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WARD, LESTER F. Evolution of Social Structures
WESTERMARCK, EDWARD. The Position of Women in Early Civilization
WOODHEAD, HOWARD. The First German Municipal Exposition. IV

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ALLMAN, JAMES. God's Children.-C. R. H.

133

ANGELL, JAMES R. Psychology.- Helen B. Thompson.

691

ASAKAWA, K. The Russio-Japanese Conflict.— Ferdinand Schwill.

701

BARROWS, SAMUEL J. Children's Courts in the United States. — C. R.
Henderson

839
Batt, JOHN H. Dr. Barnardo.-C. R. Henderson.

838
BAUMGARTEN, O. Predigt-Probleme.-C. R. Henderson.
BÉCHEUX, A. La Reglementation du Travail. — C. R. Henderson.

839

BERTILLON, JACQUES. L'Alcoolisme et les moyens de le combattre.-C. R. H. 132

BOLEN, GEORGE L. Getting a Living.-C. R. H.

131

BOULARD, EDOUARD. Intégralisme, Philosophie et Sociologie.-C. R. H. 255
Charity Organization Society, New York. A Hand Book on the Prevention
of Tuberculosis.-C. R. H.

132

CHARBONNEL, VICTOR. Monsieur, Madame et

l'Autre.-A. and H. H. 559

Corson, ELIZABETH. The Child Housekeeper.-C. R. Henderson.

840

CRAFTS, DR. AND Mrs. WILBUR F. Intoxicants and Opium in all Lands and

Times. C. R. H.

559

Da Costa, Gaston. La Commune vécue. Tome 1.- A. and H. Hamon. 253

DEVINE, EDWARD T. The Principles of Relief.— Charles R. Henderson. 554

DE FOREST, ROBERT W. Veillu, Lawrence. First Report of the Tenement

House Department of the City of New York. — C. R. Henderson.

836

ENGELS, FREDERICK. Feuerbach, The Roots of the Socialist Philosophy.-

C. R. Henderson.

841

Gilman, N. P. Methods of Industrial Peace.— Charles R. Henderson. 557

GRUBB, EDWARD. Methods of Penal Administration in the United States.-

C. R. Henderson.

Hall, G. STANLEY. Adolescence.— H. Heath Bawden.
HANOTAUX, GABRIEL. Histoire de la France contemporaine. Tome I,
1871-1900.- A. and H. Hamon.

252
HAYES, EDWARD C. Sociological Construction Lines. I

623

II

750

HEARN, LAFCADIO. Japan.— Edmund Buckley.

545
HENDERSON, C. R. The School of Character in Prison.- 2. R. Brockway. I 27
HERZFELD, Gustav. “ Die Stellung der Amerikanischen Wohltätigkeits-
vereine."- R. C. Brooks.

254

HOWARD, GEORGE E. History of Matrimonial Institutions.— William I.

Thomas.

I 29

Howitt, A. W. The Native Tribes of Southeast Australia.-W. I. Thomas. 700

HUBERT-VALLEROUX, P. La Coopération.-C. R. H.

255

HUNTER, ROBERT. Poverty.— Florence Kelley.

555
KELLOR, FRANCES A. Out of Work. - Charles R. Henderson,

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LADOFF, ISADOR. American Pauperism and the Abolition of Pauperism.-

C. R. Henderson.

840

Library of Congress : A. L. A. Catalogue.- Frank L. Tolman.

698

MILLIN, GEORGE F. The Village Problem.-C. R. H.

133

MITCHELL, John. Organized Labor.-C. R. Henderson,

131

MÜNSTERBERG, Hugo. Die Amerikaner.— Albion W. Small.

245

NAQUET, ALFRED. L'anarchie et le collectivisme.— A. and H. Hamon.

550
NUMBER 1500. Life in Sing Sing.–C. R. H.
PUTNAM, DANIEL. Development of Primary and Secondary Public Education
in Michigan.-C. R. Henderson.

838
RIPERT, J. B. Politique et Religion.— A. and H. H.
SIMONS, A. M. Class Struggles in America.-C. H. Henderson.

840
SPENCER AND GILLEN. The Northern Tribes of Central Australia.-W. I.
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700
State Board of Charities of New York. Report for Year 1903. Vol. III

Charity Legislation in New York 1609–1900.-C. R. Henderson.
THORNDIKE, EDWARD L. An Introduction to the Theory of Mental and Social

Measurements.- Wesley C. Mitchell.
WHITTEN, ROBERT H. Year Book of Legislation, 1903.— C. R. Henderson. 838
WUTTKE, ROBERT. Die deutschen Städte.— Howard Woodhead.

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THE AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY

VOLUME X

JULY, 1904

NUMBER I

66

EUGENICS: ITS DEFINITION, SCOPE, AND AIMS.1

EUGENICS is the science which deals with all influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race; also with those that develop them to the utmost advantage. The improvement of the inborn qualities, or stock, of some one human population will alone be discussed here.

What is meant by improvement? What by the syllable eu in eugenics,” whose English equivalent is “good” ? There is considerable difference between goodness in the several qualities and in that of the character as a whole. The character depends largely on the proportion between qualities, whose balance may be much influenced by education. We must therefore leave morals as far as possible out of the discussion, not entangling ourselves with the almost hopeless difficulties they raise as to whether a character as a whole is good or bad. Moreover, the goodness or badness of character is not absolute, but relative to the current form of civilization. A fable will best explain what is meant. Let the scene be the zoölogical gardens in the quiet hours of the night, and suppose that, as in old fables, the animals are able to converse, and that some very wise creature who had easy access to all the cages, say a philosophic sparrow or rat, was engaged in collecting the opinions of all sorts of animals with a view of elaborating a system of absolute morality. It is needless to enlarge on the contrariety of ideals between the beasts that prey and those they prey upon, between those of the animals that have to work hard for their food and the seclentary parasites that cling to their bodies and suck their blood, and so forth. A large number of suffrages in favor of maternal affection would be obtained, but most species of fish would repudiate it, while among the voices of birds would be heard the musical protest of the cuckoo. Though no agreement could be reached as to absolute morality, the essentials of eugenics may be easily defined. All creatures would agree that it was better to be healthy than sick, vigorous than weak, well-fitted than ill-fitted for their part in life; in short, that it was better to be good rather than bad specimens of their kind, whatever that kind might be. So with men. There are a vast number of conflicting ideals, of alternative characters, of incompatible civilizations; but they are wanted to give fulness and interest to life. Society would be very dull if every man resembled the highly estimable 'Marcus Aurelius or Adam Bede. The aim of eugenics is to represent each class or sect by its best specimens; that done, to leave them to work out their common civilization in their own way.

1 Read before the Sociological Society at a meeting in the School of Economics (London University), on May 16, 1904.

Professor Karl Pearson, F.R.S., in the chair.

A considerable list of qualities can easily be compiled that nearly everyone except “cranks” would take into account when picking out the best specimens of his class. It would include health, energy, ability, manliness, and courteous disposition. Recollect that the natural differences between dogs are highly marked in all these respects, and that men are quite as variable by nature as other animals of like species. Special aptitudes would be assessed highly by those who possessed them, as the artistic faculties by artists, fearlessness of inquiry and veracity by scientists, religious absorption by mystics, and so on. There would be self-sacrificers, self-tormentors, and other exceptional idealists; but the representatives of these would be better members of a community than the body of their electors. They would have more of those qualities that are needed in a state — more vigor, more ability, and more consistency of purpose. The community might be trusted to refuse representatives of criminals, and of others whom it rates as undesirable.

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