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SECTION 10. USE OF SUBMARINE PROPULSION MACHINERY
1. Steering and Depth Control Equipment In order to control propulsion, a submarine is fitted with the following equipment for communication with compartments:
1) a small shipboard speaker assembly;
2) engine order telegraphs (for communication between the conning tower and control room and the engine and motor rooms);
3) speaking tubes from the control room and conning tower;
4) telephones (connecting the control room with the engine room, motor room and forward and aft compartments);
5) a howler signaling system. While rigging a submarine for a voyage and for diving, the engine order telegraph is checked and matched for communication between the conning tower and control room and the engine and motor rooms.
Checking of the engine order telegraph is preceded by the command “Check the engine order telegraph,” transmitted to the engine and motor rooms. When the engine order telegraph is matched its signals are not executed--they are merely repeated back. Upon completion of checking and matching, the order “Execute the signals of the engine order telegraph” is given.
2. Use of Main Engines While Operating Surfaced When secured at base (to a pier or at anchor), if the temperature of the circulating oil is below +15°C, the engine must be warmed up by idling or with the generator cut in.
In warming up the engine, the transition from one mode of operation to another must be made according to instructions.
The mode and duration of heating for each engine are indicated in the instructions. The engine cannot be cut in until the water and oil outlet temperature rises to 50-60°C.
3. Maintaining an Operating Engine
The basic speeds for a propulsion engine operating on the surface should be 1/3 speed, 2/3 speed, full speed and flank speed.
Cruising speeds are achieved with combination propulsion in which one of the engines operates with the propeller engaged and with the generator cut in so that the electric motor on the opposite side will operate with the propeller engaged.
With simultaneous operation of an engine with the propeller engaged and a storage battery charging, particular care should be taken to avoid overloading the engine. In this case it should be determined in advance how much current can be drawn from the generator while the engine is operating with the propeller engaged and charging.
The generator can be switched to the distribution unit in order to operate auxiliary machinery if one or two engines are operating at any speed up to and including 2/3 speed (at full speed only if 2-3 engines are operating).
The engine is started up in the following manner. With the command “Stand by the engine,” “Stand by the engine” is rung up on the engine order telegraph. In the engine room the command is repeated, “Stop” is rung up on the engine order telegraph and preparations made to start up the engine. The order from the engine room is repeated in the control room (or conning tower), i.e., “Stop” is rung up on the engine order telegraph and the command “Prepare the engine” is given to the main control room. When the engine is ready to start up in the engine room, “Stand by the engine” is rung up on the engine order telegraph. This order is repeated in the control room (or conning tower) and the command “Stand by the engine” is given to the control room. With the order from the main control room “Such and such an engine, 1/3 speed,” the engine is started up in the engine room and this fact reported to the main control room.
The engine is stopped in the following manner. First the generator must be disconnected if it was charging or was on “distribution,” and then the engine must be stopped from full speed by gradually cutting it off over a period 8-10 minutes. If need be, it can be stopped from full speed in 3-4 minutes or immediately. In this case, in addition to lubricating the engine and running the crankshaft for 4-5 minutes, it is also necessary, if the situation permits, to cool the engine water jacket with a pump, until the engine exhaust water attains a temperature of 40-45°C.
With the established mode of operation, with the propeller engaged or with charging, the engines should not smoke. The appearance of smoke indicates that oil has seeped into the combustion chambers (bluish smoke), or it might indicate overloading of the engine, abnormal distribution of the load between cylinders or other causes (black smoke).
4. Use of Electric Propulsion Motors Submarine electric propulsion motors can be used as follows:
1) as an electric motor with the propeller engaged, operating surfaced and submerged, ahead and astern;
2) to operate as a generator in charging a storage battery while surfaced or snorkeling, and also to power the auxiliary ele ric equipment under way and at anchor;
3) to operate as an electric motor in turning and driving a diesel when the latter is operating as a compressor to blow the main ballast tanks.
Whenever electric propulsion motors are used as generators or motors, their cooling fans must be turned on.
Electric propulsion motors may be operated on one armature. This is an emergency procedure and is used when one of the armatures is out of commission. The electric motors may operate with one armature only when the groups of storage batteries are connected in parallel. Reverse with one armature is not permitted.
If one group of storage batteries goes out of commission (assuming there are two groups), two electric propulsion motors may be operated from one group of batteries only at 1/3 and 2/3 speeds. It is permissible to operate up to full speed with one engine.
5. Instructions for the Use of Main Power Plants
The engine order telegraph may be disassembled while a submarine is under way only with the permission of the Commanding Officer, and matched only with the permission of the officer of the watch. This must be recorded in the deck log.
When a submarine is moored or making way in harbors, bays, channels and fairways, the engine order telegraphs may not be switched, or power to auxiliary machinery switched from one group of storage batteries to another, or from one control panel to another (except in case of an emergency).
When the power plant control gear goes out of commission, the officer of the watch personally decides whether to switch to other control equipment.
With prolonged, continuous operation surfaced, the engines must be alternately stopped periodically (once a day) and the moving parts examined.
The propulsion machinery and control equipment is shut down after mooring or anchoring from the bridge through the control room with the order “Armament and machinery in initial position. Stopper the kingstons and vent valves."
SECTION 11. RULES GOVERNING THE USE OF A
When a submarine is under way, the battery should be charged immediately in order to avoid the necessity of doing it later and to avoid the possibility of using the battery in a discharged state.
The charging procedure is established in accordance with the state of discharge of the battery, the temperature of the electrolyte before charging is begun, the operating condition of the mechanical electrolyte mixing system and the water cooling system, as well as the strength of the charging medium.
During the first, second and third stages the storage battery is charged at a constant current, and in the fourth stage at a constant voltage equal to the transient voltage, by decreasing the charging current. The charging current for each charging stage is indicated in the battery instructions. The transition from one charging stage to another occurs when the transient voltage is achieved in most of the batteries checked.
All charging should be done using the mechanical electrolyte mixing system. When the mechanical electrolyte mixing system is not operating properly and it cannot be put in proper operating condition before expiration of the normal charging period, the fourth charging stage is accomplished at a constant current equal to two-thirds of the current in the third stage. The following steps must be taken during charging:
1) carefully observe the amount of current and total voltage of the battery groups; the hydrogen concentration in the battery tanks; and the voltage, density and temperature of the electrolyte in the test batteries;
2) gradually decrease the charging currents as the transient voltages are attained.
If a storage battery is charged under stormy conditions, or if in special charging the battery is ventilated using hydrogen combustion systems, the density of the electrolyte in the test batteries is not measured and charging is discontinued when current becomes constant (while maintaining constant voltage) or when voltage becomes constant (at constant current).
The completion of charging is determined by the constancy of electrolyte density and the amount of current (or voltage) at the end of the fourth charging stage over a period of 1-2 hours, depending upon the electrolyte density.
Whenever a battery is charged without a water cooling system, the mechanical electrolyte mixing system must be turned on for 15 minutes at the end of each second hour of charging and throughout its latter stage of charging.
When a water cooling system is used, the mechanical electrolyte mixing system should operate:
1) during the first, second and third stages of charging: for 15 minutes at the end of each hour of operation of the water cooling system (before taking measurements on the test batteries);
2) in the fourth stage: continuously to the completion of charging;
3) after charging (with ventilation of the batteries in the atmosphere or in the engine room): for 15 minutes at the end of each hour of operation of the water cooling system.
The temperature of the electrolyte during charging should not exceed the norms established by regulations. If the temperature increases during charging, assuming that transient voltage will not be attained, the charging current must be decreased to two-thirds of the current in the third stage, the mechanical electrolyte mixing system must be turned on and, when the transient voltage is attained, charging is continued at a constant voltage while decreasing the current (if the mechanical electrolyte mixing system is not operating properly, charging is continued with a current equal to two-thirds of the current in the third stage).
If prior to completion of charging the temperature of the electrolyte in the test batteries exceeds the maximum established under the existing regulations, charging must be temporarily discontinued, without interrupting intensive ventilation of the battery tanks and (if possible) operation of the mechanical electrolyte mixing system.
2. Forced Charging
Forced charging is done whenever under the circumstances there is not enough time for normal charging. Forced charging is permitted only if the mechanical electrolyte mixing system is not operating properly, and is done in two stages.
Charging is begun using the current of the first stage indicated in the battery instructions, and is continued at a constant current until transient voltage is attained in most of the test batteries. When transient voltage is attained, the latter is kept constant (second stage) until the completion of charging by decreasing the charging current.
In forced charging, the mechanical electrolyte mixing system must be turned on for 15 minutes at the end of each second hour of charging (or at the end of each hour if a water cooling system is operating) and, with a decrease in current to the current strength of the third stage of normal charging, it must be in continuous operation until the end of charging.
The completion of forced charging is determined by the constant density of electrolyte and constant current at the end of the second stage for a period of 0.5-2 hours, depending upon the density of the electrolyte.
3. Controlling Hydrogen Concentration
Under no circumstances should the hydrogen concentration in the battery tanks and battery ventilation tubes exceed 3%.
A hydrogen concentration in the atmosphere in excess of 4% (by volume) constitutes a dangerous explosive mixture of great destructive force, which could easily be ignited not only by an open flame, but also by a highly incandescent object or a spark of any origin.
The maximum hydrogen concentration in submarine compartments should not exceed 2.5%. The hydrogen content in the battery compartments during charging, with normal battery ventilation, should be practically zero. The hydrogen concentration in the battery tanks and battery ventilation tubes, as well as in the battery compartments if the hydrogen oxidation instruments are not operating, should be controlled using hydrogen measuring instruments. The hydrogen concentration in the compartments using hydrogen oxidation instruments is controlled by thermometer readings on the test instruments.
4. Ventilating a Storage Battery
Storage battery ventilators should be switched on 15 minutes before charging is begun and should operate continuously throughout the entire charging period. If the ventilators must be stopped due to improper operation or damage, charging must be immediately discontinued until another ventilation system is put in operation.
If during charging the hydrogen content in the battery tanks or battery ventilation tubes exceeds the permissible level, charging must be discontinued