« ForrigeFortsett »
Opinion of the Court.
1; Central Transportation Co. v. Pullman Palace Car Co., 139 U. S. 24.
The power, therefore, must be granted in express words or necessarily to be implied. What does the latter mean? Mr. Justice Jackson, in Grand Rapid &c. Power Co. v. Grand Rapid &c. Co., supra, says: "that munici
pal corporations possess and can exercise only such powers as are granted in express words, or those necessarily or fairly implied, in or incident to the powers expressly conferred, or those essential to the declared objects and purposes of the corporation, not simply convenient, but indispensable.' The italics are his. This would make "necessarily implied" mean inevitably implied. The Court of Appeals of the Sixth Circuit, by Circuit Judge Lurton, adopts Lord Hardwicke's explanation, quoted by Lord Eldon in Wilkinson v. Adam, 1 Ves. & B. 422, 466, that "a necessary implication means not natural necessity, but so strong a probability of intention, that an intention contrary to that, which is imputed to the testator, cannot be supposed." If this be more than expressing by circumlocution an inevitable necessity, we need not stop to remark; or if it mean less, to sanction it, because we think that the statute of Michigan, tested by it, does not confer on the common council of Detroit the power it attempted to exercise in the ordinance of 1862. To refer the right to occupy the streets of any town or city to the consent of its local government was natural enough—would have been natural under any constitution not prohibiting it, and the power to prescribe the terms and regulations of the occupation derive very little if any breadth from the expression of it. But assuming the power to prescribe terms does acquire breadth from such expression, surely there is sufficient range for its exercise which stops short, or which rather does not extend to granting an exclusive privilege of occupation. Surely there is not so strong a probability of an intention of granting so extreme a power that one, contrary to it cannot be supposed, which is Lord Hardwicke's test, or that it is indispensable to the purpose for which the power is given or necessarily to be implied from it which is the test of the cases. The rule is one
of construction. Any grant of power in general terms read literally can be construed to be unlimited, but it may, notwithstanding, receive limitation from its purpose from the gen eral purview of the act which confers it. A municipality is a governmental agency its functions are for the public good, and the powers given to it and to be exercised by it must be construed with reference to that good and to the distinctions which are recognized as important in the administration of public affairs.
Easements in the public streets for a limited time are different and have different consequences from those given in perpetuity. Those reserved from monopoly are different and have different consequences from those fixed in monopoly. Consequently those given in perpetuity and in monopoly must have for their authority explicit permission, or, if inferred from other powers, it is not enough that the authority is convenient to them, but it must be indispensable to them. Decree affirmed.
MR. JUSTICE SHIRAS did not hear the argument and took no part in the decision.
DEL MONTE MINING AND MILLING COMPANY v. LAST CHANCE MINING AND MILLING COMPANY.
CERTIFICATE FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE EIGHTH CIRCUIT.
No. 147. Argued December 8, 9, 1897. Decided May 23, 1898.
To the first question certified by the Circuit Court of Appeals, viz.: "1. May any of the lines of a junior lode location be laid within, upon or across the surface of a valid senior location for the purpose of defining for or securing to such junior location under-ground or extralateral rights not in conflict with any rights of the senior location?" this court returns an affirmative answer, subject to the qualification that no forcible entry is made.
It passes the second question, viz.: "2. Does the patent of the Last Chance Lode mining claim, which first describes the rectangular claim by metes and bounds and then excepts and excludes them from the premises previously granted to the New York Lode mining claim, convey to the patentee anything more than he would take by a grant specifically describing only the two irregular tracts which constitute the granted surface of the Last Chance claim?" because it needs no other answer than that which is contained in the discussion of the first question in its opinion.
To the third question, viz.: "3. Is the easterly side of the New York Lode mining claim and end line' of the Last Chance Lode mining claim within the meaning of sections 2320 and 2322 of the Revised Statutes of the United States ?" it gives a negative answer.
The fourth question, viz.: "4. If the apex of a vein crosses one end line and one side line of a lode mining claim, as located thereon, can the locator of such vein follow it upon its dip beyond the vertical side line of his location?" it answers in the affirmative.
It holds that the fifth question, viz.: "5. On the facts presented by the record herein has the appellee the right to follow its vein downward beyond its west side line and under the surface of the premises of appellant?" in effect seeks from this court a decision of the whole case, and therefore is not one which it is called upon to answer.
In discussing the first of these questions the court holds:
(1) That it is dealing with statutory rights, and may not go beyond the terms of the statutes;
(2) That as Congress has prescribed the conditions upon which extralateral rights may be acquired, a party must bring himself within those conditions, or else be content with simply the mineral beneath the surface of his own territory;
(3) That the Government does not grant the right to search for minerals in lands which are the private property of individuals, or authorize any disturbance of the title or possession of such lands; (4) That the location of a mining claim means the giving notice of that claim that it need not follow the lines of Government surveys: that it is made to measure rights beneath the surface: and that although the statute requires it to be distinctly marked on the surface, the doing so does not prevent a subsequent location by another party upon the same, or a part of the same territory, as, in such case, the statute provides a way for determining the respective rights of the parties:
(5) That the requisition in the statute that the end lines of the location should be parallel was for the purpose of bounding the underground extralateral rights which the owner of the location might exercise.
(6) That the answer to the first question does not involve a decision as to the full extent of the rights beneath the surface which the junior locator acquires.
In discussing the fourth of these propositions the court says: "Our conclu
Statement of the Case.
sions may be summed up in these propositions: First, the location as made on the surface by the locator determines the extent of rights below the surface. Second, the end lines, as he marks them on the surface, with the single exception hereinafter noticed, place the limits beyond which he may not go in the appropriation of any vein or veins along their course or strike. Third, every vein the top or apex of which lies inside of such surface lines extended downward vertically' becomes his by virtue of his location, and he may pursue it to any depth beyond his vertical side lines, although in so doing he enters beneath the surface of some other proprietor. Fourth, the only exception to the rule that the end lines of the location as the locator places them establish the limits beyond which he may not go in the appropriation of a vein on its course or strike is where it is developed that in fact the location has been placed not along but across the course of the vein. In such case the law declares that those which the locator called his side lines are his end lines, and those which he called end lines are in fact side lines, and this upon the proposition that it was the intent of Congress to give to the locator only so many feet of the length of the vein, that length to be bounded by the lines which the locator has established of his location.
THIS case is before this court on questions certified by the Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. The facts stated are as follows: The appellant is the owner in fee of the Del Monte Lode mining claim, located in the Sunnyside mining district, Mineral County, Colorado, for which it holds a patent bearing date February 3, 1894, pursuant to an entry made at the local land office on February 27, 1893. The appellee is the owner of the Last Chance Lode mining claim, under patent dated July 5, 1894, based on an entry of March 1, 1894. The New York Lode mining claim, which is not owned by either of the parties, was patented on April 5, 1894, upon an entry of August 26, 1893. The relative situation of these claims, as well as the course and dip of the vein, which is the subject of controversy, is shown in the diagram on page 58.
Both in location and patent the Del Monte claim is first in time, the New York second and the Last Chance third. When the owners of the Last Chance claim applied for their patent proceedings in adverse were instituted against them by the owners of the New York claim, and an action in support of such adverse was brought in the United States Circuit Court for the District of Colorado. This action terminated
Statement of the Case.
in favor of the owners of the New York and against the owners of the Last Chance, and awarded the territory in conflict between the two locations to the New York claim. The ground in conflict between the New York and Del Monte, except so much thereof as was also in conflict between the
Del Monte and Last Chance locations, is included in the patent to the Del Monte claim. The New York secured a patent to all its territory, except that in conflict with the Del Monte, and the Last Chance in turn secured a patent to all of its territory, except that in conflict with the New York, in which last-named patent was included the triangular sur