinia, con-
note,

verted to Roman Catholicism, vi. 66,

SEID BECHAR.
BEID BECHAR, descendant of the Pro-

phet, his false prediction of the fall

of Constantinople, viii. 71 and note.
SEJANUS, his rank and privileges, i.

276, note.
SELDEN, his remark on transubstan-

tiation, vi. 134.
SELEUCIA described, i. 341 ; sacked

and ruined, 342 ; besieged by the

Isaurians, ii. 395; council of, iii. 68.
SELEUCUS NICATOR, cities founded by,

i. 339, note; æra of, ib.
SELEUCUS, mount, site of, 384, notes ;

battle of between Constantius and

Magnentius, ii. 385.
SELGÆ, defeat of Tribigild the Ostro-

goth at, iv. 144.
SELIM I., sultan, his treaty with the

Mamalukes, vii. 274 and note.
SELJUK, grandfather of Togrul Beg,

founder of the Seljukian dynasty,
his history, vii, 153; family, 154,
note S.; division of their empire, 167
and note M.; extinguished by the

khans of Persia, viii. 13.
SELYMBRIA, besieged by Mahomet II.,

viii. 154.
SEMIRAMIS invented castration, ii. 386,

note.
SEMNO, chief of the Lygii, captured by

Probus, ii. 45.
SENATE, state of under Augustus, i.

197 ; functions under the empire,
205; attempts to recover its rights
after the murder of Caligula, 210;
its jurisdiction over the emperors,
236; Gibbon corrected, ib. note W.;
its acclamations, ib. note W.; con-
demns Julianus, 251; oppressed by
Severus, 261; indignant at the ele-
vation of Macrinus, 274; women
formally excluded from, 286; its
dignity restored by Al. Severus, 288;
secret form of convocation, 313 ; as-
sumes the reins of government, 314;
elects Maximus and Balbinus em-
perors, 315 ; excluded from military
employments, 394 ; prerogatives re-
gained under Tacitus, ii. 37; re-
fuses to name Florianus, the brother
of Tacitus, consul, 38; persecuted
and debased by Diocletian and Maxi-
mian, 91; Constantinopolitan, 301
and note; Roman, majority of, re-
mained Pagan under the Christian
emperors, ii. 408; were sworn at
the altar of Victory, ib.; four depu-

SERAPION.
tations for its restoration, 409; peti-
tion of Symmachus to Valentinian
for, ib.; solemn debate respecting
the worship of Jupiter or Christ,
411; truth of this fact examined,
ib, note M.; renounces Paganism,
ib.; consulted by Stilicho on the
demands of Alaric, iv. 58; grants
him 4000 lbs. of gold, 59; decrees
the death of Serena, 90; rejects the
heathen project of Pompeianus
against the arms of Alaric, 92; ne-
gociates with him, ib.; second em-
bassy to, 95 ; elects Attalus emperor,
99; close of its jurisdiction in Gaul,
288; supports Anthemius against
Olybrius, 293 ; epistle to the em-
peror Zeno, transferring the seat of
empire to the East, 299; extinction
of in the reign of Justinian, v. 235;
legislative power transferred to by
Tiberius, 265; decrees of had the
force of law previously, ib. note W.;
revival of in the twelfth century,
viii. 199; number and election of,

202.
SENATORS, Roman, qualification, i. 171,

note; and knights perform as gla-
diators, 232, note ; under Honorius,
their genealogical pretensions, iv. 71;
unfounded, 72 and note ; immense
wealth, 74 ; luxury and manners,
76 899.; young, permitted to take 6
per cent. interest, ib. note ; literary

studies, 82 and note.
SENATOR, office of, in the modern Ro-

man republic, viii. 202, 258.
SENECA, his 'Açorodoxúrtari, i. 207,

note M.; his theory of comets, v.

250 and note.
SENIORS, or lords, origin of, iv. 373.
SEPTEM, or Ceuta, adorned and forti.

fied by Justinian, v. 114.
SEPTIMANIA, Gothic and Roman, dis-

tinguished, iv. 128, note S.; Gothic
province of in Gaul (Languedoc),
361,363; conquered by the Saracens,

vi. 386 and note S.
SEPTIZONIUM of Severus at Rome, viji.

270; materials of, used by Sixtus V.

for St. Peter's, 277.
SERAI, city and palace of built by Batou

the Mongol, viii. 16.
SERAPEUM, or temple of Serapis at

Alexandria, v. Serapis.
SERAPION, relinquishes the doctrine of

anthropomorphism, vi. 7.

SERAPIS.
SERAPIS, account of the worship of in

Egypt, iii. 416 and note S. ; temple
of at Alexandria described, 417;
sacrifices tolerated in after their pro-
hibition by Theodosius, 418; tumults
respecting, ib.; temple demolished
by Theophilus, 419; Gibbon's ac-
count corrected, ib. note S.; statue

of described, 420; destruction of, ib.
SERENA, niece of Theodosius, married

to Stilicho, iv. 10; sirangled by order

of the Roman senatu, 90.
SERGEANTS, what, vii. 302, note.
SERGIOPOLIS, v. Rasaphe.
SERGIUS, nephew of Solomon the eu-

nuch, massacres the deputies of the
Moors at Leptis, v. 213 ; conspiracy
of against Justinian detected, 245;

implicates Belisarius, 246.
SERGIUS and Bacchus, saints and mar.

tyrs, their tomb at Rasaphe, v. 375

and note.
SERGIUS, the Paulician, virtues of, vü.

52.
SERIPHUS, isle of described, i. 220 and

note.
SERONATUS, præfect of Gaul, condemned

for corresponding with the Visigoths,

iv. 290.
SERVETUS, his execution by Calvin exa-

mined, vii. 60, note.
SERVIANS, overthrown by Simeon, king

of the Bulgarians, 68.
SERVIUS, walls of, ii. 16 and notes.
SESOSTRIS, long wall of, vi. 206, note.
Sestus, distance from Abydus, ii. 290.
SEVERA, wife of Valentinian I. and

mother of Gratian, iii. 291, sq.
SEVERIANUS put to death by Licinius,

ü. 136.
SEVERINA, widow of Aurelian, empress

at Alexandria, ii. 34, note S.
Severinus, St., his prediction to Odo-

acer, iv, 298; relics of, 301, note.
SEVERUS, Septimius, wall of in Britain,

i. 141, note S.; enlarges the province
of Arabia, 143, note S.; commander
in Pannonia, assumes the purple,
249 ; donative, ib. ; marches towards
Rome, ib.; Hume's mistake respect-
ing, ib. note; success against Niger
and Albinus, 253; artful policy, ib.
sq.; cruelty, 257; wise government,
258; military success, 259; relaxes
discipline, ib.; Gibbon's account
questioned, 260, note W.; reforms
the Prætorians, 260; oppresses the

SIBERIA.
senate, 261 ; establishes absolute go
vernment, 262; principal author of
the decline of the empire, ib. ; satiety,
263; addicted to magic and divina.
tion, ib. ; at first protected the Chris-
tians, ii. 257; publishes an edict
against them, 258; repairs to Britain,

265; death, 267.
SEVER08, Alexander, age, i, 278, note;

delared Cæsar, 283; accession to
the empire, 285; education and
way of life, 287; admonition to his
visitors, 288; refuses the name of
Antoninus, ib.; reforms the army,
289; firmness, 291 ; defects, 292;
histories of his life characterized, 293,
note; murdered, 307; pretended vic-
tory over Artaxerxes, 344 ; more
probable account, 345 ; associates the
statues of Abraham and Christ with
those of Orpheus and Apollonius, ii.
259; his design of building a Chris

tian temple examined, ib. note.
SEVERUS, officer of Galerius, declarec

Cæsar by him, ii. 108; and Augustus

112; defeat and death, 115.
SEVERUS appointed general of cavalry

under Julian, ii, 415.
SEVERUS, Sulpicius, the first author

of the ten persecutions, ii, 255, note.
SEVERUS, Libius, elected emperor at

the dictation of Ricimer, iv. 274.
Severus, patriarch of Antioch, his

theological tenets and persecutions,

vi. 53.
SEVILLE taken by Musa, vi. 360.
SEVIR, an officer of the Equites, i. 151,

note S.
SHAH MANSOUR, prince of Fars, valiant

defence against Timour, vii. 44 and

note.
SHAHAN SHAH, origin of that title, i.

331, note M.
SHAWER, bis faction in Egypt under

the Fatimite caliphs, vii. 251; mur-

dered by Shiracouh, 253.
SHEICKS, Arabian, how chosen, vi. 204.
SHEPHERD-Kings of Persia, dynasty of,

founded, vii. 153.
SHITES, Mahometans who reverence

Ali so called, vi. 272.
SHIRACOUH, emir of Noureddin, his

first expedition into Egypt, vii. 251;
second expedition, 252 ; third expeo

dition and conquest of, 253.
SIBERIA, description of, iii. 306; con-

quered by the Mongols, viii. 16.

BIBYLLINE.
SIBYLLINE books consulted by Aurelian,

ii. 15; verses, Christianity proved
from the by Constantine, iii. 19 and
note; books, burnt by Stilicho, iv.

63.
SIBYLS, Christian, ii. 218; predicted

the ruin of Rome in 195, ib. note.
SICHEM, or Naplous, city of the Sa-

maritans, site of, vi. 37, note.
SICILIAN Vespers, vii. 379.
SICILY, disorders in, i. 413; reunited

to the Roman empire by Belisarius,
v. 129 ; ravaged by Totila, 228 ; con-
quered by the Arabs, vi. 407; con-
quered by Roger the Norman, vii.
117;

princes of, perpetual legates of
the Holy See, 118; Roger 11. king
of, 132 ; reign of William the Bad,
141; of William the Good, 142; con-
quered by the emperor Henry VI.
144; subdued by Charles of Anjou,
376; separated from Naples and
transferred to the house of Arragon,

380.
SICORIUS PROBUS, his embassy to Nar-

ses, ii. 86.

SINGARA,
SILENTIARIUS, Paul, his description of

the marbles used in the church of

St. Sophia, v. 75, note.
SILENTIABY, office of at Constantinople,

v. 203, note.
SILINGI occupy Bætica, iv. 125.
SILK, how regarded by the Romans, i.

192 and note; manufacture of in
China and Cos, v. 57; Gibbon's
account corrected, ib. note S.; use of
by the Romans, 58; price of, ib.;
procured from the fish pinna marina,
ib.; silk trade, ib. ; worms intro-
duced into Greece, 61; silk manu-
facture in Greece, vii. 12; in Spain
and Sicily, ib.; in Italy, 13; when

established in England, ib. note.
SILURES, British tribe, i. 157.
SILVER the chief instrument of com-

merce, i. 192 and notes W. and M.;
increase of, 193; relative value to
gold under Constantine the Great, ii.

338, note S.
SILVESTER, St., pope, legend of Con-

stantine's donation to, vi. 161.
SIMEON, king of Bulgaria, history of,

vii. 68 and note S.; treaty with the

emperor Romanus, ib.
SIMEON STYLITES, the Syrian hermit,

his extraordinary penance, iv. 320;

reverence paid to, 321.
SIMEON METAPHRASTES, works of, vii.

3 and note.
SIMEON, Greek minister, cruelly exe-

cutes Constantine, the Paulician, vii.

51; converted to that faith, ib.
SIMEONS of Van or Ormia, Nestorian

sect, vi. 51.
SIMOCATTA THEOPHYLACT, bis Life of

the Emperor Maurice, v. 390.
SIMON THE MAGICIAN, odiousness of his

name, vi. 23 and note.
SIMON DE MONTFORT engages in the

fourth crusade, vii, 289, abandons

the enterprise, 296 and note M.
SIMONY, early instance of, ii. 262, note.
SIMPLICIUS, with six other philosophers,

seeks refuge at the court of Persia,

v. 93; character of his works, 94.
SINDBAL, leader of the Heruli under

Narses, his valour at the battle of
Casilinum, v. 240; hanged for rebel.

lion by Narses, 241.
SINGARA, site of, ii. 87, note; Gibbor

corrected, ib. note S.; battle of be-
tween Constantius and Sapor, 370;
taken by Sapor, 410.

SICULL, tribe of Huns, vii. 79 and

note S.
Sidon, manufactures of, v. 56 and note.
SIDONIUS APOLLINARIS, his metaphor

respecting the capitation tax, ii. 339;
his account of his father-in-law Avi-
tus, iv, 258 and note ; character of
Theodoric II., 260, sq.; panegyric on
Avitus, 263 ; joins a faction in Gaul,
265; panegyric on Majorian, 266,
note; panegyric on Anthemius, 281;
made præfect of Rome, ib.; literary

style, 288, note.
SIENPI, tribe of oriental Tatars, iii. 312;

revolutions of that people, iv. 43 ;

assume the name of Topa, ib.
SIFFIN, plain of, war of Ali and Moawi-

yah on, vi. 275.
SIGANFU, inscription of, its authen-

ticity, vi. 50, and note M.
SIGISMUND, king of the Burgundians,

guilt and subsequent piety, iv. 356;
founds the monastery of Agaunum,
ib.; defeated and buried alive by the

sons of Clovis, ib.
SIGISMUND, emperor, protects the synod

of Basil, viii. 93; receives the
Turkish ambassadors in their pre-

sence, ib.
SIGISMUND, King of Hungary, defeated

by the sultan Bajazet, viii. 32.

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