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280. Revolt of Bonosus and Proculus in Gaul .
oph of the Emperor Probis
is Discipline . -

eath .

OF ORDER AND *AN&UILLITY. —THE PERSIAN waR, VICTORY,
TRIUMPH.--THE New FORM OF ADMINISTRATION.—ABDICATION
RETIREMENT OF DIOCLETIAN AN

D MAXIMIAN.
285. Elevation and Character of Diocletian
His Clemency

armony of the four Princes.
Series of Events . - - - -
287. State of the Peasants of Gaul.
Their Rebellion , - -
And Chastisement - -

287. Revolt of Carausius in Britain

Importance of Britain . -

Power of Carausius

296. Recovery of Britain by Constantius.

Defence of the Frontiers

Fortifications - - -

Lissensions of the Barbarians.

Conduct of the Emperors

Valour of the Caesars -

Treatment of the Barbarians
Wars of Africa and Egypt

296. Conduct of Diocletian in Egypt
He suppresses Books of Alchymy

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A.D. PAG1-

Novelty and orogress of that Art . . . . 437

The Persian War . - - - - - - - 4.38

282. Tiridates the Armenian - - - - - . 435

286. His Restor” to the Throne of Armenia - - 439

State of the Country . - - - - - - 439

Revolt of the People and Nobles . - - - . 439

story of Mango . - - - - - - • 440

The Persians rocover Armenia - - - . 441

296. War between the Persians and the Romans - - . 442

post of Galerius. ... "... “ ". . . . 443

his reception by Diocletian . . . . . . 443

297. Second Cam Pośn of Galerius. - - - - - 4:44

His Victory – - - e - - - 444

His Behavio" to his Royal Captives - e - • 84.5

Negotiation for Peace . . . . . . . . . 445

speech of the Persian Ambassador . - - - - 4.46

Answer of Galerius - - - - - - . 446

Moderation of Diocletian . - - - - . 446

conclusion of "Treaty of Peace . . - - . 447

Articles of the Treaty . - - - - - . 447

The Åboras fixed as the Limits between the Empires - 4.48

Cession of five Provinces beyond the Tigris . - . 448

Armenia • - - - - • - - - 4:49

Iberia. ‘.... , "... " - - - - - . 449

808. Triumph of Diocletian and Maximian - - - 450

Long Absence of the Emperors from Rome - - . 451

Their Residence at Milan . - - e - • 451

at Nicomedia - - - - . 452

Debasement of Rome and of the Senate . - - . 452

New Bodies of Guards,-Jovians, and Herculians - - 453

Civil Magistracies laid aside . - - - - • 454

Imperial Dignity and Titles, . - - - ; . . 435

Diocletian assumes the Diadem, and introduces the Persian

Ceremonial - - - - - - 453

New Form of Administration, two Augusti and two Caesars 457

Increase of Taxes. - - - - - - - 458

Abdication of Diocletian and Maximian . - - - 460

Resemblance to Charles the Fifth . - e - • 460

804. Long Illness of Diocletian . - - - - - 460

His Prudence . - - - - - - • 461

Compliance of Maximian • - - - - • 462

Retirement of Diocletian at Salona. - - - • 463

His Philosophy . - - - - - - • 463

313. His Death . . . . . . . . . . " " 464

Description of Salona and the adjacent Country . . 434

Of Diocletian's Palace . o - - - - • 465

Decline of the Arts - - - - - - • 466

of Letters -> - - - e - • 466

The New Platonists e - e e - - 467

A.D. PAGE

305-323. Period of Civil Wars and Confusion - - . 469

Character and Situation of Constantius . - - . 470

Of Galerius. - - - - - - - . 470

The two Caesars, Severus and Maximin - - . 471

Ambition of Galerius disappointed by two Revolutions . 472

274. Birth, Education, and Escape of Constantine . - . 472

806. Death of Constantius, and Elevation of Constantine . . 474

He is acknowledged by Galerius, who gives him only the

Title of Caesar, and that of Augustus to Severus . 475

The Brothers and Sisters of Constantine . - - . 476

Discontent of the Romans at the Apprehension of Taxes . 477

806. Maxentius declared Emperor at Rome . - - . 478

Maximian re-assumes the Purple . - - - . 479

807. Defeat and Death of Severus . - - - - . 480

Maximian gives his Daughter Fausta, and the Title of

Augustus, to Constantine . - - - . 481

Galerius invades Italy - - - - . 481

His Retreat. - - - - - - - . 482

307. Elevation of Licinius to the Rank of Augustus . - . 484

Elevation of Maximin . - - - - - . 484

308. Six Emperors - - - - - - . 485

Misfortunes of Maximian - - - - - . 485

310. His Death . - - - - - - • . 486

311. Death of Galerius - - - - s - . 487

His Dominion shared between Maximin and Licinius . 488

306–312. Administration of Constantine in Gaol - . 489

Tyranny of Maxentius in Italy and Africa - - . 490

312. Civil War between Constantine and Maxentius. - . 491

Preparations - - - - - - - . 492

Constantine passes the Alps . - - - e - 493

Battle of Turin . - - - - - - . 495

Siege and Battle of Werona o - - - . 496

Indolence and Fears of Maxentius . - e - . 497

312. Victory of Constantine near Rome . - - - . 499

His Reception . - - - - - . 500

His Conduct at Rome . - - - - - . 500

313. His Alliance with Licinius . - - - . 502

War between Maximin and Licinius e - - . 503

The Defeat of Maximin - - e - e. . 504

His Death - - - - - - - . 504

Cruelty of Jicinius - - . 505

l CONTENTS.

A.D. PA Gre 314. Quarrel between.Constantine and Licinius - e • 507 First Civil War between them - - - • 508 814. Battle of Cibalis . . . . - - 509 Battle of Mardia . - . 510 Treaty of Peo - - - - - - . 511 315–323. Genero! Peace, and Laws of Constantine. - . 512 322. The Gothic."o . - - - - - - . 515 823. Second Civil War between Constantine and Licinius . • 516 Battle of Hadrianople . - - - - - . 518 siege of Byomium, and Naval Victory of Crispus . 519 Baile of Chrysopolis, . e - - - - . 520 submission.” Peath of Licinius . . . . . to

324. Reunion of * iro. . . . . . • & 22.

THE

HISTORY

or THE

DECLINE AND FALL

or

THE ROMAN EMPIRE,

CHAPTER I.

THE EXTENT AND MILITARY FORCE OF THE EMPIRE IN THE AGod
OF THE ANTONIn ES.

IN the second century of the Christian era, the empire of Rome comprehended the fairest part of the earth, and the most civilized portion of mankind. The frontiers of that extensive monarchy were guarded by ancient renown and disciplined valour. The gentle, but powerful, influence of laws and manners had gradually cemented the union of the provinces. Their peaceful inhabitants enjoyed and abused the advantages of wealth and luxury. The image of a free constitution was preserved with decent reverence: the Roman senate appeared to possess the sovereign authority, and devolved on the emperors all the executive powers of government. . During a happy period of more than fourscore years, the public administration was conducted by the virtue and abilities of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the two Antonines. It is the design of this, and of the two succeeding chapters, to describe the prosperous,condition of their empire; and afterwards, from the death of Marcus Antoninus, to deduce the most important, circumstances of its decline and fall; a revolution which will ever be rememhered, and is still felt, by the nations of the earth. Io

WOL. I.

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