Language History, Language Change, and Language Relationship: An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics
Why does language change? Why can we speak to and understand our parents but have trouble reading Shakespeare? Why is Chaucer's English of the fourteenth century so different from Modern English of the late twentieth century that the two are essentially different languages? Why are Americans and English 'one people divided by a common language'? And how can the language of Chaucer and Modern English - or Modern British and American English - still be called the same language? The present book provides answers to questions like these in a straightforward way, aimed at the non-specialist, with ample illustrations from both familiar and more exotic languages.
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Appendix to Chapter
The discovery of IndoEuropean
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alphabet American English ancient Armenian attested Balkan borrowing British English calques century Chapter Chinese clitic cognates common comparative linguistics connotations considered consonants context convergence derived dialects Dravidian earlier early Indo-European Engl especially European languages evidence examples expressions fact Foreigner Talk four-part analogy French fricatives Germ German glottalic glottalic theory grammar Greek Grimm's Law guage Hindi historical linguistics Hittite Illustration indigenous Indo-Aryan Indo-European languages inflectional instance interlanguage jargon language family Latin lexical items linguistic change meaning Modern English Moreover morphological names nasal native neogrammarians noted noun Old English Old High German onomatopoeia original phonetic pidgins plural prestige pronounced pronunciation Proto-Indo-European reconstruction refer relationship result Roman Sanskrit scholars script semantic Semitic shift similar singular slang Slavic sound change speakers speech spelling standard language structure suffix syllables symbols syntactic syntax texts Tocharian traditional varieties verb vernacular Verner's Law vocabulary voiceless stops vowel writing system