taken in great abundance in the autumn, and salted for winter consumption. It is then a very dark-looking, coarse fish, anything but a delicacy, and, when salted, very inferior to cod : it is caught out in the open sea, near any small islands where there is a strong current. Very strong tackle is required to secure it: a large hook covered with cotton or wool is the bait generally used ; the line is very strong and lengthy, wound round a common reel. This does not, however, always answer the purpose effeciently, as the fishermen frequently have their hands much damaged by the rapidity and violence with which the cord passes when a large fish is first hooked, as he generally goes off at a tremendous pace,—so that a large strong multiplying reel would be the proper article for the purpose.

But to return to the rod fishing : in addition to leith and seith, herring, when they come into the loch, may be taken in the same manner in great abundance; I have taken 100 in one evening. Sometimes small cod and mackerel will also rise at the white fly; but there is a better and more successful way of taking mackerel, which I will explain in another chapter. I have also occasionally caught small salmon-trout with the white fly. When the herring come in large shoals near the coast in the west part of Scotland in the month of June, they not only give wonderful sport to the amateur fisherman, but afford a large and useful supply of food to the poor inhabitants of the vicinity. On these occasions every boat is brought into service; and it is rather an interesting sight on a fine summer's evening, just at sunset, to see from twelve to fifteen boats afloat, each containing four or five persons with eight or ten rods out at the stern, drawn up as it were in line, like so many horses ready to start for a race, on the tranquil surface of some bay contiguous to the ocean, awaiting the disappearance of the sun below the horizon and the arrival of the herrings on the surface.

This wished-for event takes place immediately after the sun has gone down, and if the tide has begun to flow, is instantly indicated by thousands of bubbles upon the glassy surface of the deep; every boat is in motion, and all the oars in a state of activity to reach the wished-for spot. One person rows the boat, and two or three manage the rods; and these will be kept in a continual state of activity for one or two hours, when the herrings in an instant disappear to the bottom without any apparent reason. The boat must be rowed gently over the spot where the herrings are in motion. No number of boats appears to disturb the herrings, or prevent them taking the fly when they are in the right humour. If the night be exactly favourable, and the herrings in the best mood for taking

the fly, three rods will be as much as one person can manage, as he will frequently have a fish on each line at the same time; consequently he who can exercise more skill in expeditiously bringing his fish in, unhooking him, and throwing out his line again, will catch most fish. The line ought not to be longer than the rod, so that you can readily swing the fish into the boat without his striking the sides of it; in which case he would fall off, as the least thing disengages a herring, his mouth being very tender.

A light macintosh is a very desirable garment for these occasions, as, in swinging the herring in, nine out of ten come against your body; in fact, you ought, for the purpose of expedition, give exactly that impulse to your line that the fish may just reach you and drop between your legs; in which case the macintosh acts as a protection from the scales of the herrings, with which you would be otherwise covered. Sometimes the herrings, although numerous, will not appear upon the surface. You must then immerse your rod perpendicularly in the water, as far as you can; this will often succeed. When the herrings are numerous, they will take the white hook without any feather upon it as readily as they will take a covered one.


WHEN mackerel are abundant, and the day suitable, they afford excellent sport with the leaded line. The day must not be too bright; in fact, the less sun the better: and there must be a slight breeze, just sufficient to fill the sail of a small boat, so that you may pass over the places where you see the mackerel playing at a moderate pace, having your lines out at the stern of the boat. The line may be about fifty feet in length, with a yard of strong gut at the end; the hook of moderate size; the lead must be about three yards from the end of the line, five inches in length, of sufficient weight just to keep the line under the water when sailing with a steady breeze.

The best bait is a small piece of the under part of the mackerel, about two inches in length, and a quarter of an inch in breadth, tapering towards one end, the hook merely run through the wider end. The end of the line may be fastened to the side of the boat, for better security; and this ought to be done in the first instance, to prevent the line from slipping through your fingers as you are letting it out; you will, of course, hold the line in your hand, occasionally drawing it gently towards you and then gradually letting it out again. You will readily perceive when you have a bite, as the mackerel are strong for their size, and bite sharply. The resistance offered by the advancing of the boat, at the same time that it hooks them, adds very sensibly to their weight.

When your fish is hooked, draw him in gradually, not allowing the line to become slack, and then lift him gently and perpendicularly into the boat, as he is less liable to become unhooked in this position. On a good day each line may take several dozen. If there be no wind, so that the sail cannot be used, you can then have recourse to the oars; but you must not expect as good sport as with the sail ; though you may take a few.

If you have no mackerel for a bait to start with, you can try a white fly, or a bit of red cloth; with both of these I have frequently taken them. If you do not see any mackerel playing anywhere on the surface of the water, observe where the gulls are hovering, and try under them, as both gulls and mackerel will be in pursuit of the young herring, and consequently not far distant one from the other.

Mackerel generally come into the sea-water lochs in the West of Scotland in the month of July, and are very abundant till the middle of the month of September, when it is supposed they take their departure; but their movements are

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