may be detached and contemplated gave a ray of light into the unwieldy singly. Great as was the prostration chaos of materials, and had conof my powers at this time, yet I structed what had been but a colleccould not forget my knowledge; and tion of tentative discussions into a my understanding had been for too science of regular proportions, now, many years intimate with severe first standing on an eternal basis. thinkers, with logic, and the great Thus did one single work of a masters of knowledge, not to be a- profound understanding avail to give ware of the utter feebleness of the me a pleasure and an activity which I main herd of modern economists. I had not known for years :-it roused had been led in 1811 to look into me even to write, or, at least, to dicloads of books and pamphlets on tate, what M. wrote for me. It many branches of economy; and, seemed to me, that some important at my desire, M. sometimes read truths had escaped even “ the inevitto me chapters from more recent able eye” of Mr. Ricardo : and, as works, or parts of parliamentary de- these were, for the most part, of such bates. I saw that these were gene

a nature that I could express or ilrally the very dregs and rinsings of lustrate them more briefly and elethe human intellect; and that any gantly by algebraic symbols than in, man of sound head, and practised in the usual clumsy and loitering dicwielding logic with a scholastic a- tion of economists, the whole would droitness, might take up the whole not have filled a pocket-book; and academy of modern economists, and being so brief, with M. for my amathrottle them between heaven and nuensis, even at this time, incapable earth with his finger and thumb, or as I was of all general exertion, I bray their fungus heads to powder drew up my Prolegomena to all future with a lady's fan. At length, in Systems of Political Economy. I 1819, a friend in Edinburgh sent me hope it will not be found redolent of down Mr. Ricardo's book: and re- opium ; though, indeed, to most peocurring to my own prophetic antici- ple, the subject itself is a sufficient pation of the advent of some legis-, opiate. lator for this science, I said, before I This exertion, however, was but a had finished the first chapter, “ Thou temporary flash; as the sequel showart the man!” Wonder and curiosity ed--for i designed to publish my were emotions that had long been work: arrangements were made at a dead in me. Yet I wondered once provincial press, about eighteen miles more: I wondered at myself that I distant, for printing it. An additicould once again be stimulated to onal compositor was retained, for the effort of reading: and much more some days, on this account. The I wondered at the book. Had this work was even twice advertised: and profound work been really written in I was, in a manner, pledged to the England during the nineteenth cen- fulfilment of my intention. But I had tury? Was it possible? I supposed a preface to write ; and a dedication, thinking* had been extinct in Eng- which I wished to make a splendid land. Could it be that an English- one, to Mr. Ricardo. I found myself man, and he not

academic bowers, quite unable to accomplish all this. but oppressed by mercantile and se- The arrangements were counternatorial cares, had accomplished manded: the compositor dismissed : what all the universities of Europe, and my Prolegomena

rested and a century of thought, had failed peacefully by the side of its elder and even to advance by one hair's breadth? more dignified brother. All other writers had been crushed I have thus described and illustrated and overlaid by the enormous weight my intellectual torpor, in terms that of facts and documents; Mr. Ri- apply, more or less, to every part of cardo had deduced, à priori, from the the four years during which I was understanding itself, laws which first under the Circean spells of opium.

* The reader must remember what I here mean by thinking : because, else this would be a very presumptuous expression. England, of late, has been rich to excess in fine thinkers, in the departments of creative and combining thought; but there is a sad dearth of masculine thinkers in any analytic path. A Scotchman of eminent name has lately told us, that he is obliged to quit even mathematics, for want of encouragement.

But for misery and suffering, I might, many children, perhaps most, have a indeed, be said to have existed in a power of painting, as it were, upon dormant state. I seldom could pre- the darkness, all sorts of phantoms; vail on myself to write a letter; an in some, that power is simply a meanswer of a few words, to any that I chanic affection of the eye; others received, was the utmost that I could have a voluntary, or a semi-voluntary accomplish; and often that not until power to dismiss or to summon them; the letter had lain weeks, or even or, as a child once said to me when months, on my writing table. With- 1 questioned him on this matter, “I out the aid of. M. all records of can tell them to go, and they go; bills paid, or to be paid, must have but sometimes they come, when I perished : and my whole domestic don't tell them to come.” Whereupon economy, whatever became of Poli- I told him that he had almost as untical Economy, must have gone into limited a command over apparitions, irretrievable confusion. I shall not as a Roman centurion over his solafterwards allude to this part of the diers.- In the middle of 1817, I case: it is one, however, which the think it was, that this faculty became opium-eater will find, in the end, as positively distressing to me: at night, oppressive and tormenting as any when I lay awake in bed, vast proother, from the sense of incapacity cessions passed along in mourful and feebleness, from the direct em- pomp; friezes of never-ending stobarrassments incident to the neg- ries, that to my feelings were as sad lect or procrastination of each day's and solemn as if they were stories appropriate duties, and from the re- drawn from times before Edipus or morse which must often exasperate Priam_before Tyre-before Memthe stings of these evils to a reflective phis. And, at the same time, a corand conscientious mind. The opium- responding change took place in my eater loses none of his moral sensibili- dreams; a theatre seemed suddenly ties, or aspirations: he wishes and opened and lighted up within my longs, as eamestly as ever, to realize brain, which presented nightly specwhat he believes possible, and feels tacles of more than earthly splento be exacted by duty; but his intele dour. And the four following facts lectual apprehension of what is possi- may be mentioned, as noticeable at ble infinitely outruns his power, not this time: of execution only, but even of power 1. That, as the creative state of to attempt. He lies under the weight the eye increased, a sympathy seemof incubus and night-mare: he lies ed to arise between the waking and in sight of all that he would fain per- the dreaming states of the brain in form, just as a man forcibly con- one point-that whatsoever I hapfined to his bed by the mortal lan- pened to call up and to trace by a guor of a relaxing disease, who is voluntary act upon the darkness was compelled to witness injury or out- very apt to transfer itself to my rage offered to some object of his dreams'; so that I feared to exercise tenderest love:-he curses the spells this faculty ; for, as Midas tumed all which chain him down from motion: things to gold, that yet baffled his - he would lay down his life if he hopes and defrauded his human demight but get up and walk ; but he sires, so whatsoever things capable is powerless as an infant, and cannot of being visually represented I did even attempt to rise.

but think of in the darkness, immeI now pass to what is the main diately shaped themselves into phansubject of these latter confessions, to toms of the eye; and, by a process the history and journal of what took apparently no less inevitable, when place in my dreams; for these were thus once traced in faint and visionary the immediate and proximate cause colours, like writings in sympathetic f my acutest suffering.

ink, they were drawn out by the The first notice I had of any im- fierce chemistry of my dreams, into portant changę going on in this part insufferable splendour that fretted of my physical economy, was from my heart. the re-awakening of a state of eye 2. For this, and all other changes generally incident to childhood, or in my dreams, were accompanied exalted states of irritability. I know by deep-seated anxiety and gloomy not whether my reader is aware that melancholy, such as are wholly ina communicable by words. I seemed this' at least, I feel assured, that there every night to descend, not meta- is no such thing as forgetting posphorically, but literally to descend, sible to the mind; a thousand acciinto chasms and sunless abysses, dents may, and will interpose 'a veil depths below depths, from which it between our present consciousness seemed hopeless that I could ever and the secret inscriptions on the re-ascend. "Nor did I, by waking, mind; accidents of the same sort feel that I had re-ascended. This I will also rend away this veil; but do not dwell upon; because the state alike, whether veiled or unveiled, the of gloom which attended these gor- inscription remains for ever ; just as geous spectacles, amounting at last the stars seem to withdraw before to utter darkness, as of some suicidal the common light of day, whereas, despondency, cannot be approached in fact, we all know that it is the by words.

light which is drawn over them as a 3. The sense of space, and in the veil—and that they are waiting to be end, the sense of time, were both revealed when the obscuring daypowerfully affected. Buildings, land- light shall have withdrawn. scapes, &c. were exhibited in pro- Having noticed these four facts as portions so vast as the bodily eye is memorably distinguishing my dreams not fitted to receive. Space swelled, from those of health, I shall now cite and was amplified to an extent of un- à case illustrative of the first fact; utterable infinity. This, however, and shall then cite any others that I did not disturb me so much as the remember, either in their chronolovast expansion of time; I sometimes gical order, or any other that may seemed to have lived for 70 or 100 give them more effect as pictures to years in one night; nay, sometimes the reader. had feelings representative of a mil- I had been in youth, and even lenium passed in that time, or, how- since, for occasional amusement, à ever, of a duration far beyond the great reader of Livy, whom, I conlimits of any human experience. fess, that I prefer, both for style and

4. The minutest incidents of child- matter, to any ther of the Roman hood, or forgotten scenes of later historians: and I had often felt as years, were often revived: I could most solemn and appalling sounds, not be said to recollect them; for if and most emphatically representative I had been told of them when wak- of the majesty of the Roman people, ing, I should not have been able to the two words so often occurring acknowledge them as parts of my in Livy-Consul Romanus ; espepast experience. But placed as they cially when the consul is introduced were before me, in dreams like in- in his military character. I mean tuitions, and clothed in all their era- to say, that the words king - sultan nescent circumstances and accom- regent, &c. or any other titles of panying feelings. I recognised them those who embody in their own perinstantaneously. I was once told by sons the collective majesty of a great a near relative of mine, that having people, had less power over my rein her childhood fallen into a river, verential feelings. I had also, though and being on the very verge of death no great reader of history, made mybut for the critical assistance which self minutely and critically familiar reached her, she saw in a moment with one period of English history, her whole life, in its minutest inci- viz. the period of the Parliamentary dents, arrayed before her simulta- War, having been attracted by the neously as in a mirror; and she had moral grandeur of some who figured a faculty developed as suddenly for in that day, and by the many incomprehending the whole and every teresting memoirs which survive part. This, from some opium expe- those unquiet times. Both these riences of mine, I can believe; I parts of my lighter reading, having have, indeed, seen the same thing as- furnished me often with matter of serted twice in modern books, and reflection, now furnished me with accompanied by a remark which I matter for my dreams. Often I used am convinced is true ; viz. that the to see, after painting upon the blank dread book of account, which the darkness a sort of rehearsal whilst Scriptures speak of, is, in fact, the waking, a crowd of ladies, and permind itself of each individual. Of haps a festival, and dances. And

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I heard it said, or I said to myself, 'standing on the very brink of the “ these are English ladies from the -abyss. Again elevate your eye, and - unhappy times of Charles I. These a still more aerial flight of stairs is are the wives and the daughters of beheld: and again is poor Piranesi those who met in peace, and sate busy on his aspiring labours: and at the same tables, and were al- so on, until the unfinished stairs lied by marriage or by blood; and and Piranesi both are lost in the yet, after a certain day in August, upper gloom of the hall. With the 1612, never smiled upon each other same power of endless growth and : again, nor met but in the field of self-reproduction did my architecbattle; and at Marston Moor, at ture proceed in dreams. In the Newbury, or at Naseby, cut asun- early stage of my malady, the splender all ties of love by the cruel dours of my dreams were indeed chiefsabre, and washed away in blood ly architectural: and I beheld such the memory of ancient friendship.”- pomp of cities and palaces as was . The ladies danced, and looked as never yet beheld by the waking lovely as the court of George IV. eye, unless in the clouds. From Yet I knew, even in my dream, a great modern poet I cite part of that they had been in the grave for a passage which describes, as an nearly two centuries.- This pageant appearance actually beheld in the would suddenly dissolve: and, at a clouds, what in many of its circumclapping of hands, would be heard stances I saw frequently in sleep: the heart-quaking sound of Consul The appearance, instantaneously disclosed, · Romanus : and immediately came Was of a mighty city-boldly say “ sweeping by,” in gorgeous palu- A wilderness of building, sinking far daments, Paulus or Marius, girt And self-withdrawn into a wondrous depth, round by a company of centurions, Far sinking into splendor- without end ! with the crimson tunic hoisted on a Fabric it seem'd of diamond, and of gold, - spear, and followed by the alalagmos With alabaster domes, and silver spires, of the Roman legions.

And blazing terrace upon terrace, high Many years ago, when I was look- Uplifted ; here, serene pavilions bright ing over Piranesi's Antiquities of In avenues disposed; there towers begirt Rome, Mr. Coleridge, who was stand- With battlements tnat on their restless

fronts ing by, described to me a set of plates Bore stars—illumination of all gems !

by that artist, called his Dreams, and By earthly nature had the effect been · which record the scenery of his own wrought visions during the delirium of a fe- Upon the dark materials of the storm ver. Some of them (I describe only Now pacified ; on them, and on the coves, from memory of Mr. Coleridge's And mountain-steeps and summits, whereaccount) represented vast Gothic halls: on the floor of which stood The vapours had receded, -taking there all sorts of engines and machinery, Their station under a cerulean sky. &c. &c. wheels, cables, pulleys, levers, ca- The sublime circumstance-" battapults, &c. &c. expressive of enor- tlements that on their restless fronts mous power put forth, and resistance bore stars,”—might have been copied overcome. Creeping along the sides from my architectural dreams, for of the walls, you perceived a stair- it often occurred. We hear it recase; and upon it, groping his way ported of Dryden, and of Fuseli in upwards, was Piranesi himself: fol- modern times, that they thought low the stairs a little further, and proper to eat raw meat for the sake you perceive it come to a sudden of obtaining splendid dreams: how abrupt termination, without any ba- much better for such a purpose to lustrade, and allowing no step on- have eaten opium, which yet I do not wards to him who had reached the remember that any poet is recorded extremity, except into the depths to have done, except the dramatist below. Whatever is to become of Shadwell: and in ancient days, Hopoor Piranesi, you suppose, at least, mer is, I think, rightly reputed to that his labours must in some way have known the virtues of opium. terminate here. But raise your eyes, To my architecture succeeded and behold a second flight of stairs dreams of lakes--and silvery exstill higher: on which again Pira- panses of water :- these haunted me nesi is perceived, but this time so much, that I feared (though poso



sibly it will appear hudicrous to a of life and scenery, I should go mad. medical man) that some dropsical The causes of my horror lie deep; state or tendency of the brain might and some of them must be common to thus be making itself (to use a me- others. Southern Asia, in general, is taphysical word) objective; and the the seat of awful images and associasentient organ project itself as its tions. As the cradle of the human own object. --For two months I suf- race, it would alone have a dim and fered greatly in my head,-a part reverential feeling connected with it. of my bodily structure which had But there are other reasons. No hitherto been so clear from all touch man can pretend that the wild, baror taint of weakness (physically, I barous, and capricious superstitions mean), that I used to say of it, as of Africa, or of savage tribes elsethe last Lord Orford said of his where, affect him in the way that he stomach, that it seemed likely to is affected by the ancient, monumentsurvive the rest of my person.—Till al, cruel, and elaborate religions of now I had never felt a head-ach Indostan, &c. The mere antiquity eyen, or any the slightest pain, ex- of Asiatic things, of their institutions, cept rheumatic pains caused by my histories, modes of faith, &c. is so imown folly. However, I got over pressive, that to me the vast age of this attack, though it must have the race and name overpowers the been verging on something very dan- sense of youth in the individual. A gerous.

young Chinese seems to me an anteThe waters now changed their diluvian man renewed. Even Engcharacter,-from translucent lakes, lishmen, thought not bred in any shining like mirrors, they now be- knowledge of such institutions, canseas and oceans.

And now

not but shudder at the mystic sublicame a tremendous change, which, mity of castes that have flowed apart, unfolding itself slowly like a scroll, and refused to mix, through such immethrough many months, promised morial tracts of time ; nor can any an abiding torment; and, in fact, man fail to be awed by the names of it never left me until the wind- the Ganges, or the Euphrates. It ing up of my case. Hitherto the contributes much to these feelings, human face had mixed often in that southern Asia is, and has been my dreams, but not despotically, for thousands of years, the part of the nor with any special power of tor- earth most swarming with human menting. But now that which I life; the great officinu gentium. Man have called the tyranny of the hu- is a weed in those regions. The vast man face began to unfold itself. empires also, into which the enorPerhaps some part of my London mous population of Asia has always life might be answerable for this. been cast, give a further sublimity Be that as it may, now it was that to the feelings associated with all ori. upon the rocking waters of the ocean ental names or images. In China, the human face began to appear : the over and above what it has in comsea appeared paved with innumer- mon with the rest of southern Asia, able faces, upturned to the heavens: I am terrified by the modes of life, faces, imploring, wrathful, despair- hy the manners, and the barrier of ing, surged upwards by thousands, utter abhorrence, and want of symby myriads, by generations, by cen- pathy, placed between us by feelings

turies :--my agitation was infinite, deeper than I can analyze.' I could , my mind tossed—and surged with sooner live with lunatics, or brute the ocean.

animals. All this, and much more

than I can say, or have time to say,

May, 1818. the reader must enter into before he The Malay has been a fearful ene- can comprehend the unimaginable my for months. I have been every horror which these dreams of oriennight, through his means, transported tal imagery, and mythological torinto Asiatic scenes. Í know not tures, impressed upon me.

Under whether others share in my feelings the connecting feeling of tropical on this point; but I have often thought heat and vertical sun-lights, I brought that if I were compelled to forego together all creatures, birds, beasts, England, and to live in China, and reptiles, all trees and plants, usages among Chinese manners and modes and appearances, that are found in

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