nation, were strongly attached to the unity of the empire; and Romania and Anatolia, so often torn asunder by private Reunioc cf ambition, were animated by a strong and invincible ten- the Ottoman dency of cohesion. Their efforts might have instructed the A.D. 1421. Christian

powers ; and had they occupied, with a confederate fleet, the straits of Gallipoli, the Ottomans, at least in Europe, must have been speedily annihilated. But the schism of the West, and the factions and wars of France and England, diverted the Latins from this generous enterprise : they enjoyed the present respite, without a thought of futurity; and were often tempted by a monientary interest to serve the common enemy of their religion. A colony of Genoese, 76 which had been planted at Phocæa" on the Ionian coast, was enriched by the lucrative monopoly of alum ;78 and their tranquillity, under the Turkish empire, was secured by the annual payment of tribute.

In the last civil war of the Ottomans, the Genoese governor, Adorno, a bold and ambitious youth, embraced the party of Amurath ; and undertook, with seven stout galleys, to transport him from Asia to Europe. The sultan and five hundred guards embarked on board the admiral's ship; which was manned by eight hundred of the bravest Franks. His life and liberty were in their hands; nor can we, without reluctance, applaud the fidelity of Adorno, who, in the midst of the passage, knelt before him, and gratefully accepted a discharge of his arrears of tribute. They landed in sight of Mustapha and Gallipoli; two thousand Italians, armed with lances and battle-axes, attended Amurath to the conquest of Adrianople; and this venal service was soon repaid by the ruin of the commerce and colony of Phocæa.

If Timour had generously marched at the request, and to the relief, of the Greek emperor, he might be entitled to the praise and gratitude of the Christians."' But a Musulman the Greek who carried into Georgia the sword of persecution, and respected the holy warfare of Bajazet, was not disposed to

State of


A.D. 1402-1425.

18 See Pachymer (1. v. c. 29 (c. 30, tom. i. p. 420, ed. Bonn]), Nicephorus Gregoras (1. ii. c. 1 (xv. 71 vol. ii. p. 756, ed. Bonn]), Sherefeddin (1. v. c. 57), and Ducas (c. 25). The last of these, a curious and careful observer, is entitled, from his birth and station, to particular credit in all that concerns Ionia and the islands. Among the nations that resorted to New Phocæa, he mentions the English ('Iyzdôvodu (p. 161, ed. Bonn]); an early evidence of Mediterranean trade.

T For the spirit of navigation and freedom of ancient Phocæa, or rather of the Phocæans, consult the 1st book of Herodotus, and the Geographical Index of his last and learned French translator, M. Larcher (tom. vii. p. 299).

78 Phocæa is not enumerated by Pliny (Hist. Nat. xxxv. 52) among the places productive of alum: he reckons Egypt as the first, and for the second the isle of Melos, whose alum-mines are described by Tournefort (tom, i. lettre iv.), a traveller and a naturalist. After the loss of Phocæa, the Genoese, in 1459, found that useful mineral in the isle of Ischia (Ismael. Bouillaud, ad Ducam, c. 25).

* The writer who has the most abused this fabulous generosity is our ingeniowa

vity or succour the idolaters of Europe. The Tarlar followed the impulse of ambition ; and the de iverance of Constantinople was 1.he accidental consequence. When Manuel abdicated the government, it was his prayer, rather than his hope, that the ruin of the church and state might be delayed beyond his unhappy days; and after his return from a western pilgrimage, he expected every hour :he news of the sad catastrophe. On a sudden he was astonished and rejoiced by the intelligence of the retreat, the overthrow, and .he captivity of the Ottoman. Manuel 60 immediately sailed from Modon in the Morea ; ascended the throne of Constantinople, and dismissed his blind competitor to an easy exile in the isle of Lesbos. The ambassadors of the son of Bajazet were soon introduced to his presence; but their pride was fallen, their tone was modest : they were awed by the just apprehension lest the Greeks should open to the Moguls the gates of Europe. Soliman saluted the emperor by the name of father; solicited at his hands the government or gift of Romania , and promised to deserve his favour by inviolable friendship, and the restitution of Thessalonica, with the most important places along the Strymon, the Propontis, and the Black Sea. The alliance of Soliman exposed the emperor to the enmity and revenge of Mousa : the Turks appeared in arms before the gates of Constantinople; but they were repulsed by sea and land; and unless the city was guarded by some foreign mercenaries, the Greeks must have wondered at their own triumph. But, instead of prolonging the division of the Ottoman powers, the policy or passion of Manuel was tempted to assist the most formidable of the sons of Bajazet. He concluded a treaty with Mahomet, whose progress was checked by the insuperable barrier of Gallipoli : the sultan and his troops were transported over the Bosphorus; he was hospitably entertained in the capital ; and his successful sally was the first step to the conquest of Romania. The ruin was suspended by the prudence and moderation of the conqueror : he faithfully discharged his own obligations and those of Soliman; respected the laws of gratitude and peace'; and left the emperor guardian of his two younger sons, in the vain hope of saving them from the jealous cruelty of their brother Amurath. But the execution of his last testament would have offended the national nonour and religion ; and the divan unanimously pronounced that

Sir William Terple (his Works, vol. iii. p. 349, 350, octavo edition), that lover of exotic virtue. After the conquest of Russia, &c., and the passage of the Danube, his Tartar hero relieves, visits, adinires, and refuses the city of Constantine. His flattering pencil deviates in every line from the truth of history; yet his pleasing fictions are more excusable than the gross errors of Cantemir.

80 For the reigns of Manuel and John, of Mahomet I. and Amurath II., see the Othman history of Cantemir (p. 70-95), and the three Greeks, Chalcocondyles, Phranza, Mod Ducas, who is still superior to his rivals.

the roya. youths should never be abandoned to the custody and education of a Christian dog. On this refusal the Byzantine councils were divided : but the age and caution of Manuel yielded to the presumption of his son John ; and they unsheathed a dangerous weapon of revenge, by dismissing the true or false Mustapha, who had long been detained as a captive and hostage, and for whose maintenance they received an annual pension of three hundred thousand aspers. At the door of his prison, Mustapha subscribed to every proposal; and the keys of Gallipoli, or rather of Europe, were stipulated as the price of his deliverance. But no sooner was he seated on the throne of Romania than he dismissed the Greek ambassadors with a smile of contempt, declaring, in a pious tone, that, at the day of judgment, he would rather answer for the violation of an oath, than for the surrender of a Musulman city into the hands of the infidels. The emperor was at once the enemy of the two rivals, from whom he had sustained, and to whom he had offered, an injury; and the victory of Amurath was followed, in the ensuing spring, by the siege of Constantinople. 82

The religious merit of subduing the city of the Cæsars attracted from Asia a crowd of volunteers, who aspired to the crown of martyrdom ; their military ardour was inflamed by the Constantipromise of rich spoils and beautiful females ; and the sultan's Amuraih IL ambition was consecrated by the presence and prediction of June 10-Seid Bechar, a descendant of the prophet,83 who arrived in the camp, on a mule, with a venerable train of five hundred disciples. But he might blush, if a fanatic could blush, at the failure of his assurances. The strength of the walls resisted an army of two nundred thousand Turks : their assaults were repelled by the sallies of the Greeks and their foreign mercenaries; the old resources of defence were opposed to the new engines of attack; and the enthusiasm

Siege of

August 24.

# The Turkish asper (from the Greek dorpós) is, or was, a piece of white or silver money, at present much debased, but which was formerly equivalent to the 54th part, at least, of a Venetian ducat or sequin; and the 300,000 aspers, a princely allowance or royal tribute, may be computed at 25001. sterling (Leunclav. Pandect. Turc. p. 406-408).*

** For the siege of Constantinople in 1422, see the particular and contemporary narrative of John Cananus, published by Leo Allatius, at the end of his edition of Acropolita (p. 188-199).

o Cantemir, p. 80. Cananus, who describes Seid Bechar without naming him, supposes that the friend of Mahomet assumed in his amours the privilege of a prophet, and that the fairest of the Greek nuns were promised to the saint and his disciples.

• According to Von Hammer this cal for the same tribute which the Byzantine culation is much too low. The asper was, writers state at 300,000 aspers the Ottoa century before the time of which Leun- mans state at 30,000 ducats, about 15,0001. clavitus writes, the tenth part of a ducat; Note, vol. i. p. 636.-M.


The einperor John Palæolo

gus II.

A.D. 1425,

A.D. 1448,
Oct. 31.


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of the dervish, who was snatched to heaven in visionary converse with Mahomet, was answered by the credulity of the Christians, who beheld the Virgin Mary, in a violet garment, walking on the rampart and animating their courage. After a siege of two months Amurath was recalled to Boursa by a domestic revolt, which had been kindled by Greek treachery, and was soon extinguished by the death of a guiltless brother. While he led his Janizaries to new

conquests in Europe and Asia, the Byzantine empire was indulged in a servile and precarious respite of thirty years.

Manuel sank into the grave; and John Palæologus was July 21

permitted to reign, for an annual tribute of three hundred

thousand aspers, and the dereliction of almost all that he held beyond the suburbs of Constantinople. In the establishment and restoration of the Turkish empire the

first merit must doubtless be assigned to the personal Hereditary

qualities of the sultans; since, in human life, the most and merit of the Otta important scenes will depend on the character of a single

actor. By some shades of wisdom and virtue they may be discriminated from each other ; but, except in a single instance, a period of nine reigns, and two hundred and sixty-five years, is occupied, from the elevation of Othman to the death of Soliman, by a rare series of warlike and active princes, who impressed their subjects with obedience and their enemies with terror. Instead of the slothful luxury of the seraglio, the heirs of royalty were educated in the council and the field : from early youth they were intrusted by their fathers with the command of provinces and armies; and this inanly institution, which was often productive of civil war, must have essentially contributed to the discipline and vigour of the monarchy. The Ottomans cannot style themselves, like the Arabian caliphs, the descendants or successors of the apostle of God; and the kindred which they claim with the Tartar khans of the house of Zingis appears to be founded in flattery rather than in truth.85 Their origin is obscure; but their sacred and indefeasible right, which no time can erase, and no violence can infringe, was soon and unalterably implanted in the minds of their subjects. A weak or vicious sultan may be deposed and strangled; but his inheritance devolves to an infant or an idiot: nor has the most daring rebel presumed to ascend the throne of his lawful sovereign.


* For this miraculous apparition Cananus appeals to the Musulman saint; but who will bear testimony for Seid Bechar!

86 See Rycaut (1. i. c. 13). The Turkish sultans assume the title of khan. Yet Abulghazidis ignorant of his Ottoman cousins.

* The third grand vizir of the name of Kiuperli, who was slain at the battle of Salankanen in 1691 (Cantemir, p. 382), presumed to say that all the successors of

A.D. 1425-1448.



While the transient dynasties of Asia have been continually subverted by a crafty vizir in the palace or a victorious general in the camp, the Ottoman succession has been confirmed by the practice of five centuries, and is now incorporated with the vital principle of the Turkish nation.

To the spirit and constitution of that nation a strong and singular influence may however be ascribed. The primitive subjects Education of Othman were the four hundred families of wandering pline of the Turkmans who had followed his ancestors from the Oxus "Turks. to the Sangar; and the plains of Anatolia are still covered with the white and black tents of their rustic brethren. But this original drop was dissolved in the mass of voluntary and vanquished subjects, who, under the name of Turks, are united by the common ties of religion, language, and manners. In the cities from Erzeroum to Belgrade, that national appellation is common to all the Moslems, the first and most honourable inhabitants; but they have abandoned, at least in Romania, the villages and the cultivation of the land to the Christian peasants. In the vigorous age of the Ottoman government the Turks were themselves excluded from all civil and military honours ; and a servile class, an artificial people, was raised by the discipline of education to obey, to conquer, and to command. 8 From the time of Orchan and the first Amurath the sultans were persuaded that a government of the sword must be renewed in each generation with new soldiers; and that such soldiers must be sought, not in effeminate Asia, but among the hardy and warlike natives of Europe. The provinces of Thrace, Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Servia became the perpetual seminary of the Turkish army ; and when the royal fifth of the captives was diminished by conquest, an inhuman tax of the fifth child, or of every fifth year, was rigorously levied on the Christian families. At the

At the age of twelve or fourteen years the most robust youths were torn from their parents ; their names were enrolled in a book; and from that moment they were clothed, taught, and maintained for the public service. According to the promise of their appearance, they were selected for the royal schools of Boursa, Pera, and Adrianople, intrusted to the care of the bashaws, or dispersed in the houses of the Anatolian peasantry. It was the first care of their masters to instruct them in


Soliman had been fools or tyrants, and that it was time to abolish the race (Marsigli, Stato Militare, &c., p. 28). This political heretic was a good Whig, and justified against the French ambassador the revolution of England (Mignot, Hist. des Ottomana, tom, üü. p. 434). His presumption condemns the singular exception of continuing offices in the same family.

87 Chalcocondyles (1. v.) and Ducas (c. 23) exhibit the rude lineaments of th: Otto. man policy, and the transmutation of Christian children into Turkish soldiers.

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